Verbal and nonverbal communication

Methods of information transfer in intercultural interaction. Types of nonverbal signals. Benefits of using sign language in communication. Methods of controlling unconscious body movements. Accent verbal message. Statement of voice during dialogue.

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Minsk State Linguistic University

Coursework

By discipline: Fundamentals of translation

Topic: Verbal and nonverbal communication

Performed: Second year student

Gaikevich Alexandra Mikhailovna

Checked: Golikova Tatyana Ilinichna

Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor

Minsk

2014

Contents

1. Cross-cultural communication

1.1 Nonverbal communication

1.2 Why nonverbal communication matters

1.3 Spotting body language signs and responding to them

1.4 How to avoid making mistakes

1.5 How best to respond

1.6 How to communicate effectively

2. Types of nonverbal communication and body language

3. At large

3.1 All about the head, face and neck

3.2 Some interesting things the rest of the body

3.3 Nonverbal communication can't be faked

3.4 Evaluating nonverbal signals

The bibliography

Abstract

Annotation

1. Cross-cultural communication

Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures. Intercultural communication is a related field of study.

1.1 Nonverbal Communication

It's well known that good communication is the foundation of any successful relationship, be it personal or professional. It's important to recognize, though, that it's our nonverbal communication--our facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture, and tone of voice--that speak the loudest.

The ability to understand and use nonverbal communication, or body language, is a powerful tool that can help you connect with others, express what you really mean, and build better relationships.

When we interact with others, we continuously give and receive wordless signals.

All of our nonverbal behaviors--the gestures we make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk, how close we stand, how much eye contact we make--send strong messages.

These messages don't stop when you stop speaking either. Even when you're silent, you're still communicating nonverbally.

1.2 Why nonverbal communication matters

The way you listen, look, move, and react tells the other person whether or not you care, if you're being truthful, and how well you're listening. When your nonverbal signals match up with the words you're saying, they increase trust, clarity, and rapport. When they don't, they generate tension, mistrust, and confusion.

If you want to become a better communicator, it's important to become more sensitive not only to the body language and nonverbal cues of others, but also to your own.

Nonverbal communication cues can play five roles:

Repetition: they can repeat the message the person is making verbally.

Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey.

Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. For example, a person's eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words do.

Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message. A boss who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message.

Accenting: they may accent or underline a verbal message. Pounding the table, for example, can underline a message.

1.3 Spotting body language signs and responding to them

It's only with years of experience that I've learned to pick up on signs that I need to pay attention to. As a counsellor I have found over time what to look for, what to do with it, how much attention to give to it, and how and when to respond.

You are faced with a completely different situation. So, with the knowledge I've gained, I hope to be able to help you to understand other people's messages a little better.

It'll prepare you for more fruitful conversations with the people around you - be they friends, family, business associates or students. Though I will focus on you and your partner in particular.

1.4 How to avoid making mistakes

It's not helpful to attach a `fixed meaning' to any particular movements as a 'sign' of something. It's best to avoid `interpreting' non-verbal signs without other `evidence'.

Reading body language can be a complicated business, even though we all have a natural ability to do it. People who are deaf and have learned to use sign language rely on several ways to communicate clearly. They use hand signals, mouth the words, sign the `space' they place people and objects in and move their bodies.

1.5 How best to respond

I hope that you now understand how important it is not to jump to conclusions. You can see now that it is vital to check out what you perceive someone else's body language signs mean.

You can do that by directly referring to what you have noticed and gently asking what happened when this or that was said. More subtly - come back to that part of the conversation at a later stage and talk a bit more and explore it a bit further.

1.6 How to communicate effectively

By being open, inviting, interested and non-judgmental you're far more likely to find out what is going on for you partner, rather than just relying on body language signs.

intercultural communication nonverbal

2. Types of nonverbal communication and body language

There are many different types of nonverbal communication.

Facial expressions. The human face is extremely expressive, able to express countless emotions without saying a word. And unlike some forms of nonverbal communication, facial expressions are universal. The facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust are the same across cultures.

