Games usage as the means of lexical skills activization at the primary stage of the English language teaching
The main characteristic of improving lexical skills as an important part of teaching English. Analysis of the concept and purpose of learning vocabulary. The development of a lesson using different types of games in the education of foreign speech.
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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
L. N. GUMILYOV EURASIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF PHILOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF THEORY AND PRACTICE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE
TERM PAPER ON TEACHING METHODS OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Theme: Games usage as the means of lexical skills activization at the primary stage of the English Language teaching
1. Lexical skills improvement as the crucial part of English language teaching
1.1 The concept and purpose of learning vocabulary. Stages of vocabulary teaching
1.2 Methods of vocabulary teaching, diverse types of games at the English language teaching
2. Usage of games and activities at the English language lessons
2.1 Development of the lesson with usage of different types of games
2.2 Games in the classroom
This paper is about playing techniques as a way of developing lexical skills in the primary stages of teaching English. The information given in this paper will be of value to anyone involved in teaching English language; to anyone interested in methods of teaching foreign language; to anyone interested in playing techniques and how to use them during the lessons correctly; to anyone who has problems with memorizing new words, group of words and phrases.
Topicality of the research. We often need to communicate and permanent cooperation between countries in the modern cultural and economical relationships arises necessity in researches in different aspects of languages. Especially it concerns English and Kazakh languages, firstly, we are developing country and we need to learn foreign languages to raise competitive capacity of our people and country. Secondly, our president determined a goal to know three languages, as: Kazakh is our state language, Russian - official language and English - the language of international relations worldwide, that's we should acquire this language in order to be more successful and to have a chance to learn in a modern world.
And in this respect the relevance of paper is determined by necessity of English. As we know, lexicology is a branch of linguistics which deals with words. Words are the most important part of any language through which we communicate with each other, read books and write essays. Generally, we can say that possessing great lexical skills is the right way in achieving comprehension and speaking English language, that is why it is so important to build a good foundation of lexical skills in the early stages of teaching language.
It is not a secret, that children accept information better through games and activities. Therefore, playing games and learning language in the early stages considered to be a very efficient and successful method of acquisition lexical skills. Such a widely spread methods like “Total physical response”, “Natural approach” and “Communicative language teaching” involve the use of various activities, such as role playing, games and problem solving, and didactical materials during the classes.
Different types of games offer great opportunities for communicative practice. Transformation in the different images allows students to express a variety of communicative intention and mood depending on the purpose of communication. Educational games help to provide mutual communication of all the participants and motivate their linguistic activity.
Aim of the research is to analyze the peculiarity of games usage at the English lessons and its effectiveness in educational process.
Objectives of the research:
1. to define the vocabulary and lexical skills;
2. to study objectives and stages of activating the lexical material;
3. to explore the techniques of the general classification of educational games in the foreign language teaching;
The object of the research: different types of games and activities as a method of developing lexical skills.
The subject of the research: didactic conditions for the use of games in English teaching for children.
The methods of the research. The study has been carried out based on:
1. selected method
2. observation method
The structure of the work. The term paper consists of an introduction, two sections, conclusion and the list of references. The significance of the theme, aims, objectives, the theoretical and practical significance of the term paper are found in the preface of our work.
1. Lexical skills improvement as the crucial part of English language teaching
1.1 The concept and purpose of learning vocabulary. Stages of vocabulary teaching
Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, the science of language. The term lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes: lexis meaning `word, phrase' and logos which denotes `learning, a department of knowledge'. Thus, the literal meaning of the term lexiсolоgу is `the science of the word'.
Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic task being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words. We proceed from the assumption that the word is the basic unit of language system, the largest on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis. The word is a structural and semantic entity within the language system. [1; 7p.]
The purpose of learning vocabulary - the formation of lexical skills, the ability to combine the word according to the lexical rules. The formation of lexical skills involves not only taking into account the formal structural information, but also knowledge of situational, social and contextual rules. [2; 287p.]
A number of issues related to work on vocabulary were revealed in methodological literature. However, there are problems in the formation of lexical skills which are necessary for speaking. There is no significant variation of vocabulary in students' statements that is why usually their speech seems to be poor.
Working on vocabulary is traditionally divided into three main stages:
2) Initial consolidation
3) Developing the ability to use skills in different kinds of speech activity.
The first two stages are often combined into one - the presentation of the vocabulary.
The stage of presentation has an important role in learning vocabulary. All subsequent work on vocabulary depends on the effectiveness and appropriateness of this step.
