World food

Comparison, contrast between japanese cuisine and mediterranean cuisine. Factors influencing japanese and mediterranean muisines. Historical and geographic influences on food. Developing trends in food and drinks. London restaurant with ethnic profile.

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HND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

UNIT 28: WORLD FOOD

OKSANA IVASNOVA

Content

cuisine japanese food restaurant

Introduction

1.1 Comparison and Contrast between Japanese Cuisine and Mediterranean Cuisine

1.2 Factors influencing Japanese and Mediterranean Cuisines

2.1 Historical and Geographic influences on Food

2.2 Developing Trends in Food and Drinks

3. London Restaurants with Ethnic Profile

Bibliography

Introduction

Different countries have different cuisines. Cuisines are a set of traditional cooking practices and preparations. These cuisines are mostly associated with a particular culture or region. Each cuisine involves particular style of food preparation. Most cuisines are named after its region, country or place of origin. Cuisines are predominately determined by the ingredients available locally in the region, religion, customs and traditions of food preparations. Cuisines are divided into two; global cuisines and regional cuisines. A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced worldwide. Regional cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced within the nation, state or local regions. There is a list of cuisines in the world namely African cuisine, Asian cuisine, European cuisine, Oceanic cuisine and the Cuisines of Americans. A traditional cuisine refers to traditional methods of food preparations and practices. Different cuisines in the world are influenced by various factors such as historical background, geographic features of a country and culture of the people. These factors determine the eating and drinking habits of people globally, thus influences the type of cuisine in a particular region (Scarparto 2000).

1.1 Comparison and Contrast between Japanese Cuisine and Mediterranean Cuisine

Japanese cuisine and Mediterranean cuisine can be compared and contrasted by their different characteristics. Japanese traditional cuisine is collectively known as Washoku (ШaРH). Washoku is an important aspect in Japanese culture. Washoku has a rich variety of both modern dishes and traditional meals. Washoku is made up of three distinct ingredients namely cooked rice, Japanese pickles and ichiju-sansai (a bowl of soup and three other dishes) (Isao 2014).

Additionally, Washoku is characterized by its expression of natural beauty and changing seasons. The preservation of traditional Japanese food culture is a reflection of Japanese respect to nature and aesthetic orientation of Japanese culture. Washoku is characterized by utilization of diverse and fresh natural flavors of ingredients, which makes it an exceptionally well-balanced and healthy diet. Moreover, Washoku is characterized by its close links with annual events. Culturally, Japanese prepare Washoku as a traditional diet during the celebration of the New Year (Isao 2014).

Mediterranean Cuisine refers to foods from cultures bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean cuisine is characterized by a variety of ingredients and spices that are used as flavors. Most Mediterranean dishes are prepared with fresh ingredients, which make it a healthy diet. An example of a Mediterranean cuisine includes a griddled chicken with quinoa Greek salad. This dish is a representation of the Mediterranean diverse food cultures and customs. The Griddled chicken is made up of various ingredients such as quinoa, butter, red chili, garlic clove, chicken mini fillets, olive oil, vine tomatoes, red onions and feta cheese.

Japanese and Mediterranean cuisines both have a diversity and freshness of ingredients. Both cuisines are a representation of the different cultures found in the Mediterranean and their ethnic food profile. Both cuisines provide well-balanced healthy diets because they utilize natural ingredients to flavor the food. The presentation of both Japanese and Mediterranean cuisines reveals the aesthetics of their distinct cultures. Both countries have their own distinct ways of decorating their cuisines (Isao 2014). The preparation of Japanese cuisine is simple because it only involves boiling and steaming unlike the Mediterranean cuisine that involves complex preparation methods such as frying and grilling. Japanese cuisine is consumed using a chopstick whereas the Mediterranean cuisine involves use of spoon and fork to eat. Unlike the Mediterranean preparation of griddled chicken that rely on intense flavoring, Japanese preparation of Washoku only use natural ingredients. Unlike the Japanese Washoku that is characterized by three elements; cooked rice, soup and pickles, the Mediterranean cuisine consists of two elements, griddled chicken and salad. The Japanese have five colors namely green, red, yellow, white and black, which are used in the preparation of Japanese cuisines while the Mediterranean cuisines do not have traditional colors (Euromonitor Research 2015).