Body movements and posture. Consider how your perceptions of people are affected by the way they sit, walk, stand up, or hold their head. The way you move and carry yourself communicates a wealth of information to the world. This type of nonverbal communication includes your posture, bearing, stance, and subtle movements.

Gestures. Gestures are woven into the fabric of our daily lives. We wave, point, beckon, and use our hands when we're arguing or speaking animatedly--expressing ourselves with gestures often without thinking. However, the meaning of gestures can be very different across cultures and regions, so it's important to be careful to avoid misinterpretation.

Eye contact. Since the visual sense is dominant for most people, eye contact is an especially important type of nonverbal communication. The way you look at someone can communicate many things, including interest, affection, hostility, or attraction. Eye contact is also important in maintaining the flow of conversation and for gauging the other person's response.

Touch. We communicate a great deal through touch. Think about the messages given by the following: a weak handshake, a timid tap on the shoulder, a warm bear hug, a reassuring slap on the back, a patronizing pat on the head, or a controlling grip on your arm.

Space. Have you ever felt uncomfortable during a conversation because the other person was standing too close and invading your space? We all have a need for physical space, although that need differs depending on the culture, the situation, and the closeness of the relationship. You can use physical space to communicate many different nonverbal messages, including signals of intimacy and affection, aggression or dominance.

Voice. It's not just what you say, it's how you say it. When we speak, other people “read” our voices in addition to listening to our words. Things they pay attention to include your timing and pace, how loud you speak, your tone and inflection, and sounds that convey understanding, such as “ahh” and “uh-huh.”

3. At large

3.1 All about the head, face and neck

Here's a list of all the body language signs you might want to take notice of. They are within your field of vision when you're having a conversation:

General movement in facial muscles - involuntary or deliberate, for example grimacing, twitching, smiling or frowning. Lifting or dropping of the eyebrows may indicate surprise, questioning, wondering or disbelief.

Frowning - it can mean: discomfort, physical pain (why exactly at that moment, you might ask yourself or indeed your partner), anger, suspicion or listening intently

Smiling - but notice which facial muscles are moving. Is it a real smile that involves all the facial muscles? An artificial smile would involve only the muscles around the mouth. It leaves no trace of any pleasure and it could be an attempt to hide displeasure, disagreement and/or discomfort.

Nodding - this can mean all kinds of things. It could simply be an encouragement for you to say more, or an agreement. It could also be masking negative feelings, even though you might think it implies agreement. It could even be an automatic movement - implying 'I am listening', but the listener has really switched off.

Eye contact and movement of the eyes - avoiding your gaze at one end of the scale and staring at the other. Both could mean the same: "I am uncomfortable, but I don't want to let on". Looking away can be a way of discouraging communication. It's well-known, though, that couples in love maintain eye contact for longer than average.

We all know about the lifting of eyes to the ceiling too: "Oh for goodness sake" - usually with along with a bit of 'tutting'

Winking - which is sometimes hardly noticeable. Winking may simply be a habit someone has developed to communicate comfort or kindness. It can also mean "you and I know what's going on" or "I like you"

Size of the pupils - abnormally large may mean shock or absolute terror. It can also be associated with medication or drug use

Neck - you'll see someone swallowing when they are anxious. What you can't see is that it's because their mouth is dry.

When someone is feeling uncomfortable they may stroke their neck to soothe themselves. Covering the windpipe can be seen as a defensive movement, implying protection of the self

Studies have shown that sleep deprivation reduces facial expressiveness, even though there is no reduction in emotions felt. Just think about what any lack of such important body language signs can have on personal relationships.

3.2 Some interesting things the rest of the body

Culture, gender and age also affect the way we hold, touch, move and gesture. As you read on, reflect on these influences alongside with what I have written.

Mirroring of posture - is your partner moving into a similar direction, at the same time, and maybe putting their spine at the same angle as yours? Good news - you are likely to be in harmony! You might even want to use these indicators to create a sense of being alike or togetherness.

