General characteristics of terrorism
The essence of the concept "terrorism". Learn about types of terrorism: state, religious, pathological. Counter-terrorism strategy as a tool for enhancing the efforts of the international Association for the fight against terrorism in all activities.
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The term terrorism has become tragically common in the twenty-first century. So it may seem surprising that there's no legal agreement about what terrorism actually is.
The word terrorism first appeared in English in 1795, referring to the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. As Alex P. Schmid notes, in 1793, the revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre and the delegates to the French National Convention had decided that terror through repression and bloodshed was legitimate state policy. By 1794, however, the delegates had begun to fear that Robespierre would turn on them. They accused him of a criminal abuse of power, which they called terrorisme, and they sent him to the guillotine. Thus in late nineteenth-century France, terrorism became a legal instrument of the state.
Nowadays many people think of terrorism as an illegal tactic used by non-state groups and radicalized lone wolves. However, a government's funding of acts of terror committed by groups not under its control can also be thought of as terrorism. So can state-sponsored torture or other kinds of illegal oppression. Seen in that light, an understanding of terrorism becomes more complicated.
The dictionary definitions of terrorism are usually simple and clear, though. They often go something like this: “The use of violence, or the threat of violence, to frighten people in order to achieve a political, social, or religious goal.” As of this posting, the Oxford Dictionary (US English) defines terrorism as “the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims,” yet The Oxford Dictionary (British & World English) further elucidates terrorism as “the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims.” It would seem that there's no universal consensus about what constitutes terrorism. The League of Nations first proposed a legal definition of the word as far back as 1937, and a UN committee has been trying to define the term for over 40 years.
Instead, there are hundreds of definitions of the term focusing on its different facets. They often stress that terrorism targets civilians and non-combatants. That may seem self-evident, but there are problems with that definition, as Virginia Held points out: Does it mean that the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center were terrorism because they killed civilians, for example, but the one on the Pentagon wasn't because it targeted the military?
Understandings of terrorism emphasize other aspects as well: Terrorism disregards the rules of war. It's asymmetric, involving the weak vs. the strong, the armed vs. the unarmed, etc. Sometimes it's used to provoke an over-reaction, other times to avenge a perceived wrong or to undermine public order and security. Terrorism is typically premeditated.
Definitions of terrorism also stress that it's normally intended as a message meant to influence an audience, with the aim of advancing a political, social, or religious goal. Supporters of the Islamic State, which has claimed responsibility for the recent atrocities in Paris, say the attacks were revenge for French airstrikes in Syria, and for insulting the Prophet Muhammad. ISIS claims that they chose Paris to attack because it is “the capital of abominations and perversion.” Their larger goal was presumably to spread fear in order to intimidate France into ending its role in the American-led military action in the Middle East. Or they may have the opposite intent: to draw Western nations, as well as Russia and Hezbollah, into a final battle in Syria, where, according to the Islamic State's apocalyptic theology, the “crusader armies” will be destroyed. It can be difficult to decipher intention from acts of violence.
Who gets to decide what is terrorism, as opposed to legitimate opposition to an oppressive government? What distinguishes terrorism from assassination or guerrilla warfare? And who are noncombatants? People have disputed these points for decades.
That's because terrorism is a loaded term that stigmatizes and delegitimizes a group, with legal as well as moral consequences. Dissident organizations usually reject the term terrorist, even if they use violence against civilians. Instead they choose words like revolutionary, freedom fighter, or martyr. Journalists may refer to them as militants or suicide bombers. An autocratic government may call all opponents terrorists in order to elevate itself morally and justify a severe crackdown. And state officials normally don't say that their own forces have committed acts of terrorism. When soldiers kill a large number of innocent civilians, government or military spokesmen may call it collateral damage. The mainstream media may label an extreme case an atrocity. But they rarely use the word terrorism to describe their own government's actions.
1. Concept, essence and types of terrorism
Since the attacks on The World Trade Center and the Pentagon and the loss of Flight 93 in September 11, 2001, most people have become more concerned with terrorism and possible terrorist activity. Unfortunately, most people don't really know a lot about it, what it really is, what it is used for.
In this work, in addition to offer some insight into and examples of terrorism, I will try to answer those questions. Here is some important information:
-Killing someone is not terrorism, it is called murder.
-Killing someone famous is not terrorism, it is called assassination.