1.2 Factors influencing Japanese and Mediterranean Cuisines

Japanese cuisine has been influenced by food cultures and customs of other countries. However, the Japanese have refined the adopted food customs and established its own unique cuisine. Japanese diet was first influenced by China around 300BC. The Japanese learnt the art of rice cultivation from China. Today, rice is an important food in Japanese cuisine. The use of chopstick to eat rice was introduced from China as well as soy sauce and soybean curd. Moreover, Japanese diet and eating habits was also influenced by Buddhist religion. The rise of Buddhism in the A.D. 700s resulted to a ban on eating meat regarding it as a major taboo in Japanese culture. The ban influenced the introduction of sushi, which is a popular dish in modern Japan consisting of raw fish with rice. By 1800s, Japanese cuisines consisted of a wide variety of vegetarian foods that are served in small portions according to Japanese culture. However, meat was reintroduced back to Japan during the Meiji Period (1868-1912). Furthermore, Japanese diet has been influenced by Western foods. For example, corn, potatoes and sweet potatoes were introduced to Japan by the Dutch and tempura was introduced by the Portuguese. The geographical features in Japan such as mountainous terrain and streams that emanate from these mountain regions had a great impact on Japanese cuisine. The land and water availability provided a favorable environment for cultivation of rice and other crop products. Similarly, Japan is located at a moderate monsoon region, which provides four distinct seasons in Japan providing it with enough sources of food in different periods of the year. The availability of food throughout the year influenced the Japanese cuisine where they used what is locally available to them to prepare cuisines (Isao 2014).

Mediterranean region has a variety of cuisines that have developed over the years. The Mediterranean cuisine is characterized by its flexibility; it has a wide range of ingredients and many regional variations. Mediterranean cuisines are influenced by

Mediterranean Sea, historical backgrounds and diverse cultures. The close proximity of the surrounding countries in the Mediterranean Sea provides them with adequate water and a variety of sea food that influences their cuisines. The humid climate in Mediterranean provides lush vegetation that ensures food availability throughout the year. The diverse cultures in the Mediterranean Sea have influenced its diet too. Each country surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has its own food culture and customs therefore, this explains the various list of cuisines found in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet has been influenced by staple dishes from European countries such as Greece, Italy and Spain, North African and Middle Eastern countries. The Mediterranean cuisines have been influenced by ingredients available locally such as olive oil and garlic, which are widely used in these cuisines. Also available local foods influence Mediterranean cuisines. For instances Mediterranean terrain has favored the raising of goats and sheep. Therefore most of Mediterranean dishes use meat from these animals. Fish dishes are also common in Mediterranean cuisines due to the presence of Mediterranean Sea that provides access to fishing. and through trade (Euromonitor Research 2015).

2.1 Historical and Geographic influences on Food

Historical and geographic of a country have significantly influenced the multicultural nature of food and drink worldwide. These factors influence the eating and drinking habits of people in various countries. Eating and drinking habits of people changes with changes in time. The current trends in eating and drinking habits influences the way people eat and drink. For example, the United Kingdom (UK) has diverse culture because it hosts people from all around the world thus it has a multicultural nature of food and drink. The British cuisine has been greatly influenced by the culture of the people who have settled in Britain. The multicultural nature of food and drink in Britain is influenced by geographical and historical factors. British food is influenced by the British culture, customs and traditions. Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea. The close proximity of England to the Atlantic Ocean influences its climate which in turn influences it temperatures. The varied climate changes influenced by the sea provide Britain with two seasons with different temperatures; the cold winter and warm summer. The cold temperatures make people in Britain to eat more hot foods such as soup and drink and more hot coffees and teas. The warm temperatures make people to consume cold foods and drinks. In addition, geographic features influence the food and drink that people eat in that people living close to the sea tend to eat more sea food. Those living in inland areas tend to eat red meat (Spencer 2003).

