English speaking countries

Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are English speaking countries in the world. The natural geographical features, population, nationalities of the highly developed states. The main industries, financial and cultural institutions.

Рубрика География и экономическая география
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Язык английский
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Medical University Astana

Department of foreign languages

Report

Theme: "English speaking countries"

Astana

English spread all over the world. Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are English speaking countries.

Great Britain. Great Britain or United Kingdom, officially United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a parliamentary monarchy in northwestern Europe. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast respectively. The United Kingdom's flag is the Union Jack. It's red, white and blue. Each country also has a national "emblem" or sign. The English emblem is a red rose. The Welsh emblem is a vegetable or flower. The Scottish emblem is a wild plant - a thistle. And the Irish emblem is another wild plant - a shamrock. London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural center. London is an ancient city. It is more than twenty centuries old. The population of London, including its suburbs, is more than nine million people. London is one of the biggest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. It is situated on the banks of the River Thames. The City is the financial and the business center of the country. There are a lot of banks and various offices here. It is the ancient part of London. Not far away is Westminster - the administrative center of London. The Houses of Parliament are situated here. It is the seat of the British Government. The building is very beautiful with its two towers and a big clock called Big Ben, Big Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of the Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Parliament is the largest modern building in the richest Gothic style completed in 1857. The Clock Tower, overlooking Westminster Bridge is 316 ft high and 40 ft square. People are allowed to get inside the Tower so that they can see the works of Big Ben. The faces of the clock are very large. The minute hand is 14 ft long, the hour hand is 9 ft, the figures are 2 ft long. Westminster Abbey where kings and queens are crowned is opposite the Houses of Parliament. This ancient building was founded in the eleventh century. It was destroyed and rebuilt several times. The West End is the part of London where the rich people live. Fine houses, wide streets, numerous parks are to be found in this part of the capital. The best cinemas, theatres, concert halls, famous shops, comfortable hotels, restaurants, large museums are situated here. The most beautiful London park - Hyde Park - is in this district too. The East End includes the port, the docks stretching for miles and the great industrial areas, which depend on shipping. London is famous for its outstanding places of interest. There are many architectural, art and historic monuments in London. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding. The country is a world leader in international trade. In January 1973, Great Britain became a member of the European Community (now called the European Union). A primary question facing in the middle of 1990s is the terms on which it will participate in the on-going financial and economic integration of Europe. Great Britain is country with old cultural traditions and customs. english speaking country

USA. The United States of America (USA) is one of the largest countries in the world. The population of the USA is about 250 million people. The USA has 50 states. Its capital is Washington, D. C. (the District of Columbia). It is the highly developed country. People of very many nationalities live in the USA. The flag of the USA has 13 red and white stripes representing the original 13 states and 50 stars - for each of the 50 states of the country in our days. Each state has its symbol. In the north the USA borders on Canada and in the south it borders on Mexico. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and by the Pacific Ocean in the west. Hawaii, which became the 50th state in 1959, is situated in the Pacific Ocean. Alaska is separated from Russia by the Bering Strait. It is the biggest state of the country. The area of the USA is over nine million square kilometers. The official language of the country is English. Some of the biggest cities are New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco and others. New York is not a very old city. It was founded some three hundred years ago. New York is the largest city in the USA, it is situated in the mouth of the Hudson River. The center of New York is Manhattan Island. New York, one of the leading American manufacturing cities, is the home of great firms and banks. There are many sky-scrapers of fifty and more stores in it. Washington, the capital of the country was named in honor of the first president, George Washington. It is located on the north bank of the Potomac River. Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the USA. It has little industry. Washington looks different from other cities. No building in the city may be more than 40 meters tall. The Capitol is the tallest building in Washington. This is where laws are made. The White House is home of every president of the United States. Boston is located on the bank of the Atlantic Ocean. There are three universities in this city. The oldest university in the USA, Harvard University, was founded in Boston in 1636. Boston is one of the America's oldest cities. It was founded in 1630.There are seven towns called Paris in the United States and six called Moscow, but only four called London. There are two Stockholms, an Oslo and a Copenhagen. Many places are named after American presidents. Washington is the most popular. Washington is the name of the capital, twenty-one towns, cities, a lake, an island, a river, a mountain and a whole state. The United States are called a 'melting pot', or a salad bowl mixed salad because people from all over the world have mixed together to create modern American society. A typical American family lives in a house outside a big city. Their ancestors came from Europe, but they also have some African, Asian and a little Indian blood. If you ask Mr. Typical American where his family has come from, he will probably say something like, "I'm English-Irish-German-Swedish American." But no one has ever seen a family quite like this.