Discovering the meaning of the word (semantization) can be carried out in various ways, which are usually combined into two groups: a) non-translatable and b) transling methods semantization.
Non-translatable semantization methods include:
1) Demonstration of objects, gestures, actions, images, pictures and etc.
2) Discovery of the meanings of words in English language, which can be used:
A) Definition - the description of the word, eg:
A cinema - theatre where films are shown.
B) enumeration, for example:
dogs, cats, pigs, cows are animals.
B) semantization using synonyms or antonyms, such as:
cold - warm, quick - slow;
D) determination of slvoa based contextual guessing, knowledge of the facts, for example:
Colombus discovered America in 1492.
Translatable methods include:
1) Replacing the word (phrase or word groups) with a corresponding equivalent of the native language;
2) Translation - interpretation, in which in addition to the equivalent in the native language students are told about the coincidence (or divergence) in the meaning, for example:
Big - ?лкен (means value, size)
Great - ?лкен (the famous, great (керемет))
These methods of semantization have advantages and disadvantages. Non-translatable methods are good for developing logic, increase the practice of language, create a support for memory, associative ties strengthen. However, non-translatable methods require more time and do not always provide accurate understanding.
Translational methods are economical in terms of time, universally applicable, but increase the possibility of interlingual interference.[2; p.298-299]
Teacher's role is to choose the most efficient way of presentation and semantization according to the training stage, students' level of knowledge, qualitative characteristic of word and its affiliation to active and passive minimum.
Getting different types of speech activity in the English language by the younger students is a process of gradual and systematic formation of speech skills. During the English language classes, students develop the ability to use vocabulary skills in various types of speech activity: listening, speaking, reading and writing.[12; p.116-117]
However, working with the new vocabulary does not end in one lesson. It goes on all following lessons. Students will meet many times with the same words in the reading texts and homework exercises. Teacher needs to be familiar with how students have learned a new vocabulary which lexical items should still be repeated, until reaching their strong comprehension (i.e. as they have formed the practical lexical skills). But we should not think that whole exercises should be based only on forming lexical skills. In accordance with the recommendations of the authors of textbooks, during the lesson teacher and students are working both on the formation of skills, as on the development of them.[13; p. 85]
The main practical goal of learning the lexical material of the English language in school is to develop students' vocabulary skills as an essential component of expressive and receptive speech activities.
Expressive speech skills refer to the skills intuitively correct word usage and word formation in speech, in accordance with the situation of communication and communication purposes. [13; p. 93]
Psychophysiological basis of lexical expressive speech skills are lexical automated dynamic relationships as a unity of semantic and auditory-vocal motor images of words and phrases.
These speech psychologies show that speech lexical skills substantially differ from grammar. Lexical skills are characterized by greater awareness. In speech we are most aware of its content, which is demonstrated in the choice of words and their correct combination with other words, depending on the purpose of communication. [3; p.29]
The main aim of learning the lexical aspect of language is to acquire the usage of words, which requires not only knowledge of words, but also the ability to manipulate with them in the statements.
1.2 Methods of vocabulary teaching, diverse types of games at the English language teaching
Lexical units of active minimum should be introduced by teacher orally in separate sentences or in a coherent story. Teacher should try to provide brightness of the first acquaintance of students with the new lexical items and try to link them to a particular life situation, as the first perception is very important to remember. An example of bright introducing of the theme “animals”: frog, crocodile, monkey, bear, wolf; can be the following story told by teacher about how dad and his son come to the zoo and the father tells about each animal, its appearance, favorite food. Also, these words can be memorized by showing pictures or toys. Bright introduction might be achieved by using colorful and interesting didactic materials.
The teacher says the new words and the students repeat them individually and in unison. It is important for consolidation the sound form of the word. Vocabulary exercises, useful at all levels of learning are the following ones: making a combination of separate words; filling in the gaps in the sentences or complete them; making sentences using new words; to answer questions using new words. [14; p. 9]
The most difficult question of work on vocabulary is the number of lexical items in each lesson. The number of new words in the class depends on many factors: the fact whether the input words belong to the active or passive minimum; from difficulties words; the degree of relatedness of lexical items together; on the stage of training and level of students. The second and third forms at one lesson from 5 and up to 12 words can be introduced. [2; p. 294]
If to speak about repetition of previously input words, there is some rules: the closer to the time of the introduction of lexical unit, the meeting with them (in the speech activity or special exercises) should be more frequently; after two or three lessons meeting may become less frequent, but these lexical units must meet at least for a month.
