Ways of presenting grammatical structures to beginner level EFL students

Grammar as language sub-skill and aspects of grammatical structures. Approaches to presenting grammatical structures, principles of planning a lesson. Presenting grammatical structures. Analysis of the lesson plans developed within the current research.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

KYRGYZ-RUSSIAN SLAVIC UNIVERCITY

HUMANITIES FACULTY

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

Methodology of teaching foreign languages and cultures

(Course paper)

Ways of presenting grammatical structures to beginner level EFL students

Written by V. Kovalenko (HLT -1-12)

Scientific tutor: A. G. Fatneva

Bishkek 2015

  • Contents
    • language grammar lesson structure
      • Introduction
      • 1. Grammar as language sub-skill
      • 1.1 Aspects of grammatical structures
      • 1.2 Approaches to presenting grammatical structures
      • 1.3 Principles of planning a lesson
      • 1.4 Techniques for presenting grammatical structures
      • 2. Analysis of the lesson plans developed within the current research
      • Conclusion
      • Bibliography
      • Appendix
      • Introduction
      • Learning foreign languages consists of a number of aspects. One of these aspects is grammar. Grammar plays a great role in the teaching of English; it is a carcass. The distinction of grammatical forms in writing and speech and the correct formalization of statements occur through the formation of grammatical skills.
      • The well-known scientists like Passov E.I., Bim I.L., and Baker J. worked with issues of teaching grammar.
      • In many schools grammar is taught through memorizing structures and doing exercises of the same type. All this does not lead to the formation of productive grammar skills.
      • The relevance of the research is that the mastering of grammar gives a lot of difficulties, which are enhanced by the terms and grammar rules, and an endless amount of exceptions. Terms make the learning difficult. Forms of work are not always alternated, causing a passive student work in the classroom.

Grammar is of great importance in the study and in the formation of practical skills of L2. From the beginning at the English lessons it is necessary to use different techniques both visual and auditive such as picture, banners, tables, drawings, objects and others.Namely audiovisual aids provide imaginative perception of the studied material and its visual specification in the form makes perception and memory more accessible.Visual aids are an effective way at the beginner levels due to the brightness, expressiveness and informative value of visual-auditory imagery, which recreate the situation of communication and the surrounding reality.

The object of the research is grammar as a language sub-skill.

So, the subject of this research is principles and techniques for presenting grammatical structures to beginner level EFL students.

The aim of this paper is to identify the principles and techniques for presenting grammatical structures to beginner level EFL students.

To achieve this aim, it is necessary to reach the following objectives:

1. To identify the aspects of a grammatical structure that should be taught;

2. To describe different approaches to presenting grammatical structures to beginner level students;

3. To identify the principles of planning a lesson aimed at presenting a grammatical structure;

4. To describe techniques that can be used to present grammatical structures to beginner level students;

5. To develop 5 lesson plans aimed at presenting grammatical structures that illustrate the principals and techniques identified in the theoretical part of the paper.

The practical value of this work is that all the collected material can be used in the time of student-teaching practicum.

The course paper consists of 20 printed pages and contains an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a bibliography, and an appendix. In the introduction the general characteristics of the course paper, the aim, the subject and the object of the research and objectives are given. The first chapter is theoretical; it is devoted to grammar as a language sub-skill. The second chapter is practical in its nature. It contains the analysis of the 5 lesson plans which were specifically developed for the current research. The conclusion summarizes the main points of the paper and sees whether the aim and the objectives of the research have been achieved. There is a bibliography and an appendix at the end of the course paper. The bibliography consists of 14 sources which were used while doing the current research. The appendix contains five developed lesson plans based aimed at presenting grammatical structures to beginner level EFL students. All the lesson plans are accompanied by all the necessary handouts.

1. Grammar as a language sub-skill

1.1 Aspects of grammatical structures

There have always been arguments about grammar especially for foreign language teaching. Many people maintain that grammar teaching is not essential as its teaching does not give assistance to acquire the language [6,111].

Grammar is often accepted untruly in the language teaching. This misunderstanding arises because people relate grammar to the verb paradigms and fixed rules about linguistic form. Nevertheless, grammar has no only one dimension; it includes the three aspects of morphosyntax (form), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (use) [12].

The meaning is related to the meaning of a particular grammar structure. The units of this aspect are multiword lexical strings and notions, words, derivational morphemes [5,259].