-Killing a lot of people is not terrorism, it is mass murder.
-Hurting someone is not terrorism, it is battery.
-Taking something from someone secretly is not terrorism, it is called theft.
-Threatening harm to get something is not terrorism, it is extortion.
Yet all of these, and many other crimes, can be used by terrorists to conduct terrorist activity. Terrorism is not limited to a certain type of behavior or a particular method.
Then, what is it?
Terrorism is scaring someone into doing something they wouldn't do otherwise. For example: a bully in school might want to get a friend elected to the student government. To do this the bully might threaten to beat up anyone who did not vote for bully's friend. The bully is using terrorist tactics .The bully is scaring the victims into doing something that the victims might not do unless the victims were scared. If the bully were not scaring the victims, they would vote for whomever they wanted.
At first it should be mentioned that the terrorists must have a political goal. Acts of violence that are not used to achieve any particular goal are purposeless, and therefore not terrorism. Someone who uses violence or force for no reason is a different kind of bully, one who bullies victims for pleasure. Such a bully may suffer from some emotional or psychologistics.
There are 8 types of terrorism which are known on our days :
1.1 State Terrorism
State terrorism is the systematic use of terror by a government in order to control its population. Not to be confused with state sponsored terrorism, where states sponsor terrorist groups, state terrorism is entirely carried out by the group holding power in a country and not a non-governmental organization. It is the original form of terrorism. The 1793 French Revolution and the thousands of executions that resulted are often cited as the first instance of state terrorism, though rulers have plausibly been using it for centuries to control their subjects.
Examples: The aforementioned French Revolution is the most prominent example, however state terrorism is wide spread. Just about every dictator in history has arguably utilized state terrorism as a way of controlling his or her populations. For more contemporary examples one could look to the use of violence by Saddam Hussein against the Kurds or even the suppression of democratic protestors in Syria.
1.2 Religious Terrorism
Terrorism can be motivated by religious ideologies and grievances. Religious terrorism is particularly dangerous due to the fanaticism of those who practice it and their willingness to sacrifice themselves for the cause. Religious terrorists are more likely to use “all in” tactics such as suicide bombings. This is made possible by religious teachings used to justify and even encourage this kind of self-sacrifice. Bruce Hoffman discuss religious terrorism at length in his book `Inside Terrorism.'
Examples: Al-Qaeda is perhaps the most prominent example of a group that can be characterized as religious terrorists. As well religious terrorism has a long history from Catholic-Protestant violence in Ireland to Muslim-Hindu tensions in Pakistan and India.
1.3 Right Wing Terrorism
This type of terrorism aims to combat liberal governments and preserve traditional social orders. Right Wing terrorism is commonly characterized by militias and gangs; many times these groups are racially motivated and aim to marginalize minorities within a state.
Examples: Modern right wing terrorist groups include the Klu Klux Klan and Neo-Fascists. Many such groups are present not only in the U.S. but also in Germany, Russia, and others. Foreign Affairs has published an article titled A Nazi Legacy: Right-Wing Extremism In Postwar Germany.
1.4 Left Wing Terrorism
These groups seek to overthrow capitalist democracies and establish socialist or communist governments in their place. They want to attack the established system in order to do away with class distinction. While these groups still exist they are not as prominent as they were during the Cold War.
Examples: The Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front in Turkey, Revolutionary Organization 17 November in Greece, and The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) are all current examples of left wing terrorist groups.
1.5 Pathological Terrorism
This describes the use of terrorism by individuals who utilize such strategies for the sheer joy of terrorizing others. Pathological terrorists often operate alone rather in groups like the others on this list and often are not true `terrorists' as they lack any well-defined political motive.
Examples: Pathological terrorism is most commonly seen in school shootings and serial killing scenarios. The shootings at Columbine High School and of Congresswoman Gabby Giffords all serve as examples of pathological terrorism since those who carried them out sought to use violence to terrorize for their own pleasure.
1.6 Issue Oriented Terrorism
This type of terrorism is carried out for the purpose of advancing a specific issue. Commonly these issues are social in nature or deal with the environment. Here this definition is used to include environmental terrorism.
Examples: The bombings of abortion clinics and the assault of whaling ships are the best examples of issue-oriented terrorism. Perhaps the best documented example of an ecoterror group is the Environmental Liberation Front (ELF) due to their attacks on ski resorts and logging operations.