In addition to repeatability, without which acquiring the vocabulary of a foreign language is impossible, there supposed to be specially organized repetition. This objective corresponds to the use of techniques aimed at systematization of thematic vocabulary at the end of the term. For example, students are asked to name all the words and phrases that relate to theme "Animals". Based on linguistic foundational repetition of vocabulary has general educational value, as students become accustomed to think of the language in the form of its relationship with the content. Work on vocabulary generally provides food for the development of the language of observation, which is important for the general culture of students. [14; p.13]
By learning the game, we consider the exercises, the aim of which is to develop and improve skills in different kinds of speech activity by multiple and diverse performing speech or language activities that are personally meaningful to the subject of training, because it is motivated by participation in game activity. [15; p.14]
According to the national curriculum, teaching communication is very important because of the fact that it plays such a big part of knowing a language. The curriculum also claims that since communication is unpredictable in real life, students must get the chance to practice exactly that and not just to read premade conversations. In order to achieve this, the curriculum suggests games as a good method. [4; p. 8-14]
There are a number of reasons that games deserve a place in the language classroom. First of all, they are fun, which is extremely important, because they can help activate students who may have been inactive before, due to lack of interest. Keeping students active is vital because teachers will never be able to actually teach students anything unless they can get them to participate in their own learning process.
Secondly, games also play a big part in helping participants build relationships, and to feel equal. Playing games in the classroom can also help create a friendly and positive atmosphere where seat arrangement can differ from game to game, and thus cause diversity from the norm which can be extremely helpful in keeping an exciting learning environment. [16; p.7-8]
Thirdly, the reason most people want to learn a language is to be able to use it in real situations, for example when travelling. Games can be a very good way to practice this skill because they can easily be used to reenact various situations from real life and provide students with practice in their fluency. Also, by using games in the classroom the teacher is giving his students a bigger role, and he himself is stepping out of the frontline which is a positive thing because it allows students to take on more responsibility. Also that allows students to do more on their own, and that can very well result in an increase in their confidence level. [5; p.12].
Fourth, language students need to be exposed to the language in a variety of situations, which is a need games can fulfill. Language students also need to be ready to take on the experience, keeping their minds open and being willing participants Again, games make this possible.
Fifth, language students need to be emotionally involved, meaning they need to feel something while they are exposed to the language. Strong emotions, such as happiness, excitement, amusement and suspense allow students to feel positively about their learning situation and are therefore likely to have a positive effect on language learning. [16; p.8]
Sixth, games are good for shy students and students with low confidence, and that applies specifically when playing takes place in smaller groups because then they get a chance to speak in front of fewer audience instead of having to express themselves in front of the whole class. Also it is sometimes easier to open up and forget the shyness when playing a game because the atmosphere is not as serious and more emphasis is put on fluency rather than grammatical correctness. [5; p.14].
Seventh, games can be a good strategy when teaching various subjects because they are very likely to spark interest amongst students. They can be used with students of all ages, and when they are used with other teaching methods they create diversity which is ideal for school work [6; p.80]. A study that was undertaken in Iceland in 2006 shows clearly the need for diversity in schools. Many participants in that study complained 9 about the lack of diversity, and that they wanted more of it in order for their learning to become more fun and progressive in their school [7; p.34].
Finally, using games in the classroom is important because many children do not get enough opportunity to play during their free time, which can be traced to the rapid changes in our society. Cities are getting bigger and traffic is getting heavier which means that more and more parents are hesitant to let their children play outside. Also passive activities such as watching television, or the computer screen are seen as being more exciting than actually physically playing, so today the sight of children playing various games in groups outside is becoming much more rare than it was 10, 15 or 20 years ago. This is not a good development, and it can have several bad consequences for our society. One possible consequence is that the lack of movement can cause health problems because even though not all games are physical some certainly are [8; p.3]. Another consequence this change might have is decreased social skills because, according to Piaget, children's games reflect society and that by playing games children learn many of society's rules and regulations [9; p.536].
Even though games are usually started with the aim of having fun, they can sometimes end badly, for example if someone gets carried away with all the fun and says or does something that hurts someone else or his feelings. When games are used in the classroom the teacher must keep this in mind and control the game in the right way. Also he or she must make sure that every participant has a positive experience because the classroom must not become a place where students feel vulnerable or picked on in. Another thing that is important to acknowledge is the fact that not all games fit the classroom environment, or all groups of students, and that it can be hard finding the right game. In fact, it is good to keep in mind when selecting a game that a recipe for a good educational game is one that balances both fun and challenge [10; p.16].