Interpersonal distance and your personal space - is your partner moving closer to you or further away? And to what degree, and how does that relate to your movements? These movements are all part of the 'dance' of body language and can be conscious or unconscious. The distance between the two of you will be constantly increasing and decreasing.

The distance between (potential) partners depends a number of things including: intentions, how comfortable you are with each other, the sound and pitch of your voices. It also depends on where your interaction take place - whether public, amongst family and friends or in private.

Movement of the feet. This one is really interesting! Often we are not aware that we are moving our feet, when someone has touched a snare.

Hand gestures can have different meanings in different cultures, but are often used to emphasis what is being said. A sudden movement of the hands, however slight, can mean discomfort too. The conversation may have touched a raw nerve, or some other link with a memory or feeling. Take your pick!

3.3 Nonverbal communication can't be faked

You may be familiar with advice on how to sit a certain way, steeple your fingers, or shake hands just so in order to appear confident or assert dominance. But the truth is that such tricks aren't likely to work (unless you truly feel confident and in charge).

That's because you can't control all of the signals you're constantly sending off about what you're really thinking and feeling. And the harder you try, the more unnatural your signals are likely to come across.

3.4 Evaluating nonverbal signals

Eye contact: Is eye contact being made? If so, is it overly intense or just right?

Facial expression: What is their face showing? Is it masklike and unexpressive, or emotionally present and filled with interest?

Tone of voice: Does their voice project warmth, confidence, and interest, or is it strained and blocked?

Posture and gesture: Are their bodies relaxed or stiff and immobile? Are shoulders tense and raised, or slightly sloped?

Touch: Is there any physical contact? Is it appropriate to the situation? Does it make you feel uncomfortable?

Timing and pace: Is there an easy flow of information back and forth? Do nonverbal responses come too quickly or too slowly?

Sounds: Do you hear sounds that indicate caring or concern?

As you continue to pay attention to the nonverbal cues and signals you send and receive, your ability to communicate will improve.

The bibliography

1. www.helpguide.com

http://www.helpguide.org/mental/eq6_nonverbal_communication.htm

2. www.professional-counselling.com

http://www.professional-counselling.com/understand-body-language.html

3. “The Importance of Effective Communication”, Edward G. Wertheim, Ph.D.

Abstract

Nonverbal Communication

The work begins with the definition of nonverbal communications. It's explained what this type of communication includes. The understanding of nonverbal communications can help you to interact with people successfully at a new level, better express your thoughts and opinion, build good relationships. All the signals that we send are strong messages for other people. For example, eye contact, gestures, voice loudness.

Never the less, it's almost impossible to hide your real feelings and intentions using nonverbal signals, because you can't control body movements and signals all the time. You will sound unnaturally in this case.

You have to be very careful about your nonverbal communications, your nonverbal signals have to match your speech, otherwise people won't trust you. Nonverbal communications play five roles: repetition of your verbal information, contradiction, substitution of verbal signals, complementing it and accenting - underlining your verbal message.

This work will be helpful for people who study intercultural and nonverbal communications professionally and just for those ones who are interested in them and what to improve their communication skills.

The work shows, that the understanding of nonverbal communications can help you to interact with people successfully at a new level, better express your thoughts and opinion, build good relationships. All the signals that we send are strong messages for other people. For example, eye contact, gestures, voice loudness.

The work gives us information about types of nonverbal communication. Such as facial expression, which shows our emotions. It's very similar all over the world; body movements and posture, gestures and space that can differ from culture to culture; eye contact and touch, which can tell us about intimacy or anger; voice, which is an important tool that you can use.

But never the less, it's almost impossible to hide your real feelings and intentions using nonverbal signals, because you can't control body movements and signals all the time. You will sound unnaturally in this case.

In the last part of the work is told about evaluation of various nonverbal signals. Different tips are given for successful interpretation of them.

This work will be helpful for people who study intercultural and nonverbal communications professionally and just for those ones who are interested in them and what to improve their communication skills.