The dimension of form deals with how a grammar structure is constructed within a text. The most inherent disciplines in this dimension are phonology, morphology, graphology and syntax which take part in teaching and learning the language forms [5,258].

The dimension of use refers to when and why English speakers use this particular grammatical structure rather than another [5,260].

All these aspects are dependent on each other; if a change occurs in one aspect means a change in another one. In spite of their interdependence, each aspect offers a distinctive perspective on grammar. Evidently, the passive voice in English has a grammatical form (the verb "be" and the past participle) but it also has a meaning. When is the passive voice used? When we emphasize the person or object getting the action. So, learners can use any grammatical structure, including the passive voice properly, appropriately and meaningfully, if the foreign language students become proficient in all three aspects [12].

1.2 Approaches to presenting grammatical structures

There are various kinds of approaches to presenting grammatical structures: deductive (rule-driven) and inductive (discovery). Fundamentally, these two approaches are different in the elements' order [14].

A deductive approach is bound to the Grammar- Translation Method, where the rules are handed at the first setout and then exercises and examples are provided to bind the rules and hopefully to enhance them[ 10,1].

This approach offers different structures which can be presented and then practiced through various activities and exercises like memorizing dialogues, reading simplified texts, doing transformation exercises and getting explicit negative feedback. Finally, when we use deduction, we go from general to specific principles [6,113].

It's important to notice, if teachers present the rules with the help of the deductive approach, the presentation should be provided with examples, be short, and also allow learners to get a possibility to personalize the rule [14].

An inductive approach includes the presentation of some examples from which a rule is gathered. On the basis of the given examples the students are allowed to discover the rules by themselves than the teacher will draw out those rules from the students before moving to the practice [13].

The similarity of these two approaches is in that they both represent more obvious efforts at teaching grammar. In both approaches students know that they are studying grammar rules. Based on this knowledge, students will use this rule and actual production.

The main advantage of the deductive approach is that the students know from the beginning what is going on. The teacher gives them the rules first and makes them feel safe and comfortable but, but then, it makes them lazy and over reliant on rules which are not always true [9, 2].

The possible disadvantages of the deductive approach include:

· A grammar presentation may be discouraging for younger students. They may not have an adequate metalanguage or not be able to understand the concepts engaged.

· Explanation is seldom met as other forms of presentation, like demonstration.

· The deductive approach encourages the belief that learning a language is just a case of knowing the rules [8, 30].

An inductive approach has its own advantages. The students are given a chance to realize what is going on by themselves based on real language information.

There are disadvantages of an inductive approach:

· Working out rules by themselves may misguide students into thinking that rules are the objective of language learning, rather than a means.

· Students may make the wrong rule, or their variants may be either too narrow or too broad in its use.

· Teachers may spend so much time and energy on planning a lesson, because they need to organize the information carefully to guide students to formulate a right rule [8, 54].

1.3 Principles of planning a lesson

The greatest way of mastering grammar requires foreign language learners acquire knowledge by making proper links between grammatical forms and the meanings. Three interconnected principles include the learning form and functional mappings [2,194].

The first well-known principle is the Given-to-New Contract, where there is a relatioship between new information and information which is already known to the hearer. Exactly, this principle concentrates on language use. The idea of this principle is that the process of making new form and functional connections includes the exploitation of what the learners already know about the world - as part of their `given' schematic knowledge. This knowledge serves as a helpful resource for perceiving something new: students can see how a meaning that is familiar to them is expressed by a particular unknown grammatical form.

New grammatical items and their meanings are often introduced in language teaching textbooks through setting up a context of some sort, e.g. by using pictures or scripted dialogues to form the appropriate meaning. These contexts set the scene for following explicit explanation and practice of the grammatical form [2,195].

There are different ways in which learners can use the Given-to-New Principle and others offer an approach which is known as Processing Instruction.

By dint of Processing Instruction learners make new connections between form and meaning while preventing them from taking short cuts which by-pass the grammar [2,196].

The second is the Awareness Principle, which is worked out to make students aware of how a certain meaning is expressed by a particular grammatical form.Sense of `awareness' can be distinguished at different levels.

At one level, conscious attention is paid to specific grammatical forms that arise in the input. Features like English definite and indefinite articles that are met frequently may not be attended to, if the learner's current interlanguage does not keep this feature or if the learner's L1 does not contain an equivalent feature [2,197].