1.7 Separatist Terrorism
Separatists seek to cause fragmentation within a country and establishment a new state. This type of terrorism is typical of minorities within a nation-state that desire their own, commonly due to discrimination from the majority group.
Examples: The most prominent examples are the ETA Basque separatists in Spain, the Chechen terrorists in Chechnya, the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, the Kurdish PKK in Turkey, and the Quebec Liberation Front in Canada.
This term originally refers to organizations that gain funds through the sale of drugs. It can also deal with the use of violence by those groups or gangs designed to make the sale of their drugs easier.
Examples: The cartels in Mexico have carried out beheadings, mass burials, and other severe acts of violence. Many times this violence is carried out to intimidate populations into not cooperating with authorities. Pablo Escobar also enacted the assassinations of Colombian politicians during the height of his power in order to intimidate the government into not interfering with his drug trafficking activity.
When combating religious terrorism, coordinating with religious leaders and building a relationship with them will encourage better cooperation. Treating all the members of a religious group as if they are terrorists will only alienate that group and make them more prone to violence in retaliation.
Similarly, separatist terrorism can be combated with more inclusive political processes that allow outlets for political dissent.
Since narco-terrorism and right wing terrorism is usually characterized by gangs, a concentration on regular policing is the most advantageous.
Taking out leaders and members of terrorist networks with specific skills is always a good approach for combating terrorism in general. Targeting terrorist funding is also a crucial strategy. Finally, facilitating the exit of individual low-level terrorists from these networks and easing their peaceful reintegration back into society is an important step in ending terrorism.
1.9 Causes of Terrorism
The desire of a population to break away from a government or ruling power and create a state of their own can cause the formation of terrorist groups. In the 20th century this was seen often times with regions or states attempting to gain independence from their colonial era masters. However, as Bruce Hoffman points out in Inside Terrorism, ethno-nationalist terrorism had been around decades before even the First World War. Perhaps the most notable of these groups, formed before and after WWII and inspired by the weakening of imperial powers, was the Jewish Irgun Avai Le'umi who fought British rule in Palestine so as to attain the creation of a Jewish state.
Today Hamas is one of the most active ethno-nationalist driven groups carrying out suicide bombings and attacks against the state of Israel with the goal of creating a Palestinian state. Chechen terrorist organizations are also ethno-nationalists for their attacks against the government and people of Russia in the attempt to form their own state.
Within many countries around the globe minority groups exist wishing to garner some form of independence, if not their own state altogether. Therefore ethno-nationalism will continue to be a significant source of terrorism. It is important to recognize this and counter it with more politically inclusive processes that can mitigate the grievances of minority groups, though some will inevitably continue to employ terrorism until they achieve their desired independent nation.
Several authors on terrorism have pointed to a sense of alienation felt by diasporas, particularly those living in Europe as a driver of terrorism. Many times these groups face discrimination in the countries they reside, leading to further feelings of isolation. They commonly move from poorer countries, particularly Muslim states in the case of Europe, to wealthier ones to go to school or find work. As Marc Sageman discusses in his book Understanding Terror Networks, once in these countries they begin to feel alienated. The new host nation is substantially different than their own culture, and is usually much less community oriented. This causes alienated individuals to seek out communities with cultures like their home countries or others like themselves. These groups may become jaded towards society around them as they don't fit in and feel excluded.
Growing sentiments of discrimination can lead groups to look to more conservative, and eventually, extremist ideologies.
The Hamburg Cell, consisting of two of the pilots in the 9/11 terrorist attacks, is a perfect example of this. The cell included a number of expatriate Muslims studying in Germany who sought out other conservative Muslims to band together when they felt homesick in a Western society that was alien to them. This started them down the trail of radicalization as they became more jaded with the world around them.
Robert Leiken also discusses this phenomenon in his paper Europe's Angry Muslims. Leiken points to both “outsiders,” Muslims who immigrated in order to study or seek asylum, and “insiders,” second or third generation Muslims in Europe. These groups are subjected to discriminatory social policies, such as the headscarf law in France, that then cause them to become radicalized.
The problem here, particularly in the case of Europe, is that many of these expatriates who become radicalized due to alienation from being in a foreign society also hold European passports and thus can travel within Europe with increased ease, as well as enter the U.S. much easier than non-Europeans. Therefore they pose not only a threat to Europe, but also to the United States.
