exoaya exoyypa

cceoa ay ex ooae exooecoo coaoo oeca ay. oe exoay c yeo ypoe: ocaeo-aaec, eocpycc oopa. exoaa opaoa.

01.07.2016
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exoaya exoyypa

1. exoaya

2. oeyae ypo exoay

3. exoaa opaoa

4. Copeea aya

1. exoaya

exoaya -- oe, poo coyeoe ecapo (a.) pycc. cooece cceoa ay ex ooae exooecoo coaoo oeca ay. oe yaae a oee pae oo, o ayoe ae e oo coao opeeeo copec pacooeo, o opeeo yeoeeo aepa (eeoeec) ce.

"exoaya" -- ep, pya payc ocoo acoo apo 1953 oy. ep oyppoa o paooope ac pa ec ocoo epo Oya oe 1970-x -aae 1980-x o oee yopeee aco e aae 2000-x.

2. oeyae ypo exoay

oe exoay paccapaec c yeo px ypoe: ocaeo-aaec ypoe, eocpycc ypoe ypoe oopae.

a ocaeo-aaeco ypoe exoaye cceoa ya peay po ay ex o, a paaoc ae: ay po pa pye cceoaece aopaop, oopx ca cepe a opaa, oa eo oxo o opeeoo cocoa cope a opyae ac e? ao cee ae oceoa, cepe oyee o oppy oy pe a "ppoy" a "a" ea? a o ca c oe x opao a oao (a.)pycc.? o ao cee ae o a exooece oa?

a eocpyo ypoe eopeeca paoa acaec exoay, o pec ocope a aye eo, apep, a pyo ypo (cooo), oo Xpy (cop ay), ape apa (eopeeca a). e, o aye oca oy oo peooeo oe, o oca e xapaep oea, o ec coco ecpoa x. oo opao ec oc ox op pecae, cooa cceoa.

exoaya oe coocac c po pyx oaox ecapx oace ay, oope oc ocee o, ae a exoa, exooa exopa.

3. exoaa opaoa

oa copeeo epaype apaaec opoc o oepa exoo opaoa, o cy eo coc oo pe acea. o-epx, pee opeeex cpec epea, eocpa apee opaoaeoo oea (epoe ye, caoe op oye, oepe peea p.), o-opx cy ee oye co a a a aaee "oee", -pex, papaoe ooo aa opaoaex op, oop cococye papy ocoo ooe "ye - ye", oo aeec a eepcoapoaoe ooee poaa opee a aaex "opaoaex ycy". Cooeceo, eco ao "apxaeco" yp, a ye (, ec paa aoy o oee oe capa cc - e c oo y) aa oepaop, ep, oy, eeep .. epcoa, opaoae oe paceec a eca poce caapoae "aece e" ee, a oa oye coc poco oaope x eeo. coe pe ye pa coe ooee ao paoe oepa, a o e cca o oepa ae ee paopy o cyecy, xo o pecac a eca coe. eco paepyx eapoax opae cae o, o pa eoooec ec. a a pecaec cy ex ee, oope oceee pe eeapaeo occ opaoae, coco cyoc acco ceoa o coaae exec oooc. p, oop o aoe ao "oepa" oo opao copypoa pepo a: "Ec pye opeeo, eo ao oaeo oo-o cpe". ey e opao oo eceo oepa oa e execa oooc a aoa, a ype oa pa ay, oopa a cao ee cocae ype ccoo cepe oo, o aae "copeeoc".

Ec y a aay oepa e a coax, a a ee, a ae ca ( coaa) opaoaee exoo o y aay, eoxoo paopac o, o pocxo copeeo aye, ae ee ee pa eocpeceo coa ae yyee. o c y a epoe eco oppoae a aaeo exoay. Pe p o e e o oao epeooe ay ae-o oe op, a, copee, o ooe yp ee ox aecx oce, oop epexo eep y "oooo popecca". coa, o e "c" aya oo ee oee pepaaec exoayy; o o, o pepaaec, caoc "o" copeeo ay oopeeo - eepaopo pocxox e ccex ee, oxaax ce ypo oaaeo eeoc, aa o ex cepea o o ococoo oa ppo ayoo a.

oe "exoaya" oc a aae cao oe 70-x oo XX ea. Oao pyccoo epaype, oopa o epo ooaac oea, aaa ecoo o paypc aaa ("ayo-exec popecc" p.), oo e o oxaeo oyo pacpocpaee caoe oceee pe. acoee pe coca exoay a pee ceo cceoae ocpypoae aooeo, opeeee pae opa papaoy a x ocoe opaox exoo, oey a aaey oy ayy - ecap oec cceoa, aaxc poecca popee cooa a (ae ce oco coa, cxoo, epooo, cy eop cycceoo eea). poe oo exoaye oe aco ooc ceecy x, apaey, coae ox aepao, a oa ae exapoy poooexy. o, a a , pao, o - eocaoo. Ec paccapa exoayy a aoca oec cypyx py pya ayx pa exoo, o ceoao ooa aoe oe ee pe. acoc, o coepeo oo oec ca e ocoay, papaoy coae ox epocce, oc ox cocoo oye ep, ypaee ao, a ae eoope pye apae cceoa oo-ocpyopcx papaoo.

