Science and Education in Belarus
Problems of development of science and education Belarus after disintegration of the Soviet Union. Modern activity of National academy of Sciences of Belarus, its role, value and functions. Important achievements of schools of sciences in various areas.
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Science and Education in Belarus
science education belarus
Belarusian science was actually started in 1922 as the Institute of Belarusian Culture was set up. At present the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (NASB) is in charge of organizing, conducting and coordinating the fundamental and applied scientific research and development. The Academy of Sciences was founded in 1929 and incorporated the Institutes of Philosophy, Economics, History, Constitution and Law, Linguistics, Literature and Art, Chemistry, Biological Sciences, Agricultural, Physico-Engineering Institutes and others. It was awarded the status «National» in 1997, and now comprises 94 Full Members (Academicians), 130 Corresponding Members. 3 Honorary and 16 Foreign Members of the NASB. The NASB comprises over 130 organizations and enterprises including 70 research institutes, divisions and centers. It employs 16 thousand people.
In 2002, the Academy of Sciences comprised the Departments of Physics, Mathematics and Informatics; the Department of Physical and Engineering Sciences; the Department of Chemical Sciences and Earth Sciences; the Department of Biological Sciences; the Department of Medical and Biological Sciences; the Department of Agrarian Sciences; the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts. It is planned to establish the Department of Economics and Management.
The Academy of Sciences is headed by the NASB President who is the member of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus and is appointed by the President of the Republic of Belarus.
The NASB is in charge of conducting and coordinating research and development in the most important spheres of natural, engineering, humanitarian, social sciences and arts.
Over the last 10 years, nearly 6 thousand patents for inventions, useful models and designs, over 12 thousand trademarks, 1,140 licensing agreements have been registered.
Over the same period the academic degree of Doctor of Sciences was awarded to 652 and that of Candidate of Sciences to 3,333 candidates. The title of Professor and Assistant Professor was awarded to 450 and 1,896 scientists and specialists, respectively.
Today science in Belarus has a number of problems. After the breakup of the Soviet Union and disruption of economic and scientific relations some branches of Belarusian industry have been left without any scientific basis. A lack of funds has affected the state of some branches of science. There was also a tendency of brain drain from the science sector which emerged in the 1990s. However, the country's scientific and technical basis hasn't been destroyed.
Several branches of the scientific and technical sphere can be brought to the level of competitiveness in the world market. This mainly holds true for laser and plasma technologies, chemical synthesis of substances, biotechnologies and information processes -- the areas with a high scientific and technical potential. The outstanding scientists in these fields of science are Fyodor Korshunov, Gennady Yablonski, Sergei Gaponenko, Ivan Bondar, Igor Troyanchuk, Victor Borisenko, Vyacheslav Yarmolik, Rauf Sadykhov, Sergei Ablameyko, Nikolai Kazak and others.
Achievements of scientific schools in the sphere of mathematics, theoretical physics, spectroscopy and luminescence, electronics, automation, thermophysics, machine building, geology, bioorganic chemistry, physiology, genetics, selection, soil science, cardiology, surgery, linguistics, etc. are known worldwide and have been highly appraised in Belarus and enjoyed the international recognition. Findings of some researchers have the highest rank of significance and are registered as scientific discoveries.
The NASB Central Scientific Library, Republican Scientific and Technical Library of Belarus, Republican Scientific Medical, Pedagogical and Agricultural libraries, University libraries and others provide Belarusian researchers and specialists with the needed scientific literature.
Belarus is a country with highly developed science and advanced education. The adult literacy rate in Belarus is 99.7%, and the country has a high primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (90.2 % according to UN Human Development Report 2012). The ratio of university students (467 per 10,000 people as of 2012) is the level higher than that of leading European countries, including Germany, Norway, Austria, and Italy.
The Belarusian educational system includes more than 4,100 preschool institutions, nearly the same number of comprehensive schools, colleges and lyceums, and 55 higher educational institutions. Students from 83 countries study at the Belarusian universities.
Belarus ranks high in the number of scientists and engineers per capita. As of 2010, the total number of organizations and institutions conducting scientific research is 468 with approximately 31,700 scientists and engineers being involved in applied and fundamental research (The National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus). The number of scientists working in the educational sphere is 20,000. Of the total scientific population of Belarus, 746 are Doctors of Sciences (equivalent of Prof.) and 3,143 are Candidates of Sciences (equivalent of Ph.D.).
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, founded in 1929, is the leading scientific center of Belarus. The Academy scientists have achieved significant success in R&D activities in the field of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, Earth science, social sciences and the humanities. The staff of the Academy and affiliated institutions includes more than 18,500 researchers and technicians, 501 Doctors of Sciences (equivalent of Prof.) and 1,915 Candidates of Sciences (equivalent of Ph.D.). Intergovernmental agreements on cooperation in the field of sciences and technologies have been signed with 60 countries, including Great Britain, Germany, India, China, Russia, the US, and Japan.
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