Perhaps the most commonly held belief today is that terrorism is caused by religion. Though it is not the main cause for terrorism, religion does play a significant role in driving some forms of it. As Hoffman points out in Inside Terrorism, from the Thugs of ancient India that killed to terrorize in the name of the god Kali to the Jewish Zealots who cut the throats of Romans in public to combat their occupation of Israel, religion (in conjunction with political/ethno-nationalist drivers) has long been a factor of terrorism.
Today religion as a part of terrorism has been mainly attributed to Islamic fundamentalism (though other examples, such as the Aum Shinrikyo cult that carried out the 1995 sarin gas attacks in Tokyo, also exist). As Sageman describes: “The global Salafi jihad is a world wide religious revivalist movement with the goal of reestablishing past Muslim glory in a great Islamist state stretching from Morocco to the Philippines, eliminating present national boundaries.”
As a driver of terrorism, the true danger that religious doctrine poses is its encouragement of attacks that are more violent in nature than other types.
By being promised rewards in the afterlife, terrorists are more likely to carry out suicide bombings and other such “all in” tactics that are harder to defend against.
2.1 Socio-Economic Status
Terrorists may also be driven by a sense of relative depravation and lack of upward mobility within society. Globalization and the modern media have given the `have nots' an acute awareness of their situation compared to the `haves'. As Omer Taspinar states in Fighting Radicalism, Not “Terrorism,” “Globalization creates an acute awareness about opportunities available elsewhere. This leads to frustration, victimization, and humiliation among growing cohorts of urbanized, undereducated, and unemployed Muslim youth who are able to make comparisons across countries.” Seeing the economic differences between themselves and the Western world can infuriate some in underdeveloped countries, increasing tension and hostilities. This allows terrorist organizations to gain attention and entry to societies that have felt wronged by these perceived social injustices.
Unfortunately the only real way to mitigate this is through economic development of the community, country, and region, but that takes time. For the foreseeable future there will always be those that are disgruntled by the comparison of living standards of the wealthy around the world versus their own, opening the doors to frustration and anger. Thus, this driver is remarkably hard to combat as globalization allows for more mechanisms of comparison between varying global socio-economic levels.
2.2 Political Grievances
A lack of political inclusiveness in states or grievances against a certain political order may cause individuals to join or create terrorist groups. Left and right wing terrorists often seek to a political system. As well, many in nations with authoritarian regimes lack avenues for dissent. Frustrated expressions of political will can turn to violence as an alternative to exclusive political systems. While somewhat similar to ethno-nationalist/separatist causes, these political grievances are not born from the desire to create a new state but to change the order within the current one. In his piece, Taspinar describes this as a political dimension to relative depravation. In this light he sees political Islam as a reaction to such oppressive governments and its Western supporters.
With the knowledge that other people around the world live in representative governments, the anger only grows among those who live without such political representation, leading disillusioned individuals into the arms of terrorism.
The implication here is that Western governments, in their support of repressive authoritarian regimes for their own national interest, have essentially made themselves targets of terrorism of an angered populace within these regimes, acting out violently as the only alternative to political expression.
2.3 The Accidental Guerrilla
Finally, there is the theory put forth about the “accidental guerrilla” by David Kilcullen. Kilcullen describes it as such: A terrorist organization moves into an area with poor government or that is conflict ridden (he uses Al Qaeda specifically), then uses this safe haven to spread their ideologies to other areas and as a base to carry out violent acts.
When outside forces then intervene to deal with the threat posed to them by this group, this causes the local population to reject the `foreign invaders' and ally with the terrorist group, thus creating more terrorists and popular support for terrorist movements. The cases of U.S. intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq to counter Al Qaeda are the obvious examples here.
This theory poses strong questions about the viability of direct intervention in pursuit of terrorist groups by Western countries, and whether it causes more harm than good.
2.4 Fight against terrorism
The War on Terror (WoT), also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), refers to the international military campaign that started after the September 11 attacks on the United States. U.S. President George W. Bush first used the term "War on Terror" on 20 September 2001. The Bush administration and the western media have since used the term to argue a global military, political, legal, and conceptual struggle against both organizations designated terrorist and regimes accused of supporting them.
It was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with Islamic terrorismorganizations including al-Qaeda and like-minded organizations. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced that the United States was no longer pursuing a War on Terror, as the military focus should be on specific enemies rather than a tactic. He stated, "We must define our effort not as a boundless 'Global War on Terror', but rather as a series of persistent, targeted efforts to dismantle specific networks of violent extremists that threaten America.