a oaae ye caa oo epa "exoaya", aece cao xapaepo ep exoay paccapaec caee epap epeeee coceo cceoaeco eeoc c pao coa cooa copeex oaox exoo. a aco oepa, a epo pooca a ceo caoc ye e aaeece aopaop, a cceoaece oo-ocpyopce opaee pyx opopa.

o aa "epeoycpoa" ecece opao ee oy, o pae ay ce ecee copaec c ooec epeca, caoc coeo poa ec - poeo. oppyec pexcopo ca aya - exoo - ec, oopa pecae coo e poco eee coeee x pex peeo, o aeceo oy eppoay cpyypy. o cya opo caaec eaee, o aya, oopa co pee eoa eapa a paa apa poecc coepecoa exoo, e eec c e po.

Oao oee yo ococ aa oaae, o o e a: aya eo coxpae coe peoaae a exooe a cepo ee "poe". o o cce coax ooe, oope ea cceoaeca eeoc, ee eoc yeoo ae aey pacopa ex eax cpyyp, oope oo aa opaa ay oope opee poecc ee ypeeo caopeypoa.

Oeo, o ooex ey oeco ayo caaec oa cya, aa oo aoy ocye coao-ecx aceo ayo-execoo popecca a oe, a oee ceao ae - peeo ypo paac oceee pe epce eo apae (aoa, oa p.).

oae opeoc aae oecex acpoe o ooy ex pao ox oooce, oope opae copeea aya, o, o e apyex ceaco, ooae a "o opa" ey ayo oeco. o c p ac, eex paycx aopo oae ao ocyae opoc o o, o papaoa cpae pa copeeo exoay cepa oocxc oy pa opex pee ao o op yoo yac.

Cc aoo oxoa coco cyoaa aoa o yx pa oeca, oopo oo copoo cyae oce pooe ooo coeeoo ( coeeoo) c exo a, a pyo - e, o ae oo e.

paec ce eye apyee ceac, aapoae epce exoay, cxoc a o, o oae o c cpaeece poe pey cyeceoo oe po coax cceoa.

Oopeeo opacae po oco, oopa pe aceo eocpeceo eppyec c oe apae copeeo exoay, a, a cceoa oac cycceoo eea popa o ye eoa eoea.

ecoeo, ceo, oa pae aoay, opa, oe apaoo, ocoa, epx exoo, epe o cy aece oooa cpeeoo pa Pocc yyee, yee apyeoo oa ypae ayo-exec popecco eo apoa c coa epeca ycpee, popeae e coo peyee cpaeecoe aee.

p o, oao, opaa a ce ae e oo e apye, oope oycoe xpoec eoacpoae ay, ypao yx apo eocaoo ocaeoc pocccx ayo-cceoaecx epo. ooo, oe ceo popae ee o ayo-execo oe, cooyaapo occe epce ayo-execoo popecca a cyoaa oeceoo aoa o ooy pao cpae aoaoo pa.

A o acae ayac a poea epa eepoo ececeoayoo opaoa c yaap. poe oo, pae exoay ycox apacae eyapoo oype peye coepeo ox exoo oaoo ypae, oa oopx (e oop ye o paeco pee) y ap c oco - cooexec - ee, oopoe popaa ax yo, coae, e oppyec.

o eo oooa ax apo, coae cooecyx o aae popa opaoaex exoo, ec a ceo e eo aae a y epexoa Pocc oaoo oe pa.

4. Copeea aya

Copeea aya ycoae o cocex ococx po ce oee caoc exoayo, poo ceee ayoo cceoa oca ex cpec, e ca cac c y coo. Oao o oo e ao, poe ecox peox ooecx eee.

Caec, o ocoa cepeax ay e "cepe", xo ceac peepeee ce, aaoo oepa yoy cpyea po, o paa oae.10 oo, aec, e peo pocxoee ceee yx cyoco pax aceo oa: peao paoc execoo oopyoa coc pee ayo c. aa oco eocpeceo "eoc", a e "c", a pee peea, aya c eaeo pee ec copoy yaa oep coeo cayca.

ee, yaee cpax, oae oeoc ox cpyeo oopyoa, copeea aya pacopec ceccax pcaeoo e popecca. a cpaeecoe acyee coaec aecx oeax, a cceoaece pecypc a ce oe pacpaac exoayo. ooo cop coca, oa oyopeee eapca, o aao oeccca yc aeo, cpeaa aya oaaec o epeoo ye peaoc pa ceoe pyaa

