Consideration of the science of youth and their organizations. The definition of public youth organizations as an important factor of socialization. Characteristics of the main youth movement in Ukraine. Review of the periodization of the youth movement.
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1. State doslidzhenosti youth movement in Ukraine
2. Youth movement as a social phenomenon
3. Periodization youth movement
1. State doslidzhenosti youth movement in Ukraine
Whereas 'yunolohiya' is the science of youth and its Foundation (organization), and taking into account that public youth organizations is an important factor of socialization - our next lecture we focus on just organized youth movement in our Ukraine.
Youth movement in Ukraine there is quite a long time, but research on the youth movement is currently quite small. This is due to the fact that in Soviet times the youth movement in Ukraine did not exist. Later in the 80's trend starting to develop descriptive character that the activities of the youth movement largely informal. youth socialization ukraine public
In 90 years there studying youth movement spread, it becomes more multifaceted. In Ukraine, the youth movement has been intensively developed and explored since 1991. An important contribution for the development of knowledge on the youth movement in Ukraine made: Bulavin, V. Holovenko, A. Korniyevsky, M. Pashko, in Prilutsky, N. Holovaty. Along with these main researchers carried out studies of various aspects of the youth movement at the local level. Among Ternopil researchers youth movement problems include: Okarynskoho M., Y. Polishchuk.
At the present stage of development of the youth movement is detailed work Korniyevsky A. and B. Holovenka "Ukrainian youth movement: history and present". In this guide, the authors define the place and role of youth movements in society, is considered his history and genesis in Ukraine. Great place pay authors problem of youth organizations under the totalitarian regime, analyzing the peculiarities of the youth movement in the Diaspora and the current status.
Important information base can be learned from the scientific study authored by Alexander V. Korniyevsky Yakushina "Youth movement and political union in modern Ukraine." The researchers analyzed the essence and youth policy, and political parties, movements prypartiynyh youth organizations in transition.
2. Youth movement as a social phenomenon
It should be noted that not only in Ukrainian yunolohichniy science, and in the former Soviet, some specialists yunolohiv deeply involved in the problems of the youth movement - resulting in the late 70's even released a training course "International Youth Movement ', which introduced from 1981 in pedagogical universities. However, development problems of the youth movement did not lead to clear understanding of the youth movement as a social phenomenon, and therefore not under clearly defined interpretation of this category which is fundamental. Distribution received five main points of view. Briefly comment on them.
The first view is that the youth movement is seen through contact with the world revolutionary process as a reflection of participation of the younger generation. As an example, it is advisable to bring about this next quote from the dictionary "Scientific Communism": "Marxism-Leninism considers youth movement as a social force that is associated with the struggle of the working class, and which aims to meet the challenges of radical renewal of society. From this perspective, the youth movement is ambiguous nature. It includes a variety of ideological and political trends: on the one hand, democratic, progressive, the other - leftist, right-wing, nationalist '. Actually this approach to the youth movement was peculiar to the nineteenth century in the Soviet period.
Second: Youth movement in the Soviet period was identified only with the Komsomol. It is appropriate words be AA Doctor of History Galagan: "Such a thing as a youth movement in the scientific sense of the word in Soviet society last 60 years was not simple. Phraseology, the phrase the term "youth movement 'was used as a synonym League. For six decades, the administrative-command system was attributed to believe that any youth movement and there can not be '.
The third point is that the youth movement - a combination only youth organizations. Polish researcher B. Ratus believed that "youth movement appears as a set for various ideological orientation and political affiliation organizations as well as sports, tourism, culture and others'. This interpretation today is not entirely accurate.
Fourth: researchers define as a youth movement of an active youth. As an example of this view you can quote from the "Handbook of social youth policy '" youth movement is progressive youth of the country that fights for social formation'. This idea, that the youth movement - is only part of young people and bring the latest statistical studies. In particular, in 2002 in Ukraine, only 5% of young people are members of social organizations. For example, in France this percentage is much higher - 38%.
The fifth - the most productive idea, which connects the essence of youth movements with social or socio-political activity of youth. This approach is reflected in the works of A. Holovenka, as well as in the "Large Soviet Encyclopedia ', which says that" youth movement - a struggle of youth for the pleasure of its socio-economic requirements, as well as its participation in the general political struggle. In the youth movement of class society there are different areas that reflect the social structure of the society, each direction is connected with the interests of certain classes and social groups'.
Summarizing the above presented interpretation, we note that there are five approaches to the concept of 'youth movement', namely:
1) connection to the world revolutionary movement;
2) identification of the Komsomol youth movement;
3) identification of the youth movement only with youth organizations;
4) perception of the youth movement as part of a youth;
5) youth movement - social socio-politically active young people.
Based on the fact that the latter approach is by far the most appropriate, different authors in their own interpreted this concept. It is appropriate to review and comment on the most interesting approaches to the definition of 'youth movement', which is now the most widely used in Ukraine.
In particular, Aref AL stresses that "youth movement is a form of expression of mass social activity of young people, which aims to change (or preserve and strengthen) the existing system of social relations'. Lukow VA understands the concept of youth movement "way amateur youth participation in the process of change and continuity of generations through specific collective forms of social activity '.
More precisely defines youth movement in "Some methodological issues of studying youth political relations in bourgeois society 'Kosenko EI The author understands under the youth movement organized a mass social and political activity, which is aimed at implementing as specific requirements and goals of the young generation and the objectives of other community groups, associations whose interests are the interests of young people. Organized political activity manifested in the form of youth participation in broad social movements.
