Biographical information about the life of Dante - the outstanding poet. Renaissance this is the era emergence of capitalist relations, folding national states and absolute monarchies. Characteristic of the philosophical thought of the Renaissance.
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“You shall leave everything you love most:
this is the arrow that the bow of exile
shoots first. You are to know the bitter taste
of others' bread, how salty it is, and know
how hard a path it is for one who goes
ascending and descending others' stairs …”
renaissance philosophy dante
Renaissance for the most advanced countries of Europe - this is the era emergence of capitalist relations, folding national states and absolute monarchies, the era of the rise of the bourgeoisie in the struggle against feudal reaction, the era of profound social conflicts
Renaissance philosophy is closely connected with the development of modern natural science , with the great geographical discoveries, with successes in the field of natural science.
Renaissance philosophical thought creates a new picture of the world that is based on the idea that God is dissolved in nature. This identification of God and nature called pantheism. In this world, God is considered eternal and merging with the law of natural necessity, and nature appears as the beginning of all things. At the root of the philosophical culture of the Renaissance stands grand figure Dante Alighieri. He was one of the first philosophers of the Renaissance, who began to write about moral theology and teaching about properties of the soul and intellect.
Dante was born in Florence, Italy. Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans (Inferno, XV, 76), but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei (Paradiso, XV, 135), born no earlier than about 1100. Dante's father, Alaghiero or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the middle of the 13th century. This suggests that Alighiero or his family enjoyed some protective prestige and status, although some suggest that the politically inactive Alighiero was of such low standing that he was not considered worth exiling. Dante's family had loyalties to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the Papacy and which was involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines, who were backed by the Holy Roman Emperor. The poet's mother was Bella, likely a member of the Abati family. She died when Dante was not yet ten years old, and Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi. It is uncertain whether he really married her, since widowers were socially limited in such matters, but this woman definitely bore him two children, Dante's half-brother Francesco and half-sister Tana (Gaetana). When Dante was 12, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati, member of the powerful Donati family.Contracting marriages at this early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a notary. But Dante by this time had fallen in love with another, Beatrice Portinari (known also as Bice), whom he first met when he was only nine. Years after his marriage to Gemma he claims to have met Beatrice again; he wrote several sonnets to Beatrice but never mentioned Gemma in any of his poems. The exact date of his marriage is not known: the only certain information is that, before his exile in 1301, he had three children (Pietro, Jacopo and Antonia).
Dante was an outstanding poet and thinker. He is known to the public as the author of "The Divine Comedy" and Tract "Feast" and "Monarchy", which laid the foundations of his works in the new humanistic doctrine of man. Dante fought against feudal privileges and secular power of the church. Appears to readers "The Divine Comedy" picture of the world in its structure is still quite medieval. The point here is not only inherited from antiquity geocentric cosmology that the earth is the center of the universe, but also that the creator of the world and it is considered the organizer of God. Yet the picture of the world order, in comparison with the Bible and the early Middle Ages philosophers representations significantly complicated and hierarchically arranged more thoroughly and in detail. With regard to human destiny, Dante saw him not in the rejection of the world and get away from the cares of the world, and in achieving higher limit earthly perfection. And a reminder of the brevity of earthly existence, and to the divine origin of man were not approval insignificance of man in his earthly existence and justification call for "virtue and knowledge." Thus, belief in the earthly destiny of man, in his ability to make his own earthly deed allowed Dante to create a "Divine Comedy," the first hymn to human dignity. Dante opens the way to new humanist doctrine of man.
The great poet became the first outstanding thinker nascent humanist philosophy.
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