According to I.A.Danilovich, the educational games that are used in learning a foreign language, must correspond to certain didactic requirements. They are: to fulfill the principles of consciousness, developmental education, duration of learning outcomes, positive emotional background, implementable complexity. It is important to match the general methodological requirements, which correspond with the methodological principles of intensive foreign language teaching: personalized communication, personal and role organization of the educational material and the learning process, the collective interactions; certain methodological requirements, which are determined by the objectives of teaching certain kind of speech activity or relate to specific tasks of a certain stage of learning. [11; p.14]
Here is a general classification of educational games according to the following criteria [18; p.111]:
· The purpose - educational games for the formation of speech skills (lexical, grammatical, of pronunciation, spelling, graphic) and educational games for the development of speech skills (listening, speaking in monologue / dialogue form, reading, writing, translation);
· On the level of communication - communicative, conditionally communicative and non-communicative;
· The teaching activities aimed at obtaining or transmitting information - receptive, reproductive and productive;
· According to the degree of control operations of participants - with full control, with partial control and with minimal control;
· The presence of role the component - a component of the role-playing and without role-playing component;
· The presence of an element of competition (for personal / team championship) and educational games without the element of competition;
· Taking into account the mobility - moving and static;
· On the use of objects - with objects and without objects;
· Quantitative composition of participants - individual, pair, group;
· The method of organization - for computer simulation and modeling, writing, etc .;
· Duration - long and short activities.
M.F. Stronin classifies educational games according with aspects of language preparation (grammar, vocabulary, spelling, phonetics, reading games on the assimilation of the rules) and creative (auditive and speech). [19; p.5]
The first section is made up from grammatical, lexical, phonetic and spelling games that contribute to the formation of speech skills. That is why they called “preparation games”. Games make a boring job more interesting and exciting. Most of the first section games can be used as a training exercise at the stage of both primary and individual fixing.
The second section is called "Creative games". The purpose of game is to promote the further development of speech skills. The ability to show an independent solving of speech problems, quick response in communication, maximum mobilization of language skills can be presented in auditive and verbal games. Games of the second section are training students' ability to use language creatively. [19; p.69]
Language games are intended to develop skills and particularly effective in the early stages of learning a foreign language (preschool age, younger school age). It helps memorizing new words. For children of primary school age game is the leading type of activity. Children remember information better if it is presented in a game situation, the lesson becomes more interesting and exciting for them. Such types of games are bingo, crosswords, games with dice, cards, mazes, drawing up of words and sentences. [20; p.51]
Here are some highlightable features of such games: static, form of competition, the uniqueness and limited solutions. This is imitative and reproductive activities carried out in the form of competition. Language games are for the initial stage of learning a foreign language. Used for the purpose of fixing the linguistic material, as well as learning to compose simple sentences.
Language games help to remember the correct spelling of a word, its pronunciation (with the help of a teacher), learn new words and their translations, as these types of games involved not only auditory memory, but also the visual and motor. The student cooperates with the teacher who helps him to memorize new words and consolidate existing knowledge (vocabulary, grammar, phonetics and spelling).
Communicative games are used on higher stage of training. Communicative games include: filling the gaps, guessing, searching, selection of the same pair, exchange, combination and card games, challenges and puzzles, role-playing and playing.
In communicative games provided can be organized in pairs, groups, and with the whole class. The role of the teacher in the game: monitoring, resource center, the teacher must provide language assistance to the groups (notice the error, but do not interrupt and do not correct, make notes on the paper).
It is important to be interested in the process of communication throughout the game. To find the necessary information student has to use a foreign language. Correctly formulated rules of the game helps to teacher define the lexical and grammar knowledge of the students. [20; p.34]
According to V.V.Petrusinskii, A.A.Derkacha, E.A.Masliko, M.K.Kolkovoy game is one of the most effective methods of teaching a foreign language. Educational games help solve the problem of learning foreign language through communication, they are a means of creating motivation. The game is an integral part of the students of younger age and using it as a learning tool increases efficiency and communicative focus of teaching foreign languages. [20; p.5]
It is known that primary school age (1-3 grade) is the most favorable for the assimilation of a foreign language. Natural curiosity, high simulation ability, flexibility of natural language acquisition mechanism, the need for new knowledge, is a very favorable factor for the successful assimilation of a foreign language. However, the instability of attention and selective memory, impulsive behavior, and fatigue can complicate the process of learning the language of knowledge and formation of speech skills.