The most complete, in our view, can be considered the definition of a youth movement, which is found in the work Holovenka VA "Ukrainian youth movement in the twentieth century '. The author treats the youth movement as one of the components of the political system, presented in a certain way organized youth organizations, which to some extent aware of their own specificity, carry out certain activities aimed at the realization of these interests, and creating specific and their role in society.
Youth movement as a form of expression of the social activity of the young generation is the most effective mechanism of interaction of new generations of society. As part of the youth movement, the young man is not only socialization, gaining the necessary experience, but also implemented. Youth movement is the focus of youth lifestyle and culture. Today yunolohy distinguish two forms of the youth movement, youth movement organized and informal youth initiatives (informal youth movement).
The term "informal youth movement 'to understand the system of youth subcultures and the general unorganized youth activity in their relationship between themselves and the society. In fact, the youth movement and informal initiatives creates face of society. Youth movement occurs in the process of socio-economic and socio-political development of society and their content, form of activity largely reflects socio-cultural, historical, demographic, political and other specifics of the life of each country.
3. Periodization youth movement
It is advisable to follow historical aspects of organized youth movement. In other words investigate periods youth movement. Periodization - a conditional division of any process in chronological periods. Generally distinguish four stages in the youth movement. Namely: I stage - the birth; Stage II - the formation; Stage III - Komsomol-Pioneer; IV phase - revival. Describe each of these stages.
Phase I - inception. Conventionally, this period begins from the sixteenth century and continues until the eighteenth century. From the moment when the existence of religious brotherhoods 'youth' or 'mladenchyskyh' organizations; later appeared (seventeenth century) groups or circles at the universities in major district towns later emerged various "Brotherhood ', involved self-help and cultural enrichment.
Second stage - formation. (XIX - XX centuries). He lasted until the mid 20 th century. to Soviet Ukraine (Eastern Ukraine) and 30 years for Western Ukraine. for this phase characterized the existence of four types of youth organizations, political, national, religious and non-political.
Stage III - Komsomol-Pioneer (continued until 1980) and characterized by the existence of only one youth organization - the Komsomol.
IV phase - revival. (He continues to this day). He is the most interesting. We therefore consider it in more detail. Scientists have determined the following structure yunolohy this stage.
And sub-step (1980-1989 gg.). describing it as an informal movement, then laid the necessary conditions for creating well-organized youth movement. Organized youth initiative there is in the environment "neformalitetu '. What was Ukrainian Cultural Club, Lion Society, Student Association "Hromada". Much of the youth associations then formed on the basis of common interests in the arts, culture, science, environmental, religious and socio-political problems.
The second sub-step. (1989 - 1990 gg.) Is primarily characterized by the proliferation of mass youth and student socio-political movements and the emergence of mass youth political organizations. At this time, the organization formed kilkatysyachna soy Ukrainian students (CIP), the Union of Ukrainian Youth (SUM), the Association of Independent Ukrainian youth. The culmination of this phase was the fasting students in October 1990 October Revolution Square in Kiev. The action was actively supported - all zastraykuvav Kyiv. Fasting students was a turning point in the minds of a generation and the development of organized youth movement.
Third sub-step (1991 - 1992 gg.) Characterized by ideological, political and organizational crisis of organized youth movement. after the campaign of starvation youth groups facing new forms of choice among youth. Achieving national independence has caused a mass exodus of young people from youth organizations. An attempt resuscitation mass youth initiative was initiated by the Union of Ukrainian students second in fasting students. Kiev. However, this action does not become a defining event in the youth. It was only the root cause of this phenomenon as "prypartyzatsiyi 'youth structures and massive collapse youth social and political movements.
The fourth sub-step (1993 - 1996 gg.) Can be specified as the period of search and formation of organizational forms in youth and establishing mechanisms for dialogue between young people and the state. At this time acquired considerable popularity with youth branches of political parties. Young people seeking fulfillment through participation in party work. Are spreading among students the idea of ??independent student unions. In general, this period is a kind of school of modern organizational young politicians.
V sub-step (1996 - 1999 gg.) Appointed to head the all-active attempts youth movement and the interests of young people in educational and political spheres. Has gained considerable popularity idea of ??a single representative of the interests of the youth movement to the state and international organizations (UNCYO). During this period, there is increasing participation of activists of various youth organizations in election campaigns. Young people began pushing themselves to the local government and acted as initiators of broad public support among youth of any party or individual politician.
VI sub-step (in 1999 - and continues to this day) began as a result of the awareness part of youth activists need to design their political interests in the form of a political party and fight for power in order to realize these interests.
Thus, the organized youth movement, passing a number of specific periods of development is now at a new stage of its existence, which is primarily characterized by the active participation of young people as a distinct socio-demographic group with their own economic, social and political interests, decorated in the form of political structures in "big politics'.
Modern organized youth movement emerged during the transformation of the political system from totalitarianism to a pluralist democracy. Its rapid development was determined by certain socio-economic problems that are experienced Ukrainian Souss-ety. The formation mechanism of the state, and thus the formation of the state youth policy cooperation between youth organizations and public place by trial and error.
Organized youth movement in Ukraine continues to change its shape, means and methods. There are new leaders, new structures emerge previously hidden trends. Do not allow anything to cover the phenomenon as a whole, in all its manifestations and forms.
Thus, the modern organized youth movement, passing a number of specific periods of development, is now at a new stage of its existence, which is primarily characterized by the active participation of young people as a distinct socio-demographic group with their own economic, social and political interests, issued in the form of political structures in "big politics".
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5. Pavlovsky V. Eventology: the integrative science project about young people. Moscow: Academic Project, 2001.
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