Gender in the migratory process
The role of women in the flows of international migrants. Migration in search of work and the realization of personal goals. Scope of female labor in the global economy. The problem of children left behind by migrants in their country of origin.
|Рубрика||Социология и обществознание|
|Размер файла||11,6 K|
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Gender in the Migratory Process
Though in a percentage ratio the share of women for half a century has grown slightly, the structure of these streams has undergone cardinal change and now has essentially other character, then earlier. Traditionally moving of women have been connected with a marriage, moving together with the husband, reunion with a family. In the conditions of formation of global economy, the world market shows bigger demand for female work therefore women make more and more considerable part in flows of the international labor migrants as active workers, but not passive members of the family of the migrant. It has changed also migration models: there are more and more married and unmarried women migrating independently in job searches and realization of the personal purposes.
One of the factors of migration is also a gender inequality that persists in less developed countries where women go in search of a better life. Restriction of access to education, social services, decent jobs, limiting the civil rights of women, the advantage over individual family values create significant restrictions on women's self-realization in their own country. Therefore, one of the reasons of increasing intensity of female labor migration is that women are moved in order to avoid abuse and discrimination and access to social, economic and political opportunities for local and international levels. Migration is fraught with many risks, and not all women get the desired results in the migration process. But in case of success through the migration of some women manage to free themselves from the traditional patriarchal oppression and start a life in which they can enjoy the rights and opportunities to shape their own lives and become more self-sufficient. Socio-economic well-being of the output of countries pushing women beyond their native territories, and gender inequality in traditional society leads to the fact that most migrant women have no education, sufficient knowledge of languages and professional skills. The scope of application of women's work in the world economy is extensive, but in most cases limited to heavy, low-skilled work. A special area of work is to work in the household. Here the woman is more susceptible to discrimination, violence or arbitrariness on the part of the owners. entertainment and home services, in which women's work is most common, do not fall within the field of view of labor law. As a result, these women are depending on the integrity of the employer in matters of salary and holiday pay and sick, obtaining legal status and elementary respect for yourself as an individual.
Anxiety causes the transformation of the institution of family and marriage in the countries of origin as a result of a long absence of one or both members of the couple. Migration contributes to the financial well-being of families, but family preservation and education of children find it difficult to absence of one or both parents. female migration work international
The problem of children left behind by migrants in their country of origin, in the care of grandmothers and / or grandfathers, relatives and even neighbors, it is a kind of new type of orphanhood. Mention may be made at least three reasons why the mother forced to leave the children at home. First, the maintenance of children in the host country is too expensive, considering the minimum income migrant women. Second, many countries do not provide social security to children, and they have no access to education and health services in the country of the mother works. Third, women are afraid to bring children to a foreign country, where they can not even be sure of their safety. What can be observed now is a strong tendency to criticise and scandalise the absence of parents, in particular of mothers. The pattern we identify in this debate follows the logic of naming, blaming and shaming. While male migration is portrayed as "normal", female migration is being constructed as "abnormal". To sum it up gender analysis has to take into consideration three aspects: the macro, meso and micro level. On the macro-level, migrants are found in gender-specific labour market segments in the receiving context, like domestic work or the construction sector, which exert a pulling power on female or male actors respectively. The meso level, is strongly linked to gendered models of care and family organisation but also to networks and opportunity structures. On the micro-level, individual practices, identities and positions come into sight. Since migrants live transnational family lives, they have to reconcile work abroad with family life at home.
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