A question about a fight against terrorism during decades stood on the order-paper of United Nations, however to carry resolution 1373, on the basis of that the first counterterrorism committee was founded is a counterterrorism committee (КТК) - Security Council was impelled by attacking the United States of America of September, 11, 2001. Five years after all states - the members of General Assembly first coordinated general strategic basis of fight against a terrorist threat - Global strategy of United Nations. Counterterrorism Strategy is an unique instrument, strengthening efforts of international association on a fight against terrorism on all four directions of activity :
1.Removal of terms assisting distribution of terrorism;
2.Prevention of terrorism and fight against him;
3.Strengthening of potential of the states on prevention of terrorism and fight against him and strengthening of role of the system Organizations the Incorporated Nations in this area;
4.Providing of universal respect of human rights and supremacy of right as fundamental basis for a fight against terrorism.
Simultaneously with the acceptance of Global strategy General Assembly confirmed the Target group on realization of Counterterrorism measures (that was created by the Secretary general in 2005. 38 structures of United Nations and the constrained organizations are included in that, works on strengthening of co-ordination and harmony of Counterterrorism activity of the system Organizations the Incorporated Nations and shows to help to the to members.
The Security council works on strengthening of potential of states-members in area of prevention of terrorist attacks and reacting on them, bringing over the auxiliary bodies to the performance of this objective, namely: Counterterrorism committee, Committee 1267 on approvals against The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and "Al-Qaeda" and Committee 1540, that engages in the questions of non-proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapon. Activity of committees is supported by different structures, here implementation of programmatic decisions of Counterterrorism committee and realization of expert estimation of states-members are laid on the Chief executive of Committee, and to work of Committee 1267 Group renders assistance on a supervision.
3.Terrorism and the Other Religion
terrorism religious international
Contrary to what is alleged by bigots like Bill Maher, Muslims are not more violent than people of other religions. Murder rates in most of the Muslim world are very low compared to the United States.
As for political violence, people of Christian heritage in the twentieth century polished off tens of millions of people in the two world wars and colonial repression. This massive carnage did not occur because European Christians are worse than or different from other human beings, but because they were the first to industrialize war and pursue a national model. Sometimes it is argued that they did not act in the name of religion but of nationalism. But, really, how naive. Religion and nationalism are closely intertwined. The British monarch is the head of the Church of England, and that still meant something in the first half of the twentieth century, at least. The Swedish church is a national church. Spain? Was it really unconnected to Catholicism? Did the Church and Francisco Franco's feelings toward it play no role in the Civil War? And what's sauce for the goose: much Muslim violence is driven by forms of modern nationalism, too.
I don't figure that Muslims killed more than a 2 million people or so in political violence in the entire twentieth century, and that mainly in the Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 and the Soviet and post-Soviet wars in Afghanistan, for which Europeans bear some blame (the secular nationalist Young Turks also committed genocide against the Armenians during an invasion of eastern Anatolia by Russia).
Compare that to the Christian European tally of, oh, lets say 100 million (16 million in WW I, 60 million in WW II- though some of those were attributable to Buddhists in Asia- and millions more in colonial wars.)
Or, between 1916-1930 Tsarist Russian and then Soviet forces -- facing the revolt of Central Asians trying to throw off Christian (and then Marxist), European rule -- Russian forces killed an estimated 1.5 million people. Two boys brought up in or born in one of those territories (Kyrgyzstan) just killed 4 people and wounded others critically. That is horrible, but no one, whether in Russia or in Europe or in North America has the slightest idea that Central Asians were mass-murdered during WW I and before and after, and looted of much of their wealth. Russia when it brutally conquered and ruled the Caucasus and Central Asia was an Eastern Orthodox, Christian empire (and seems to be reemerging as one!).
Then, between half a million and a million Algerians died in that country's war of independence from France, 1954-1962, at a time when the population was only 11 million!
I could go on and on. Everywhere you dig in European colonialism in Afro-Asia, there are bodies. Lots of bodies.
Now that I think of it, maybe 100 million people killed by people of European Christian heritage in the twentieth century is an underestimate.