The eating and drinking habits in Britain is influenced by the historical background. British cuisines are multicultural, with eclectic cooking styles. The British cuisine was inspired by the ancient Romans and the French during medieval times. The Frankish Norman invasion brought with them spices of the east such as cinnamon, saffron, mace, nutmeg, pepper and ginger. Sugarcane was also introduced during this time, which was considered as a rare and expensive spice in Japan. The new spices had profound impact on British cuisines. Britain began adopting the use of new spices incorporating them in their cuisines after 1980's. Some traditional Indian cuisines were also introduced in Britain by the east Indian Company, which is used as a curry in Britain cuisines. The historical background in Britain influenced the cuisines found in modern Britain such as Chinese, Indian, Italian, Greek and Spanish dishes. Apart from historical and geographic influences, British cuisines are influenced by various other factors such as people's lifestyle, climate of the region, seasonal availability of the food, age group, health safety and cultural backgrounds. The diversity of cuisines, which is influenced by ethnic diversity, explains the multicultural nature of food and drinks in Britain. The modern British cuisine is influenced by the European countries such as Mediterranean cuisines, Middle Eastern, South Asian, East Asian and Southeastern Asia. The modern British cuisines are regarded as one of the best cuisine in the world. The preparation of British cuisine has been made successful by the available renowned chefs in the region (Spencer 2003).

2.2 Developing Trends in Food and Drinks

Actual trends in the development of food and drink industry have undergone extensive transformation in the recent years. In the past, the food and drink industry were considered as a less innovative industries compared to other manufacturing industries. However, the rate of innovation currently in the food and drink industries has made significant improvements. Innovation trends of the food industry has a number of objectives such as improving the quality of food, improving the flexibility of food production, improve the range and capacity of foods production and improve health and safety of consumers. The goals of these innovations are to meet consumers' expectations (Scialabba 2005).

The development trends in global demand for organic foods have been on rise recently. There is an increased pattern of demands of organic foods especially at national levels. Evaluation of developing trends of foods has shown that people tend to purchase organic foods more often than other foods in the recent years. Researches on consumers' preference for organic foods have shown that health consciousness in consumers is the major driving factor for organic markets. Health safety is a trend that has facilitated food industries to develop healthier food products such as organic foods. Organic foods are considered healthy by most consumers thus the reason why they prefer organic foods. Consumers need foods that provide essential nutrients in the body to prevent nutrition-related diseases. Better understanding of consumers' food preferences by manufacturers is the key determinant for successful development of the food and drink industry. Health information has increased consumer's expectations about healthiness of a product thus influencing their food and drink preferences. Knowledge of consumers' preferences would prompt food industries to make maintenance of health their first priority. Customer satisfaction is the key determinant for a food industry to remain competitive and continue growing (Scialabba 2005).

3. London Restaurants with Ethnic Profile

London is one of the greatest countries worldwide that host a diverse population of people from around the globe. For these reason, London has inherited a wide-ranging variety of the world's ethnic dishes. There are certain restaurants in London that offers different kinds of ethnic foods. I gave the preference for the traditional English restaurant - Perkin Reveller. The main reason for such option was my sister in law is working there as the hostess and we got the discount (). Now a bit about location, menus and prices. It' s address is The Wharf, Tower of London, London EC3N 4AB.

It is placed in the historical place, so the atmosphere is identical. As you can guess they are serving English dishes. We've been there in the beginning of November and the terrace was closed due to weather conditions, but inside is great as well. Everything looking exactly as in the pictures in their website. The hostess met us on the entry. She led us to our table. We were lucky it was not busy and we've got the table without the reservation. About the uniform - traditional white top and black bottom. So she gave us menu and left us to choose:

STARTERS

Ј Bread & Butter with Lemon Oil Artisan Bread & creamy Longley Farm Butter £2.50

Ј Herb marinated olives from The Fresh Olive Company £3.00

Ј Hummus served with bread crisps £3.50

Ј

Ј CELERIAC & APPLE SOUP

Cider Cream £5.50

Ј LONDON SMOKED SALMON

Horseradish crиme fraiche, pickles & lemon £6.75

Ј SMOKED HADDOCK FISHCAKES

Tartare sauce £6.75/£12.00

Ј CHICKEN & PANCETTA TERRINE

Fig chutney £7.75

Ј WILD MUSHROOMS & PANCETTA

Granary toast, Dijon cream £7.75

Ј PEAR & FETA SALAD

Chicory, walnut dressing £6.50

LEARNING OUTCOME 4 OKSANA IVASNOVA

MAINS

Ј SHEPHERDS PIE

Creamy mash, kale £11.50

Ј SCOTTISH SALMON

Lemon, capers, spinach & parsley butter £14.50

Ј SLOE BRAISED BEEF

Bashed neaps & smoked bacon £15.25

Ј FISH & CHIPS

Crushed peas & tartare sauce £15.50

Ј CHARGRILLED WEST COUNTRY 6OZ SIRLOIN STEAK

Baby spinach, butter braised potato & your choice of bйarnaise or pepper sauce £18.90