A second level of awareness is `understanding'. That is to say, learners need to differentiate the forms which are concerned to particular grammatical meanings. The forms which have been observed by learners are abstract categories and exemplars of higher-order, and learning grammar includes discovering the connection between the exemplars and these categories. Of course, it is possible to achieve without awareness, but there is a little doubt that learning will be reinforced if students develop a conscious representation of the form-meaning mapping [2,198].

The third is the real-operating conditions principle; the process of acquiring form-meaning mappings is not finished until learners are able to practice them in a communicative context and paying attention to meaning rather than to form. The challenge for grammar instruction is to create conditions for each of these three principles.

The activities which are presented in the Given-to-New Principle and the Awareness Principle have encouraged learners to observe grammar as an object, and have been aimed at noticing and developing explicit knowledge of form-meaning mappings [2,199].

It is a matter of the most widely practiced traditional approach to grammatical instruction, PPP (Ps), which involves: present, practice, produce. In the first stage, students are presented the grammar points; sometimes by demonstrating the differences between the L1 and L2. In the second stage, students can practice the grammar structure with the help of oral drills and written exercises. In the third stage, students are given a regular chance for communicative use of the grammar to promote their automatic and accurate use [5,523].

1.4 Techniques for presenting grammatical structures

The teacher employs various techniques in presenting grammatical structures such as diagrams, mimes, objects, drawings, etc. and makes the students listen to her presentation attentively. Techniques can be separated into the following classifications.

The first classification refers to some techniques of presenting grammatical structures implicitly that is suggested by Baker [1]:

· Visual Aids: It is one of the best ways to show the meaning by using different things, objects, drawings, pictures.

· Actions: They make meaning more evident, for example, the teacher can make the students play a series of commands together with the teacher.

· Situations: The grammatical structures can be presented through a situation. The teacher either tells a simple story or draws a series of pictures, which give an outline of a situation.

The second classification refers to some techniques of presenting grammatical structures directly or deductively.

· Repetition: According to Doff [3], the teacher can make the students familiar with the way the structure sounds and give them the feel of the structure. The teacher asks the students to listen and repeat several times.

· Writing. The teacher writes the structure on the board. Then, the teacher presents rules and explanations with the help of colored chalk.

· Story: The students are given a task to underline particular grammatical points in the text; also they may be allowed to do this in pairs or groups.

· Comparison: Two similar grammatical structures are written on the board and the students's task is to find the difference in form. This technique can be used to make a comparison between different tenses.

Summary of Chapter 1

Many people periodically tell of grammar as the "rules" of a language; but actually grammar consists of the three main aspects (form, meaning and use) which should be taught simultaneously, because they depend on each other.

If the main teacher's aim is to make her students use grammar properly, meaningfully, and suitably, then a big interest can be evoked to teaching grammar in a powerfully way. In place of observing grammar as a stable system of arbitrary rules, it should be seen as a rational, dynamic system that consists of three dimensions of form, meaning, and use.

2. Analysis of the lesson plans developed within the current research

As a result of the current research five lesson plans have been developed. Each lesson plan is based on teaching grammar structures in the EFL classroom for beginners.

The first lesson plan is devoted to the topic “Jobs” and new grammar item “Present simple: be”. For teaching new grammatical structure, the teacher uses the method which is called Presentation - Practice - Production, or the PPP framework. According to its name, the lesson is divided into 3 stages, moving from the teacher's control towards learners' freedom.

During the presentation phase the teacher understandably presents the new grammatical structure “Present simple: be” through different pictures of people's professions. The teacher models and writes the sentence (contained their new grammatical structure) down on the board, at the same time showing the pictures, the use of them helps the teacher to illustrate what the teacher says and by that adds extra reinforcement. Also pictures help the teacher keep the use of the mother tongue to the minimum. The teacher's language and examples are clear as much as possible so that her students can concentrate on the grammatical point under-consideration.

As we can see, the teacher uses both oral and written forms. This will take different learning styles into consideration and provide for extra reinforcement too.

The main goal of learners is to repeat this sentence several times. The teacher wants the students to emphasize on the new grammar. The teacher encourages them to identify how to use the newly introduced grammatical items.

Undoubtedly, a presentation phase is controlled by the teacher. During the (controlled) practice phase, learners practice writing the language structure correctly. The teacher chooses typical practice activities like to fill in the blanks, to underline the correct word.

In this phase, the teacher's role is to direct the activities. She provides positive feedback to students, corrects mistakes and emphasizes on accuracy (the ability to produce the correct form).