Educational games that are used in the system of traditional learning, presents the following functions:
* educational (contribute to the acquisition of knowledge, as well as the formation of foreign language skills within one or more of the training);
* motivational incentive (motivate and stimulate learning and cognitive activity of students);
* compensatory (to compensate the absence or lack of practice, training activities closer to the conditions of language skills in real life).
The necessity and purpose of the game are determined by the teacher and are dependent on the curriculum, the specific situation, the characteristics of the class and a number of other objective and subjective reasons. [20; p.21]
During the preparation for the game the teacher should consider the following methodological requirements for organization of the games.
1. Game technique should correspond with learning objectives. Teachers should have a good understanding of why they want to teach students, and what it can achieve in these tasks by using one or other gaming devices.
The game is part of the learning process, and it should be used in an optimal combination with traditional teaching methods. It has to be a logical continuation and completion of the study a separate topic, a kind of practical complement to it.
2. Credibility of the game lies in the selection of typical situations, but at the same time it should provide the players some novelty.
3. It is also important intellectual and emotional readiness of the participants to the game and to create an atmosphere of ease and search. Also, it is necessary having a clear system of training for the game and qualified control over its course.
4. The contents of the game must meet the level of training of the participants. The lower the level of knowledge and experience of the students, the more simple the game should be. But if the game is too simple, it does not stimulate the brain activity of participants as they have enough previous experience.
5. It is extremely important requirement of effective use of gaming devices is a careful preparation of educational-methodical documentation that includes all the elements of the development process of the game. The documentation should contain the answers to the question as to the achievement of educational goals, requirements, to prepare students for their active participation in the game, and the roles and functions of teachers in the preparation and conduct of the game. Documentation can be issued in the form of a game script, or guidelines. [20; p.178]
There are three main stages of organization games:
2) the game;
Preparation stage. This step is the most time-consuming and responsible of all the stages of the game. At this stage the teacher primarily designing the game, according to each of the following circumstances:
1. Defining the problem, theme, subject, content and learning objectives of the game.
2. Identification of common features activities of students, which have to be modeled.
3. Emphasizing of major stages of the game, the typical problem situations, the main factors determining the nature and dynamics of the game.
4. Identification of the specific objectives of the game, role-playing structure, the functions of its members, the nature of their role interaction in compatible gaming activities.
5. Preparation of the game plot.
6. Determination of the rules of the game.
7. Development of the system of criteria of assessment of the results of the game; referees, judges and players; the development of appropriate general and individual work for the participants of the game.
For students preparing for the game is the actual learning process: learning lexical units of a particular subject area, develop skills of dialogue and monologue speech, assignments and exercises, familiarization with additional information from the topic, etc.[20; p.179] lexical teaching vocabulary game
The game. At this stage, the implementation plot of the game take place. Participants imitating reality, perform tasks, interacting with each other.
Teacher monitors the progress of the game, controls it. In addition, in the case of deviations from the objectives of the game, he tactfully and gently intervenes in the play and restarts the "balance".
Rounding out the second stage the general discussion, during which the players express their first general impression. [14; p.35]
Debriefing. At this stage, the teacher (with the experts, judges, arbitrators) sums up the game, analyzes the quality of foreign language communicative activities, results of individual conflicts, etc. (i.e. there is an analysis and evaluation of work of the participants according to the rules and evaluation criteria).
Foreign-language behavior of each participant requires a separate analysis. Usually it is necessary to work on the bugs, the teacher offers to perform some remedial exercises in the next lesson. [14; p.36]
Also on the following classes students are encouraged to perform creative tasks related to the game. For example, they can be asked to write an article about the game, make a cluster etc.
Therefore, the preparation and conduction of a game is a long-term and complex process that requires the active participation and interest of students.
Here are some of the problems many preschool teachers have [22; p.31]:
· Preschool children have a VERY short attention span.
· Preschool children will forget things quickly.
· Preschool children may not be fully confident in their own language.
· Some of your preschool children may not be motivated to learn.
· They may be fearful.
· Pre-school children develop at very different rates so you are sure to have a mixed ability group.
· You need a LOT of ideas to keep their attention.
· You need real language learning techniques and not just time fillers to keep the children busy.
· Preschoolers can be easily overwhelmed.
