Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction
Brief biographical information about the life of F. Haber - a German chemist and Nobel laureate. Investigation the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen, which produces ammonia. The essence of Le Chatelier's Principle. The main function of the catalyst.
|Размер файла||13,7 K|
Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже
Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.
Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru
Topic: Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction
Fritz Haber process
Fritz Haber - is a German chemist, and the Nobel laureate. He got his prize for his useful and important scientific discovery about the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen, which produces ammonia - NH3. (Distributed material)
Ammonia is a colorless gas with a choking smell, which is used to make fertilizers, explosives, dyes, household cleaners and nylon. It is also the most important raw material in the manufacture of nitric acid. (“Ammonia and the Haber process”) The process of producing ammonia is called the Haber process.
Great chemist Fritz Haber started his discovery with hydrogen and nitrogen in 1905. He tried to extract ammonia in order to get a nitric acid. The main problem of that time was the impetuous increasing in population. It led to the decreasing of amount of natural resources of fertilizers. So, the main issue was to get fertilizers that would be in excess with nitrogen. Haber was not the only one who tried to synthesize ammonia with using the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen. But other methods required 1000°C temperature. However, Mr. Haber did not gave up and after a series of experiments, he came to the conclusion that ammonia could be extracted at the temperature of 300°C. (НиТ, “Haber Fritz”, 2000). As it was written before, main materials for this reaction are hydrogen and nitrogen. Hydrogen is obtained by reacting natural gas - methane - with steam, or through the cracking of oil. Nitrogen is obtained by burning hydrogen in air. Air is 80 per cent nitrogen; nearly all the rest is oxygen. When hydrogen is burned in air, the oxygen combines with the hydrogen, leaving nitrogen behind. Nitrogen and hydrogen will react together under several conditions, which include a temperature about 300°C-450°C, a high pressure about 200 atmospheres (200 times normal pressure), and an iron catalyst. (“Ammonia and the Haber process”) Here is a chemical equation of the reaction:
Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
The reaction is reversible, and some nitrogen and hydrogen remain mixed with the ammonia. The reaction mixture is cooled so that the ammonia liquefies and can be removed. The remaining nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled. (“Ammonia and the Haber process”)
Equilibrium temperature for this reaction is 300-450°C. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, at the lower temperature more ammonia will be produced. As the reaction is exothermic, it produces heat. It means that at higher temperature more heat and less ammonia will be produced, and visa verse. (Clark, “THE HABER PROCESS”, 2013)
In order to get much ammonia, we need a high pressure, 200 atmospheres is a high pressure. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, it happens because when pressure increases molecules become closer to each other. Therefore, it increases probability of collisions and affects the rate of a gas reaction. (Clark, “THE HABER PROCESS”, 2013)
Another factor, which is involved in the reaction, is catalyst. Catalyst speeds up the reaction, so, it gives alternative way of lower activation energy. (Clark, “THE HABER PROCESS”, 2013)
This discovery has many advantages and takes big role in our world. At first, at the end of this process ammonia is produced. Ammonia, an industrially important chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. At ordinary temperatures and pressures, ammonia is a colorless gas about three-fifths as heavy as air. It is poisonous and has a strong, choking odor. Ammonia dissolves readily in water, alcohol, and ether. In solid form, it is white and crystalline. (HowStuffWorks, "Ammonia") Using fertilizers full of nitrogen helped to prevent reducing of natural resources. However, like every innovation, Haber's discovery has disadvantages. Main disadvantage of it is eutrophication. In other words ammonia affects, more precisely decreases water quality. It also increases the death rate of aquatic species.
catalyst haber ammonia
1. Ammonia and the Haber process. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/chemreac/energychangesrev3.shtml
2. Ammonia. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/ammonia-info.htm
3. Clark, J. (2013, April 1). The Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/equilibria/haber.html
4. Haber Fritz. (2000, February 2). Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://n-t.ru/nl/hm/haber.htm
Размещено на Allbest.ru...
Experimental details of the chemical transients kinetics and pulsed field desorption mass spectrometry methods. Kinetic measurements with the PFDMS method. Data on the CO hydrogenation over CoCu-based catalysts using CTK. CO hydrogenation reaction.
статья [334,2 K], добавлен 10.05.2011
Ethyl acetate. The existing methods of obtaining the desired product. Technological scheme of EtOAc production. Chemical reactions. Production in industry. Chemical reactions. Methanol as intermediate product. The technology of receiving ethanol.
презентация [628,4 K], добавлен 15.02.2015
Chemistry and thermodynamics of process. Reforming catalysts. Raw materials. Process parameters. Reforming industrial devices. Criteria of an assessment of catalysts. Catalyst promoters. Temperature influence The volumetric feed rate. Rigidity of process.
презентация [193,6 K], добавлен 29.04.2016
Familiarity with the biography and the main activities of Louis Pasteur. General characteristics of the most famous and widespread discovery of the famous chemist. Louis Pasteur as French scientist, the founder of modern microbiology and immunology.
презентация [3,2 M], добавлен 03.06.2015
History of application of aluminium. The characteristic, chemical and physical properties of aluminium, industrial production and clarification. Aluminium application in the industry, in household appliances. Prospects of development of manufacture.
реферат [21,6 K], добавлен 11.11.2009
Метод синтеза углеродных нанотрубок - catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Способы приготовления катализатора для CCVD метода с помощью пропитки и золь-гель метода. Синтез пористого носителя MgO. Молекулярные нанокластеры в виде катализатора.
курсовая работа [1,4 M], добавлен 11.06.2012
Oxygen carriers in CLC process. State of art. General oxygen carriers characteristics. Dry impregnation method. Fluidized Beds. Advantages and disadvantages of the Fluidized-Bed Reactor. Gamma alumina. Preparing of solution. Impregnation calculations.
курсовая работа [5,9 M], добавлен 02.12.2013
The concept and scope of the practical application of the distillation process at the present stage: industry, medicine, food production. The main stages of distillation. The results of global warming and the assessment of its negative consequences.
презентация [1,3 M], добавлен 16.09.2014
Francium is a chemical element that has the symbol Fr and atomic number 87. Soviet chemist D.K. Dobroserdov was the first scientist to claim to have found eka-caesium. Perey's francium analysis. Synthesising francium processing in nuclear reaction.
реферат [604,6 K], добавлен 13.11.2009
Chemical reaction. Components of typical DFMC. Micro Fuel Cell Stack for cellular Phone. Developments of micro fuel cell for cellular phones. Proposed design of micro fuel cell. The overall reaction in a DMFC. Construction and main components of DMFC.
реферат [419,1 K], добавлен 21.09.2010