When the learners have completely mastered the form due to the controlled exercises, the teacher moves on to the (free) production phase. During the whole production phase the teacher emphasizes on the students' fluency (the ability to speak naturally). The teacher' role here is passive; she doesn't intervene or correct anything. The teacher gives the students an opportunity to use the newly learnt grammar structure to speak about their mother's and father's jobs.

The teacher uses inductive approach by that involves the students into the teaching process. Using visual effects (pictures), the teacher draws the beginners' attention to the new grammatical structure, students become more active.

The second lesson plan is devoted to the topic “Buildings” and new grammar item “Giving directions”. For teaching new grammatical structure, the teacher uses the PPP framework, which consists of three main stages- Presentetion, Practice and Production. The teacher moves from more controlled exercises towards free learners' activities.

The presentation phase helps the teacher to presente the new grammatical structure, using various materials like text, map and small pictures to make the situatiom more realistic. The whole stage is under the teacher's control, the students just follow the instructions.

The (controlled) practice phase allows learners to practice speaking and writing the language structure correctly. The teacher chooses typical practice activities like to fill in the blanks, to underline the correct word and even to perform the actions together what makes the lesson interesting and funny. In this stage, the studenst are more active but even so the teacher keeps controlling everything.

After that the teacher moves on to the (free) production phase, which focuses on the students' fluency. The teacher doesn't intervene or correct anything; she just gives the students a chance to use the newly learnt grammar structure to give directions to each other.

The third lesson plan is dedicated to the topic “Hobbies” and new grammar item “Verb + ing: like/hate/love”. The teacher falls back to use of the inductive approach, which helps students to discover the language themselves. The teacher gives her students examples which are clear as much as possible. During the presentation stage the teacher plays an importan role, the teacher is very active as compared to her students.

The (controlled) practice phase helps learners to practice their writing skills. The teacher uses practice activities like to put the verbs from the list in a category of their choice and to match the beginning of the sentence from Column A with its ending from Column B. In this stage, the studenst are more active but even so the teacher keeps controlling everything.

The last phase of the lesson focuses on the students' speaking and writing skills. The teacher doesn't take part in the activity, mainly students are very active. The teacher just gives the students a chance to use the newly learnt grammar structure to tall to each other about what they like or dislike doing.

The fourth lesson plan is dedicated to the topic “Describing things” and new grammatical item “Comparative adjectives”. As the previous plans it is based on the PPP framework. To present the new material better and just to raise the learners' interest, the teacher uses the real objects in the form of toy cars, which are very useful in teaching to beginner level. Demonstrating the cars, the teacher falls back to the description of the situation by that makes the meaning clear. The whole peresentation phase is fully controlled by the teacher; students stay more passive for this stage.

The teacher moves to the (controlled) practice phase that can help learners to practice their speaking and writing skills. For this phase, the teacher uses the following activities. To develop their speaking skills, the teacher gives the task to tell about some differences of such megacities as Moscow and New York. The second task is given to develop their writing skills (the main forms of Comparative adjectives); the students write the correct forms of comparative adjectives in the table. Judging by the title of this phase, it is under the teacher's control, but learners are considered to be more active compared to the presentation phase.

The production phase of the lesson is based on the development of students' speaking skills, actually on their fluency. The main task of this phase is to think of a person in their family and write ten ways that they are different from them, and then report to the class. This activity most of all helps the students to personalize this activity, to demonstrate what they have learnt, also due to this activity they can be active as much as possible. The teacher uses here real objects but if there is no possibility to use them, different pictures or drawings help her.

The fifth lesson plan is devoted to the topic “My life at different stages” and new grammatical item “Past simple: be”. To present the new material better, the teacher decides to use herself as an example,to make the meaning more clearful and draw the students'attention to the new grammatical structure, she writes all her sentences down on the board. After that the teacher gives the students an opportunity to personalize this example: looking at the the teacher's sentences, students can tell about themselves, using the new material of the lesson.

In the (controlled) practice phase, the teacher helps the learners to develop their accuracy i.e their ability to produce the form correctly. The teacher chooses typical practice activities like to put the verb "to be" into the simple past and to put the verb "to be" into the simple present or the simple past. Furthermore, due to the second exercise the teacher can check the knowledge of their previous theme “Present simple: be”. The teacher's role is to direct the activities. She provides positive feedback to students, corrects mistakes by that stimulates them.