Cococy, ope coe oe, poe ae cepeoy "paoec cpaxa" eae poo, "ocoepcca" aya ceac oeea ooe, o e eee eyoe, copeoae: ocee acao eoc poooexe eo eep. "ocay cpe" ae cye copeoae oac a payx ocoa. aya, oac cpox aoo eeyax pe, yae paae ee exooeco aape. "oyopeee ayo", aya paoce, cpeaa aya pee ay? aoy eco, o pee cya e oaaee, a "oae, e pyoooe coec, papyae yy eoea", ooy exo-aya, e eaa coeo oo oa -- eccceoe copeoae! o -- e "cpea copa", e yac opooo pcy pa oce peopoo peyaa.

"cpeaa aya" cocoa a epecayee ocec ceoe ay a aoo. pae oa, ceaeoc py opao, coco o, o ex-o aya, caoc accoo exoyypo, ye e ycope cop, a opoae eoe coo paooo, ooopyeoe ycopee peaoc. Ec ecoo coe aa o peea oepa ae ayoe cceoae o ayo ycaoe ooceo c, o ceac exoayoe cceoae pepaaec ayy ycpae o cao c, a a cey oeecoy a pxo ae opaooe, opaee cy oey peaoc.

Ec o oe pyaoo pocpaca aya -- eoepeca epoa o -- paaa coco pecae pa,- o ceac oa coecye yaca peaoo, cee ayoo ceoe. epe ayy paooo, opay peae aooepoc ayy epaooo, cceyy paay pyay peaoc?

a cao ee, eceo e ay oe paoooe cepeaa ooc cceoa. Oao ce eco o oyopee pecce opeee "op" peao oae peyao eaepex cepeo, o ec o coa oeceoo e, oee oaoeoo peoaae oxoo o op, e co, coce e yaeo o oe op oeca.

cpa x ex ae, pee o a, o "ye" ye ao o oe paec a "eoa" 12 o ayee aeo oepaec.

cae pe, aco aca paoa co ece c a peee, ypaaec c e cac c o cceoaee eo xaae, yeeo pcy e oo coe coceo , o ceo eoeeca! Paccop pepa eo oa ea -- a e. eep 26 cep 1996 oa, o e, oo pao eoe ecec c eo e, epe pe ocooac aoo, p Acpa e oo e oa: pao a opoooe pepaee .' ocoee oepy, peypyey eo pooopaee, e oa caa "a" ae, ayeo ea pao ea -- o e. e p ao: e ece, o poc e pa, e e o opooo yepe, pa cey, o oe peee, -- ca opoc o paax ay, pepaaec ayy epaeeco cep.

e ec oa aya apopapoao cep, cy c oo oepa'? oo oo oop o o "opooo yxoe ", e yace ea opaaec ayco a aoaecoo cpaca oeceoc a pyoo, o ao aa, cpo a epeeco poeypo oeo cep... ec pep pyaa ec oaae, a epooe oece a pacco ycpae oeceoc yeoo, ooc aea.

ycy ce e oee o ao aa, e poae opy coepe pecye, e co ocooac e coo oceoc oe epo aaoo terminal actii, coo, eo, o acyae opaoo ox. Copeea aepaa yypa oe, e oa-o pee, acea exoo.

a epapa c aepao exooeco yyp ocee o ooya ax aax oe a pa ec- apoo cayca cceoa aepao yyp, paee caxc oo apxeooo opao (Miller, Tilley 1996)1, a epeocce copeeo aepao yyp a exoyyp (Vannini 2009). eocpycc oec opaoa exoaya

Ceo cceoa aepao yyp - o opoe cycc, paaeec oe. Oxa ce pocxoe e epee a ece cpa eooo.

o e - a pa oop ooo apae ye copeeo exoyyp, oopoe oyo aae "cceoa ooae" (user studies) ocee aa e oppyec yc pecaee pax c (apooo, cooo, oco, cop, yypx cceoa). o a o o oa ee oo poccco apooo oe cceoa, pao peca eo aoee oype paoae oe, opac a a opae ec, a a ye oec copopaece oep.

1. Hottois, Gilbert (1984). Le signe et la technique. La philosophie l'preuve de la technique, Paris, Aubier Montaigne, Coll. "Res -- L'invention philosophique", p. 59-60.

2. , (1987). Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-79291-2

3. Latour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar (1979). Laboratory Life: the Social Construction of Scientific Facts (.).. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09418-7

4. James Van Bebber, a leading specialist in technoscience

5. Schaff, Adam (1990). A sociedade informtica: as conseqncias sociais da segunda revoluo industrial. Editora Brasiliense. ISBN 85-11-14081-6

6. Sismondo, Sergio (2004). An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-23444-9

7. Ihde, Don (.). (2003). Chasing Technoscience: Matrix for Materiality. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21606-0

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