Реферат

Невербальные коммуникации

Работа начинается с определения понятия межкультурных коммуникаций. Рассказывается, что оно включают в себя. Понимание межкультурных коммуникаций помогает нам успешно общаться с людьми на новом уровне, лучше выражать свои мысли и мнение, построить хорошие отношения. Все сигналы, которые мы посылаем, являются важным посланием для других. Например, визуальный контакт, жесты, громкость голоса.

Следует быть осторожным с использованием невербальных коммуникаций. Они должны совпадать с речью, иначе люди не будут относиться к вам доверительно. Невербальные коммуникации играют пять ролей: повторение вербальной информации, противоречие, замена вербальных сигналов, их дополнение и акцентирование.

Однако почти невозможно спрятать настоящие чувства и намерения, используя невербальные сигналы, потому что человек не может постоянно контролировать бессознательные движения тела и сигналы. В этом случае вы будете звучать ненатурально.

Эта статья будет полезна тем, кто изучает межкультурные и невербальные коммуникации профессионально, а также для тех, кто интересуется этой сферой для того, чтобы улучшить навыки общения.

Эта статься показывает, что понимание межкультурных коммуникаций может помочь нам успешно общаться с людьми на новом уровне, лучше выражать свои мысли и мнение, построить хорошие отношения. Все сигналы, которые мы посылаем, являются важным посланием для других. Например, визуальный контакт, жесты, громкость голоса.

Статья рассказывает о видах невербальных коммуникаций - таких, как выражение лица, отображающее наши эмоции универсально в разных странах. Движение тела и позы, жесты и личное пространство, что может отличаться от культуры к культуре. Зрительный контакт и прикосновения могут отображать как симпатию, так и агрессию. Голос, важный инструмент, который можно использовать.

Однако почти невозможно спрятать настоящие чувства и намерения, используя невербальные сигналы, потому что человек не может постоянно контролировать бессознательные движения тела и сигналы. В этом случае, вы будете звучать ненатурально.

В последней части работы рассказывается об оценивании невербальных сигналов. Даются различные советы для успешной интерпретации.

Эта статья будет полезна тем, кто изучает межкультурные и невербальные коммуникации профессионально, а также для тех, кто интересуется этой сферой для того, чтобы улучшить навыки общения.

Annotation

Nonverbal Communication

The work focuses on important issues of understanding between people, and more specifically on nonverbal communication. The understanding of nonverbal communications can help you to interact with people successfully at a new level. All the signals that we send are strong messages for other people. Spend the time sharpening your awareness of body language and other non-verbal stuff and everyone around you will benefit from your upgraded communication skills. Understanding body language is obviously very useful not only in everyday life, but also at work. Knowing these things will help you to communicate with people successfully, get new friends and business partners!

The work describes the main types of nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication can send messages as loud and clear as anything is said trough verbal communication. We can feel whether people are bored, telling lies, romantically interested or many other emotional states through watching their nonverbal communication. It's a key to decode the real aims of your interlocutor. After reading this article you'll understand people around you and interact with them successfully at a new level.

Аннотация

Невербальные коммуникации

В работе делается упор на важность взаимопонимания между людьми, особенно через невербальные коммуникации. Понимание межкультурных коммуникаций помогает нам успешно общаться с людьми на новом уровне. Все сигналы, которые мы посылаем, являются важным посланием для других. Проведите время, заострив ваше внимание на языке тела и других компонентах невербальной коммуникации, и все вокруг вас пойдет на пользу модернизации ваших навыков общения. Понимание языка тела очевидно очень используемо не только в обычной жизни, но также и в работе. Знание этих вещей поможет вам успешно общаться с людьми, находить новых друзей и бизнес-партнеров!

В работе описываются основные типы невербальной коммуникации. Невербальная коммуникация может передавать сообщения так четко и ясно, как не передает вербальная коммуникация. Путем изучения невербальных коммуникаций других мы можем почувствовать, скучают ли они, лгут, романтически заинтересованы или многие другие эмоциональные состояния. Это ключ к декодированию настоящих намерений собеседника. После прочтения этой статьи вы станете лучше понимать людей вокруг вас и успешно взаимодействовать с ними на новом уровне.

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