Ј PORK & APPLE SAUSAGE

Mustard mash, onion gravy £11.50

Ј ROCKET PESTO LINGUINE

Pine nuts, shaved parmesan £11.50

Ј DUCK CONFIT & RED CABBAGE

Butter braised potato, red cabbage & redcurrant gravy £14.50

Ј PUMPKIN & RICOTTA STRUDEL

Buttered cabbage, red pepper sauce £13.00

Ј GOURMET BURGER

British beef burger, sweet cured bacon, Ogle shield cheese, beetroot slaw & chips £13.50

SIDES

Ј Buttered broccoli£3.50

Spinach £3.50

Chips £3.50

Creamy mash£3.50

Tomato & onion salad £3.50

To be honest it is not such a rich selection, their wine menu is much wider. But I found I wanted for the starter at that moment - Pancetta. It's Spanish ham. For me I was asking if it's possible to serve without the wild mushrooms just because I'm scared of them. The chef was great and I've got what I've been asked for. The way they are serving this dish is amazing. On the wooden desk. Was very tasty. For the main I ordered Scottish salmon with great butter sauce. I like red fish very much and this one dish was absolutely great. So juicy and nice smelling. The portion is big enough. By the way the service was great. Our waiter was so smiley and polite. No delays and long waiting for your dish. Great team job! And the music. It's absolutely magic background. Enough quiet and enough loud.

LEARNING OUTCOME 4 OKSANA IVASNOVA

We had really great time at the Perkin Reveller. As you can see even without discount the prices are not so huge as I was thinking before being there. Everything was great for me and I would like to advise everyone to have meal there.

The next experience was Chinese buffet - Gourmet Buffet. My big family likes to have a lunch there sometimes. Because every one can find something prefered by him. And one more big plus you can eat as much as you can for the reasonable price. The adress is 97 Cranbrook Road, Ilford, London IG1 4PG.

The atmosphere is nice. Light Chinese music, nice and smiley staff. The hostess is nice Chinese girl with long long hair. Every time we are coming she led us to the big table and providing us with the high chair for baby. Last Sunday was My baby daughter birthday and we decided to go for lunch there. Usually I have the same food every time we are coming there. These are sweet and sour pork, pork ribs, champignons and broccoli. This time they were out of broccoli. But instead of it I had the double meat. Big variety of food they are providing just I would advise them to make a bigger selection of desserts (now they are offering just ice cream, jelly and fruits).

If you are coming by a car there is no problem with a parking it's just around the corner. So for Chinese cuisine's lovers I would like to advise this buffet.

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that cuisines play an essential culture role in different countries. Cuisines are prepared in different countries worldwide mostly during cultural celebrations or during annual events such as New Year's celebrations. Cuisines are influenced by different factors such as historical backgrounds, customs and culture of a region and geographical features

Bibliography

1. Euromonitor Research. Washoku vs. Mediterranean diet: Italians do it well, but Japanese do it even better, 2015.

2. Isao, K. (INTERVIEW: WASHOKU, traditional dietary cultures of the Japanese, 2014. Retrieved on 13th Nov 2015 from: http://www.japanpolicyforum.jp/archives/culture/pt20140130140607.html.

3. Lee, S. A Global Menu of Ethnic London Foods & Restaurants, 2013. Retrieved on 13th Nov 2015 from:http://www.eatinglondontours.co.uk/blog/ethnic-food-in-london/.

4. Peck,S. London Larder. Nigerian Jollof Rice, 2012. Retrieved on 13th Nov 2015 from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/mother-tongue/9676937/London-Larder-Nigerian-Jollof-rice.html.

5. Scarparto, R. New global cuisine: the perspective of postmodern gastronomy studies. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, 2000.

6. Scialabba, N. Global trends in organic agriculture markets and countries' demand for FAO assistance, Global Learning Opportunity-International Farming Systems Association Roundtable, 2005. Retrieved on 13th Nov 2015 from:http://www.fao.org/organicag/.

7. Spencer, C. British Food: An Extraordinary Thousand Years of History. Columbia University Press, 2003.

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