That is why here are given some tips for using games:
1. Organization. The first thing you should do when start teaching a preschool or elementary school ESL class is to figure out how to organize your class. For the younger students you'll have to change your activities every five to ten minutes because they have shorter attention spans. If you don't change your activities, they'll soon start losing interest. The best way to gauge this is to pay attention to your class for the first few days to see what length of time works the best for them. Additionally, try to have everything ready to go before the students enter the classroom. That way you can go from activity to activity with minimal downtime. This is essential as you can lose control of the class if you do not keep them occupied. [21; p.17]
2. Expectations. If you notice that your class is getting noisy or rambunctious, it's time to change activities. Kids of this age like to be active; in order to balance out the energy levels in the classroom, alternate between active activities and quiet activities. Be careful how you use activities that require fine motor skills - or more importantly pay attention to your expectations for activities that require fine motor skills. Children in preschool and early elementary are just learning to write in their own languages. This is not the best time to expect them to write in a foreign language as well. As they progress through elementary school, however, you can begin using games and activities that require them to write small amounts.
3. Variation. You want to make sure your activities appeal to all sorts learning styles, so even when you are using games to teach grammar you'll want to vary the types of things you expect your students to do. For preschool and early elementary grades, stick to games that use talking, listening, looking and moving. [22; p.29]
4. Respect. To make games work for you and your class, be sure to operate your class with the utmost respect - both to and from students. This includes teaching your students from the very start that you expect respect at all times. This includes giving encouragement and following the rules. When there is an environment of respect in the classroom, the students will feel safe enough to participate in the games so that they can get the most educational value out of them.
5. Routine. Even if you only have your students for a short time every week, establishing a routine will help the class go smoothly. Children of this age (preschool through elementary school) thrive on routine and if they know what to expect next, they will be more able to participate in what's going on now. Set up a schedule for the type of activities you'll be doing at any given time throughout the class whether it is a game, story or song or whatever you want to do. Then, when you are planning your class, plug in the appropriate activities to each section of time. You should also leave a little time at the end of the class period to allow the students to clean up and gather their things as well as time for you to recap the class, praise the students and tell them good-bye. [22; p.30]
6. Nurture. Perhaps the most important thing you can do with your students is to nurture them every day. For each child in your class, find something you like about him or her and be sure to tell him or her. Be encouraging, patient and kind while playing games and participating in activities and they'll like you as a teacher and a person which will in turn help them get excited about your class and what you have for them to do every day. [22; p. 31]
Based on all of the information above it seems clear that games can and should be used as a teaching method when teaching languages. One reason why games could work well as a teaching method is because of the change that has occurred in teaching, where students have been becoming much more active in the whole learning process. Besides giving students a chance to be more active, games usually place the teacher in a background role, and therefore allow the students to take on more responsibility.
2. Usage of games and activities at the English language lessons
2.1 Development of the lesson with usage of different types of games
Lesson development plan:
Book: Jeanne Perrett “Brilliant 1” pupil's book. Macmillan.
Theme: We are pirates.
Type of the lesson: combined lesson
Form of the lesson: conversational lesson
Aims of the lesson:
· Educational 1:
1. To develop pupil's reading and speaking skills;
2. to learn new words;
· Educational 2:
To distinguish what is good and what is bad on pirates' example.
to develop critical thinking;
Lesson objectives: to learn new words, i.e. colors, through the activities.
Visual aids: a blackboard, a book, cards and pictures, computer.
The procedure of the lesson:
1. Organization moment. Lesson starts from greeting with children, conversation with a pupil on duty and checking home tasks.
T: Good morning, pupils!
S: Good morning, good morning, good morning to you!
Good morning, good morning, we are glad to see you!
T: I am glad to see you too! Thank you. Sit down, please. So, today is 21st of January. Who is on duty today?
Pupil on duty: I am on duty today. All are present.
T: What was your home task?
Pupil on duty: pages 32 and 33, revision units 3 and 4.
T: Ok, thank you, collect all copybooks, please. Guys, submit your copybooks.
After taking all copybooks:
T: Thank you, Amir, very much for your help. Now you can take your place.
Revision units 3 and 4, page 32
2. Warm up. Presenting theme and revising previous lesson.
T: Now let's divide into two groups: apple and pear, and play a game.
After dividing into two groups:
T: This game is called “Confused Letters”. Here are letters from which you should make up two words, connected with previous lesson. Is it clear?
Students are working in in groups. Teacher is watching them.
T: Are you ready? So what words did apple team get?
Apple team: red and yellow!
T: Very good! And what about pear team?
Pear team: green and blue
T: very nice! Both teams did a good job! Today we will continue learning colors!
To play a game “Confused letters”
3. New lesson.
Introducing new words. Playing game and singing a song in order to memorize new colors.
T: Now, open the page number 37 and look at the exercise 4. What kind of animal is it?