The teacher runs to the last phase of the lesson that is based on the development of students' speaking skills, actually on their fluency. To do it, the teacher asks the students to write and act out the dialogue giving different explanations for different times of the day. Most of all this activity lures and it helps to increase their teamwork. Students are not bored, inasmuch as they all participate. The teacher's role in this activity is passive; she gives the students their freedom not to be afraid to communicate.

Summary of Chapter 2

The inductive approach, which is used in these lesson planes, shows us that the teaching process can be very interesting and fun. Instead of boring and difficult grammar rules, the teacher can use the broad variety of different things such as diagrams, mimes, objects, drawings, etc. to make the teaching and learning processes more easily. The use of various techniques in presenting grammatical structures let the students listen to your presentation attentively.

The PPP framework is also used here as the main method for teaching grammar structures in these lesson planes and can be called an effective teaching way. Thereto, it makes planning easier and it can be applied by unpracticed teachers.

Conclusion

Grammar can be defined as the system of a language. People usually understand grammar as the "rules" of a language; but actually grammar consists of the three main aspects (form, meaning and use), which should be taught simultaneously because they are dependent on each other.

Around the grammar teaching in foreign language learning there have always been a lot of disputes. Although some scholars affirm that grammar teaching is not necessary because its teaching does not help to acquire the language, there are others who say that grammar teaching is needed in acquiring the foreign language.

Various approaches to teaching grammar have been invented over the time, such as deductive (rule-driven) and inductive (discovery). Grammar can be presented deductively, where the students are taught rules and asked to put them into practice, and inductively, where the learners are shown examples first and then have to come up with the rules by making generalizations.

There are basic principles to achieve an effective grammar instruction. The first principle is the Given-to-New Contract, where there is a relationship between new information and information which is already known to the hearer. This principle concentrates on language use. The second one is the Awareness Principle, which is worked out to make students aware of how a certain meaning is expressed by a particular grammatical form.

In the lesson plans the various techniques in presenting grammatical structures such as diagrams, pictures, objects, drawings, etc. should be used to make the students to listen to the teacher's presentation attentively. The new structure is presented in a short and simple sentence in which all the other words are known to the students. The sentences are repeated several times with emphasis on the new structure in order to encourage the students to identify how to use the newly introduced grammatical items. Students are also engaged in varied practices beginning with oral drills and then proceed to written drills.

To sum up, all the objectives of the course paper have been reached. Therefore, the aim of the course paper has been achieved. As the conducted research suggests grammar should be studied in context and inductively. Grammatical forms should not be taught in isolation as abstract rules. On the contrary, they need to be presented in context that is created by the teacher with the help of various visual aids.

Bibliography

Sources in English

1. Baker J., Westrup H. The English Language Teacher's Handbook. London: Continuum, 2003.

2. Batstone R., Ellis R. Principled grammar teaching. - New Zealand, 2009. P. 194-204.

3. Doff, A. Teach English. A training course for teachers. Cambridge University Press in association with The British Council, 1990.

4. Ellis R. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective. New Zealand, 2006. P. 83-103.

5. Larsen-Freeman D. Teaching and testing grammar. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009. P. 518-542.

6. Larsen-Freeman D. Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Massachusetts: Thomson Heinle, 2003. P. 258-260.

7. Neupane M. Processing Instruction: An Input Based Approach for Teaching Grammar // Journal of NELTA. 2009. Vol. 14. P. 111-117.

8. Scrivener J. Teaching English Grammar: What to Teach and How to Teach it. Macmillan, 2010. 287 p.

9. Thornbury S. How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 1999. 182p.

10. Van Vlack S. The Study of English Grammar. Seoul, 2011.

11. Widodo, H.P. Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar. English Teaching: Practice and Critique. - Indonesia, 2006. P. 122-141.

12. Zhou Ke. An Inductive Approach to English Grammar Teaching. East Bay, 2008. P. 2-18.

Electronic sources

13. Digest E. Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths.

URL: http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content4/grammer.morph.html (date of access: 30.03.2015).

14. Silvia A. Deductive and Inductive grammar teaching.

URL: https://ru.scribd.com/doc/181451899/Deductive-and-Inductive-Grammar-Teaching (date of access: 30.03.2015).