As for religious terrorism, that too is universal. Admittedly, some groups deploy terrorism as a tactic more at some times than others. Zionists in British Mandate Palestine were active terrorists in the 1940s, from a British point of view, and in the period 1965-1980, the FBI considered the Jewish Defense League among the most active US terrorist groups. (Members at one point plotted to assassinate Rep. Dareell Issa (R-CA) because of his Lebanese heritage.) Now that Jewish nationalsts are largely getting their way, terrorism has declined among them. But it would likely reemerge if they stopped getting their way. In fact, one of the arguments Israeli politicians give for allowing Israeli squatters to keep the Palestinian land in the West Bank that they have usurped is that attempting to move them back out would produce violence. I.e., the settlers not only actually terrorize the Palestinians, but they form a terrorism threat for Israel proper.
It takes a peculiar sort of blindness to see Christians of European heritage as “nice” and Muslims and inherently violent, given the twentieth century death toll I mentioned above. Human beings are human beings and the species is too young and too interconnected to have differentiated much from group to group. People resort to violence out of ambition or grievance, and the more powerful they are, the more violence they seem to commit. The good news is that the number of wars is declining over time, and World War II, the biggest charnel house in history, hasn't been repeated.
The problem of terrorism in Kyrgyzstan 80% of 2013's terrorism deaths took place in 5 countries
Countries with the highest percentage of global deaths by terrorism in 2013
This graphic from statistics , using new data from the Global Terrorism Index (GTI), shows that over 80 per cent of global deaths from terror attacks occurred in just five countries.
Last years terrorist group activated in the whole world, and Kyrgyzstan is a not exception here. The members of international terrorist organizations , from data of the special services, try to organize the acts of terrorism, Kyrgyz people recruit in the rows of hits of the "Islam state". On different estimations, the number of our citizens warring in Syria reaches to five hundred. So active work of police resulted in that increased number of members of terrorist organizations and in Kyrgyzstan.
For a current year in a republic a few large special operations were conducted on liquidation of terrorist group, In the middle of June present year from a colony-settlement two prisoners accomplished escape - both the citizens of Kazakhstan : Janbolot Amirov and Albert Abhin. on June, 25 fugitives it was found out and made an effort conduct an operation on their detention, but they rendered to the members of the top brass the armed resistance and managed to hide.
After a week, at the attempt of detention of Abhin accomplished an explosion to himself by means of grenade. Amirov succeeded to hide. on July, 16 went down in memory the double special operation. In the day-time two extremists were destroyed in the district of GES- 5, and nearer to the evening in the center of Bishkek conducted the special operation on detention of hits International to terrorist organization
Four extremists are "destroyed in a house on crossing of streets of Gorki and Temirov, one is detained", - press-service of the State committee of national safety reported then.
On the version of SPECIAL services, terrorists gathered to arrange the series of acts of terrorism.
Fight in the center of Bishkek became the result of operation on detention of the second running prisoner - Amirov.
A next case that caused much more resonance in society is escape of nine prisoners from Detention facility - 50 in night with 11 on October, 12. Almost all of them were convict or suspected of terrorism and extremism. Fugitives killed three employees GOVERNMENT SERVICE of EXECUTION of PUNISHMENTS . Another injured an officer died in five days from traumas. Five running detained in the same night on the detour road.
More than week fugitive criminals were at liberty. State Committee of National Safety declared a reward in 300 thousand sheat-fishes for information about them, a militia heaved up a slat to 1 million sheat-fishes. During operations on detention of fugitives three from them were destroyed, one - caught.
One of the most dangerous criminals of Altynbek Itibaev he was found out only on Octobers, 22. He sat in multistoried building in the microregion " of Dostuk(district)" and fired back a few hours. As a result of the special operation a hit was liquidated, but also perished fighter the Special Detachment of Rapid Reacting and two peaceful habitants.
Literally the day before, on December, 10, the employees of the special service destroyed two hits in the microregion of "Vostok-5" for the armed resistance. During the special operation was injured one of fighters of the special troops.
"Liquidated at night the members of terrorist groupment participating to the row of especially severe crimes, including to murder of district militiaman in a 8th microregion", - talked in the report of state committee.
However terrorism entered other stage. on attacking was November, 26 accomplished theology Kadyr Malikov. Knife wounds were inflicted him.