Australia. Even in medieval times there were stories about a large continent in the Southern Hemisphere. But Europeans had never seen it. They called this land terra australis incognita or "the unknown southern land" - Australia. Nowadays when people speak of Australia they can mean three things: Australia as a continent, Australia as an island and Australia as an independent country. Australia is the world's largest island and its smallest continent. Asia is the continent nearest to Australia in the north. The icy shores of Antarctica lie to the south. New Zealand is to the east. To the west of Australia stretches the vast Indian Ocean. In the east the continent is washed by the Pacific Ocean. Australia is a land of striking differences. In the centre of the continent and in the west more than 50 % of the land is desert - dry and uninhabited. There are three deserts there - the Great Sandy Desert, the Great Victoria Desert and the Gibson Desert, situated between them. Naturally very few people live there. Most of them live on narrow coasts of the east and south-east. Main cities, where people live among tall office buildings, automobile plants' and busy factories, are also situated there. In the north-east tropical forests cover the coast. In the mountains of the south-east the snow lies for seven months of the year. 0Australia is divided into six states and two territories. New South Wales is Australia's leading industrial state. Most people live along the east coast, and most of them are in Sydney. Sydney is also the largest city in Australia, it population is over 3,5 million people. Sydney was founded on 26 January 1788, and it is the first European settlement in the country. Nowadays Sydney is Australia's leading seaport. There are a lot of lovely parks and gardens in Sydney. In Victoria most people live in the south. Melbourne is the capital of the state and the largest city it's population is over 3 million people. Melbourne is the financial center of the nation, from 1901 to 1927 - the seat of federal government. Sheep and wheat are the main products here. Citrus fruits, grapes, peaches and apricots are grown along the Murray River.

Queensland is Australia's second largest state. Brisbane, its capital, is situated on the east coast. Queensland has long beautiful sandy beaches. Its coast is a popular place for holidaymakers. The climate along the east coast is hot and humid. It is the tropical corner of Australia. Bananas and other tropical fruits are grown here. Most of the land in the south is too dry for farming. Some of Australia's most unproductive desert lands occupy the bigger part of the state. The state of Western Australia is dry and inhospitable except the south-western corner of the state. Nearly all of the state's farms, sheep stations' and fruit gardens are situated there. The rest of the state is dry desert land with very few towns or lonely cattle stations. South Australia is the third largest state. Most of South Australia's people, farms and industry are in the south-eastern part of the state. Adelaide is the capital and the largest city, it's population is over1 million people. Adelaide is famous for Adelaide's Festival of Arts held every two years. Most of South Australia is too dry for farming. Farming very much depends on irrigation or underground water. Some of Australia's most unproductive desert lands occupy the greater part of the state. Wheat and fruit (apricots, pears, peaches, nectarines and grapes) are grown along the lower part of the Murray River. Tasmania, the island state, is sometimes called the apple isle because, it produces most of Australia's apples. Tasmania is one of the few places in Australia that have enough rain all year. Tasmania is Australia's leading producer of pears and berries of different kinds. Potatoes are also grown in some areas. Northern Territory is the least populated and least developed part of Australia. Crocodiles still live in some of the swamps along the coast. Darwin is its capital and the only large settlement in the north. Alice Springs, generally called Alice or the Alice, is the only town in the south. The capital of Australia is Canberra. Canberra was built in 1923-1927 It is an important learning center of the country, here situated the National University of Australia. Here is the seat of the federal government. The city doesn't belong to any state. It is situated on the Australian Capital Territory, which occupies an area of 2,432 square kilometers.

New Zealand. New Zealand is a very interesting country. It has got total area of 269,000 square kilometers. It is situated to south-east of Australia in the Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main islands (North Island and South Island) and some smaller ones. Nearly 3.5 million people live in the country. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. It is a financial center too. The city was founded in 1840 and has been the capital since 1865. The official language is English. The climate of New Zealand is moist. New Zealand is rich in minerals. There are some main industries in the country, for example, iron and steel industry. The country has gas and petroleum. There are many mountains in New Zealand. The highest is Mount Cook (3,764 meters or 12,349 feet).

There are many rivers and lakes in the country. The chief rivers are the Waikato and the Wairu. You have heard about the native animals in the country. One of them is the kiwi. This interesting bird lives in the wet parts of the thick bushes. In the day-time the bird does not go out. It comes out only at night to find food. Kiwis cannot fly. Many years ago kiwis were hunted for food. Now the government does not permit the hunting the kiwis. The kiwi is now the symbol of New Zealand people. Small children are often called kiwis.

New Zealand is independent state, but formerly it is a part of the British Empire. The head of the state is the Queen. New Zealand is self-governing state. The Parliament consists of one House only, the House of Representatives. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.

New Zealand has got heavy industry. There are many plants in the country. Paper and rubber industries are developed too. New Zealand exports wool, meat, butter. There are some big cities such as Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dune-din, Nelson. Auckland and Wellington are the main ports of the country.

There are some educational and cultural institutions in Wellington. They are the University of New Zealand, Victoria University College and others. Victoria University was established in 1897.

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