Appendix

Lesson plan 1

Subject: English Date: 16.04.2015 Level: Beginner Time: 45 min

Topic: Jobs

Grammar: Present simple: be

Instructional objectives:

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

· use the present simple form of the verb “To be”

· discuss basic professions

Educational objectives:

· to develop speaking skills

Developmental objectives:

· to promote desirable attitude to learning

Material and Equipment:

· Board, pictures and handouts

Stage

Procedure

Purpose

Int.

Time

PRESENTATION STAGE

1) T. greets the Ss. Then she shows a picture of a person in an easily identifiable job. T. models and writes a sentence down on the board (He's a doctor) and gets Ss to repeat several times.

2) T. shows more pictures and elicits or models more sentences (She's a teacher. They're police officers). T.reviews and tests by pointing at earlier pictures for Ss to say the sentences.

3) T. distributes some new pictures for students to add to the board and make new sentences (She's a housewife).

4) T. asks students to choose one job. Students mingle and tell each other about themselves and others (I'm a doctor. She's a taxi driver).

To introduce and model language item

O/C Pairs- O/C

15min

CONTROLLED PRACTICE

1) T. asks Ss to fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb "to be"
(Handout# 1).

2) T. asks Ss to underline the correct word (Handout #2).

To provide Ss a practice to use the verb " To be"

Indiv.

Pairs

-- O/C

15 min

PRODUCTION STAGE

T. asks the Ss to tell each other about their mother's/ father's jobs.

To use the verb " To be" in speech

O/C

15min

Handout # 1

1. Ana………. a teacher.

2. Tony………. a waiter and he loves his job.

3. Ana's husband………. Tony's brother and he………. a doctor.

4. The restaurant………. very big.

5. The children at school……….very happy.

6. My sister ……… a student.

Handout # 2

1. My brother goes to school, so he is a (student/ doctor).

2. My best friend drives a bus, so he is a (teacher/ driver)

3. Tony brings food to people in a restaurant, so he is a (student/ waiter).

4. Ana teaches Math, so she is a (teacher/ banker).

5. I paint pictures, so I am a (painter/ driver).

6. David helps people when they are ill, so he is a (doctor/ teacher).

Lesson plan 2

Subject: English Date: 17.04.2015 Level: Beginner Time: 45 min

Topic: Buildings

Grammar: Giving directions Instructional objectives:

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

· learn how to give directions in English

· to improve skills of listening and speaking

Educational objectives:

· to acquaint with important buildings and places in town.

Developmental objectives:

· to promote desirable attitude to learning

Material and Equipment: Board, handouts, pictures, map

Stage

Procedure

Purpose

Interaction

Time

resentation Stage

1) T. starts the lesson by greeting the Ss.
T. asks the Ss to connect the word with the picture (Handout#1).

2) T. asks the Ss to read the text (Handout#2) and write numbers next to the buildings on the map (Handout#3).

3) T. asks the Ss to mark the statements T for true, and F for false (Handout#4).

To introduce and model language item, to raise Ss interest

Indiv.

--

Pairs

--

O/C

20min

Practice Stage

1) T. asks the Ss to listen to the directions and fill in the blanks (Handout#5).

2) T. asks the Ss to look at the map again (Handout#3) and underline the correct word (Handout#6).

3) T. writes the instructions on the board and asks the whole group to raise and perform the actions (Handout#7).

To provide Ss a practice with directions

Indiv.

Pairs

--

O/C

15min

Production Stage

T. calls one student out, in addition, this student should be blind-folded. The rest give instructions.

To provide Ss with freer practice in giving directions

Indiv.

O/C

10min

Handout#1

shop

cinema

school

hospital

Handout#2

Sandeep will wake up early tomorrow, and go to the hospital where his mom works. The hospital is in the center of the city. He will go up the street, and turn left. Then, he will go to the shop which is down the street, to the right. He will buy a chocolate for his little brother. Then he will go back and turn right and take his brother from school.

Handout#3

Handout#4

1. Sandeep's mother will take him to the cinema.

2. There is a swimming pool next to the school.

3. Sandeep will go up the street and turn left to go to the hospital.

Handout#5

From the shop, go straight to the _______________. Cross the _______________ and go to the school. There is a swimming pool _______________to the school. Walk up the street for 5 minutes, then turn _______________, and cross the street. You will _______________the hospital there. Walk for _______________minutes, cross the street and you are at the zoo.