If in law enforcement authorities supposed the beginning, that an incident had happened on domestic soil, then, as turned out later, it " was ordered" by the terrorist groupment of the Islam state.Then the criminals were detained in Turkey.Malikov considers that his arguing served reason of attack against terrorism.As a religious scholar marked, the threat of ХХI century is takhfirism. This flow widely spreads in Central Asia, especially in Kyrgyzstan. It is ideology straight threatens to safety of Kyrgyzstan, and distribution of YOKE reminds a virus that infects all more countries and sent to elimination of the national states, theology talks.
Principal reason of religious extremism in a country is a deficit of information. Citizens can not get valuable data in a confessional sphere, therefore begin to search. Search in the Internet, where blunder on extremist materials, not realizing it. Specialists are sure, a web-site must not be exceptionally radical orientation. For a mind one-track sufficiently and some distorted data.
A factor influencing on advancement of terrorism is a narcotraffic. The members of INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATION use him as a sourcing. There is expression: "Oil is war blood", now a new appeared: "Drugs are a signup of djihad".
Connection of drugs and terrorism acknowledges chief of main operatively-search administration Igor Sychev. "Hits, to strengthen the possibilities, кaptagon (pills) accept. There was not a single withdrawal of this substance in Kyrgyzstan. In the zones of the armed conflicts this drug is widespread. He reminds to extazy, but, besides stimulation, takes off pain shock. Practically at every hit find this type of potion", - he told IA "24.kg".
He marked at the same time, that information about financing of assassinations due to a narcotraffic is not confirmed. "But all know that in Afghanistan plenty of this portion and part of money are produced from his realization use for the purchase of weapon and live ammunition. It's nevertheless there is intercommunication between a narcotraffic and battle actions", - he underlined.
He reminded that terrorist organizations named itself an Islam, but they are only covered by religion. According to his opinion, the Islam state is necessary to be named Iblis by the state of(Iblis - one of the names gin in an Islam that was also named Shaitan(The Quran).
Terrorism poses have many questions, vicissitudes and a series of complexities. It is no longer a problem of specific countries but an issue involving a number of international aspects. In other words, terrorist organizations, more than over, may perpetrate attacks in a variety of countries ,the victims of the attacks can be the people of different nationalities, the offices, the headquarters and training camps of terrorists organizations function in different countries, terrorist organizations receive direct and indirect assistance from different states ,enlist support from different ethnic communities, and secure financial help throughout the world.
On the other hand, in this telecommunication and mass-communication's era, television has a great power in delivering information and manipulating people minds and opinions. Thus, western democratic governments use such power to make people believe that actions of insurgents, as Paletz and Vinson refer in “Terrorism and the Media”, are, indeed, actions of `evil' taken by terrible and repugnant people.
From the terrorist's point of view, their actions and deeds are, then, an extremely powerful weapon, and the use of publicity and mass media- radio, television, and newspapers -constitutes merely a strategic instrument , vehicle ,mean for propaganding and disseminating their causes and attain, achieve political ends.
September 11,2001, marked a turning point of our lives. The perception of life itself has definitely changed for the people which live on that place. What is expecting us? Only time will tell! But, there won't be much longer before we have an answer. “TIME”, today, is also changing! Things happen, move and occur much more quickly , as we live now in an era of high standards of technology, which allows us to do things, such as communicating to each other, and see things , like witnessing events of such high dimensions as a New York city and Washington city incidents like never before.
There are three perspectives of terrorism: the terrorist's, the victim's, and the general public's. The phrase “one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter” is a view terrorists themselves would gladly accept. Terrorists do not see themselves as evil. They believe they are legitimate combatants, fighting for what they believe in, by whatever means possible to attain their goals. A victim of a terrorist act sees the terrorist as a criminal with no regard for human life. The general public's view though can be the most unstable. The terrorists take great pains to foster a “Robin Hood” image in hope of swaying the general public's point of view toward their cause. This sympathetic view of terrorism has become an integral part of their psychological warfare and has been countered vigorously by governments, the media and other organizations.
1.G.Adams “Falls memories/1982”
2.H.C.Greisman “Social meanings of terrorism: Reification ,violence and social control/1997”
3.J.B.Bell “Terrorist scripts and live-action spectaculars/1978”
4.W.R.Catton “Militants and the media: Partners in Terrorism/1978”
5. Peter R. Neumann, “Old & New Terrorism” (Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2009)
6. Adrian Guelke, “The New Age of Terrorism and the International Political System” (London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2009)
7. Sosnin V.A, Nestik T.A “Modern terrorism/2008”
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