S: It is fish.
T: Well done! And as you can notice they are all painted in different colors. Today we will continue talking about colors. Now repeat after me: pink, orange, purple, brown, grey, black, white.
T: One more time. Excellent! One by one, read and translate please.
S1: Pink - розовый
S2: orange - оранжевый
S3: purple - фиолетовый
S4: brown - коричневый
S5: grey - серый
S6: black - черный
S7: white - белый.
T: Well done! Now let's have a little activity. I`ll give you cards and pictures, you should place these pictures according to their color in appropriate column.
Showing an example.
T: You can start! The first three couples will get higher marks.
While pupils are working, teacher is walking through the desks and checking how they work, helping and answering the questions.
Results of activity.
Teacher checks first 3 works, and the rest we will check all together.
T: You all did a good job! Very nice! Now look at the interactive blackboard. First of all, let's watch the video and then sing all together.
Singing a song “What colors”.
What colors? What colors do you like? What colors do you like?
I like blue sky. I like green grass.
I like purple butterflies, if you should ask.
I like yellow daisies. Red daisies too.
Pink and orange sunsets. Watching them with you.
I like white - snowy white.
The black of the night.
I like the brown of the earth on the ground.
T: Well done! Now, guys stand up and make a circle. I will give you the balloon and your aim is to keep it airborne while passing it to each other, also you must say a word phrase using colors, for example “red apple”, while passing the balloon. You will play it until the balloon hits the floor.
Teacher throws the balloon and the game starts.
To play a game “where is my home?”, to sing a song “What colors” and to play a game “Weightless balloon”
3. The end of the lesson
T: Well done, children! Did you like it? Do you want more games?
T: Ok! Next lesson we will play more games, but now our time is up. Open you diaries and write down the home task: ex.3 and 4.
T:The lesson is over. Good bye, children.
S: Good bye, teacher.
To write down home task
We organized and prepared games and composed the lesson development plan. In the process of organizing games and activities we took into account three stages of regiment. They are:
2. The game
First stage. Preparation is the most important stage of organizing games. It mostly carried out during the lessons by introducing new vocabulary, drilling it and revising previous lessons' vocabulary and grammar, so that children could use all the necessary words and word combinations.
Secondary, but not less important, part of preparation is organizing necessary visual aids: worksheet, cards, pictures, toys, video and audio materials and etc. Using well designed materials is necessary in order to catch attention of children and interest them. It is better to use not only audio, but also video materials for singing songs. This way it would be easier for children to understand the meaning of the song and to guess unfamiliar words according to context or picture in the video. But when it is about lyrics it is better to print it for each child, because it is hard to them to catch the text on the video.
In lesson development plan we have chosen activity with cards, pictures, and balloon and a song about colors. The games are easy to prepare and interesting to play. Working in pairs helps to create a kind of competition atmosphere and impacts on relationship between children in pairs, this game also helps in denoting who has leadership skills.
If to speak about song, we have chosen it because of easy lyrics and simple video, which helps to understand unknown words from the contexts. The text is not complicated and not very long, that is why this song is easy to remember.
The second stage is the game itself. We could try these activities during my future practice, which I will have between January and February, 2017. In my opinion it won't be difficult to conduct such types of activities. However, I must be prepared to unexpected situations.
Debriefing. On these stage experts and judges have to evaluate the games and children' active. In my case in the role of judge or expert might be form-master teacher of English language.
2.2 Games in the classroom
The game “Confused letters”.
Aim of the game: to develop spelling skills and to check the perception of the vocabulary.
Procedure of the game: Children are given separate letters, from which they have to make up certain words connected with the vocabulary theme. That team which guesses the words first is the winners.
The game “where is my home?”
Aim of the game: to develop lexical skills on colors vocabulary.
Teacher needs to prepare cards and pictures in advance. Below example of the card is shown:
Procedure of the game: Teacher gives cards on which children should combine pictures in appropriate house according to its color, i.e. picture of red apple and red flower go to the red house, while picture of blue car and blue jeans go to the blue house and etc.
The game “Weightless balloon”.
Aim of the game: to check the ability of children to use new words, composing word phrases.
Procedure of the game: Children must stand up and make a circle. Teacher gives them balloon and the aim is to keep the balloon airborne while passing it to each other. The teacher starts by shouting a category, e.g. colors. If it is a large class, it is possible make more teams and create a volleyball tournament. Every time the inflatable is hit, either to another teammate or over the net, the student must say a word or word combination from the category. If the balloon hits the floor, a word is not said, or a word is repeated the opposing team wins a point.