Handout#6

1. There is/ isn't a swimming pool next to the school.

2. The zoo is to the right/ left.

3. There is/ isn't a shop in town.

Handout#7

Lesson plan 3

Subject: English Date: 17.04.2015 Level: Beginner Time: 45 min

Topic: Hobbies

Grammar: Verb + ing: like/hate/love Instructional objectives:

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

· learn how to talk about things they like/ love or hate

· talk about their hobbies as well

Educational objectives:

· to acquaint with different kinds of hobby

Developmental objectives:

· to develop writing and speaking skills

Material and Equipment: conversation, handouts.

Stage

Procedure

Purpose

Interaction

Time

Presentation Stage

1) T. starts the lesson by greeting the Ss.
T. asks the Ss to match the verbs with their definitions (Handout#1).

2) T. asks the Ss to unscramble the conversations (Handout#2).

3) T. asks the Ss to answer the following questions (Handout#3).

To introduce and model language item, to raise Ss interest

Indiv.

--

Pairs

--

O/C

15min

Practice Stage

1) T. asks the Ss to put the verbs from the list in a category of your choice (Handout#4).

2) T. asks the Ss to match the beginning of the sentence from Column A with its ending from Column B (Handout#5).

To provide Ss a practice to use like/hate/

love doing smth

Indiv.

Pairs

--

O/C

15min

Production Stage

1) T. asks the Ss to write 6 sentences about your hobby, and then write 2 about the things they hate doing and report to the class.

2) T. asks the Ss to find two classmates who have the same/ similar hobbies.

To use " like/hate/

love doing smth " in speech

Indiv.

Pairs

--

O/C

15min

Handout#1

1. swim

a) to travel on a horse

2. ride

b) to make pictures with a pencil

3. draw

c) to make music with your mouth

4. drive

d) to move through water

5. dance

e) to move around in a car

6. sing

f) to move your body while listening to music

Handout#2

Beth: I want to go camping or dancing.

Rajiv: I love singing. Let's go!

Beth: How about karaoke? Do you like singing?

Rajiv: I don't really. Why?

Beth: Rajiv, do you like camping?

Rajiv: I hate dancing.

Ricardo: Sure, I love going there.

Andre: Do you want to come with me to the gallery?

Ricardo: Amazing picture, Andre!

Andre: Let's go.

Ricardo: I also like it, but I like drawing more.

Andre: Thank you! I love painting.

Handout#3

1. What does Beth want?

2. Does Rajiv like dancing?

3. What does Rajiv like?

4. Who is Ricardo's friend?

5. What does Ricardo like?

6. What is Andre good at?

7. Where are they going?

8. Does Ricardo like dancing?

Handout#4

E.g. I like drawing

paint / swim / dance / ride / read / draw / drive / go for a picnic / walk / travel / sleep

Handout#5

COLUMN A

1. I woke up at 10 a.m. I really

2. Petra has a horse. She

3. My parents are in Brazil. They like

4. John loves driving his car but

5. Francois bakes delicious cakes. He

6. Martha bought some milk. She

7. His brother is an artist. He

8. Do you really like reading

COLUMN B

a) likes riding it.

b) love sleeping.

c) traveling.

d) loves painting.

e) books so much?

f) hates drinking black coffee.

g) he hates walking.

h) likes eating.

Lesson plan 4

Subject: English Date: 17.04.2015 Level: Beginner Time: 45 min

Topic: Describing things

Grammar: Comparative adjectives Instructional objectives:

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

· use comparative adjectives to make comparison between two or more things

· learn to describe things

Educational objectives:

· to give an idea that there are not similar things

Developmental objectives:

· to promote desirable attitude to learning

Material and Equipment: cars, handout.

Stage

Procedure

Purpose

Interaction

Time

Presentation Stage

1) T. starts the lesson by greeting the Ss.
T. shows the Ss two contrasting toy cars and names the types (This is a Lada / This is a Ferrari). T. explains that their owners are arguing with each other about whose car is better.

2) T. asks which one the students think is better. Here T. uses the discussion to elicit some comparisons using adjectives such as faster, more economical, less luxurious, older, less comfortable (The Ferrari is faster than the Lada) in order to elicit some sentences the owners might say (My car's more expensive than yours).

To introduce and model language item, to raise Ss interest

T.--Ss

20min

Practice Stage

1) T. asks the Ss to think about Moscow and New York (or any two contrasting towns the students know). Then She asks the question: `Are they similar?' (No) OK - T. asks the Ss to tell her some differences.

2) T. asks the Ss to write the comparative adjectives

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