The game “what is on my mind?”
Aim of the game: to practice vocabulary and sentence structures and to develop working in team skills (teambuilding).
Procedure of the game: you should separate the class into two equal teams. Everyone in the class should have several pieces of paper and a pen. Have one player come up from each team and sit at the front of the class. The teacher reads a sentence, e.g. "I have got __BLANK__ pen." The teacher uses the word 'blank' as the missing word in the sentence. The aim of the game is for each team member to write down the same "blank" word as their player at the front of the class. Both players and team members keep their answer's secret. When everyone has written a word, you ask the players to reveal their answers. For each answer, the team members have that matches their player's answer. They get a point.
1. I have got ______ pen.
2. My name ______ Tim.
3. They're _______ pirates.
4. I am _____ years old.
5. This is ______.
6. Look at my ______.
7. I'm from ________.
8. That is my ________.
9. (Student's name) has got ________.
10. (Student's name) is ________.
11. These _____ my books.
12. _____ is a pencil.
14. It is a _______ parrot.
15. _____ are good pirates.
16. _____ the door.
17. They are not _____ pencils.
18. It is not _______ bag.
19. Tommy has got a ______ puppy.
20. This is ______ car.
The game “Memory Challenge”.
Procedure of the game: Put the students into pairs or small groups. Give them a time limit (e.g. 3 minutes) and ask them to write down as many words, phrases, and/or expressions as they can from the last lesson on topic X. The pair or group that can remember the most items wins.
The game “Exploring the classroom”.
Aim of the game: to practice “there is/there are…” constructions; to revise numbers; to fix the vocabulary on themes “furniture” and “school implements”.
Procedure of the game: Give your students a list of questions, and have them go around the school, park in order to answer the questions. Questions could be:
1. How many doors are there in the classroom?
2. How many teachers are there in the classroom at this moment?
3. How many plants are there in the classroom?
4. How many desks are there in the classroom?
5. How many computers are there in the classroom?
The game “Bomb”
Aim of the game: to check or fix the vocabulary on certain theme.
Procedure of the game: Teacher should tell the students a topic and give a timer to pass around the class (set to 1 minute). Each student has to say a word in that topic (e.g. food: apple, cake, hotdog, carrot, bread, etc.) as the timer is passed before the time runs out. When the timer goes off the student left holding it loses.
The game “Races”
Aim of the game: to create a competitive atmosphere and to
Procedure of the game: Teacher should divide class into 2 teams and line them up as far away from the board as possible. Teacher will call out a word to the first members of each team, and they have to run to the board, draw the picture and run back to his/her next teammate. The process is repeated for each student and the team that finishes first is the winner. Another possible way: teacher whispers the words, the student can only run back to his/her team when his teammates guess what the picture is.
This term paper presents actual problem as activation of lexical skills in primary stages of teaching English language. As the solution of this problem we offered usage of games activities.
1. Vocabulary and lexical skills were studied. We defined the purpose of learning vocabulary, which is the formation of lexical skills, the ability to combine the word according to the lexical rules. According to speech psychologies speech lexical skills substantially differ from grammar. Lexical skills are characterized by greater awareness.
2. We studied the objectives and stages of activating the lexical material and considered ways of teaching vocabulary. Working on vocabulary is traditionally divided into three main stages: introduction, initial consolidation, developing the ability to use skills in different kinds of speech activity. Also, we revealed the methods of semantization.
3. We explored the techniques of the general classification of educational games in foreign language teaching. We found out general classification of the educational games according to Danilovich's criteria and M.F. Stronin's classification, who classifies educational games according with aspects of language.
The results of the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature led to the following conclusions: in the process of teaching English language for younger schoolchildren teacher should take into account the age and individual psychological characteristics of students.
Methodological characteristics of games were provided on the basis of the analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature, were determined:
* place of games in the educational gaming system;
* Functions of didactic games;
* the characteristics of the components of language, communicative games;
* Methodical requirements for the organization of games;
Lesson development plan with using games and activities were introduced. All the games were organized according to the stages: preparation, the game and debriefing.
The game promotes the development of cognitive activity of students with learning a foreign language. It carries considerable moral principle, for mastering a foreign language makes a joyful, creative and collective. The game delivers an emotional impact on students, activates the spare capacity of the individual. It facilitates the acquisition of knowledge, abilities and skills, contributes to their actualization. Besides creating necessary diversity in the classroom and being a good method for teaching, we must not forget that games are fun and that helps get students active in their learning....
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