Yield and seed production of potato varieties depending on the elements of growing technology

Results of the research, aimed at studying the influence of doses and methods offertilizer application and mass of planting material on the formation of the yield, seed productivity and yield structure of potato tubers in conditions of Vinnytsia region.

Рубрика Сельское, лесное хозяйство и землепользование
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 05.10.2022
Размер файла 753,2 K

Отправить свою хорошую работу в базу знаний просто. Используйте форму, расположенную ниже

Студенты, аспиранты, молодые ученые, использующие базу знаний в своей учебе и работе, будут вам очень благодарны.

Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/

Yield and seed production of potato varieties depending on the elements of growing technology

O.V. Mazur, candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior lecturer.

G.V. Myronova, post-graduate student,

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University

The article presents the results of the research, aimed at studying the influence of doses and methods offertilizer application and mass of planting material on the formation of the yield, seed productivity and yield structure of potato tubers in conditions of Vinnytsia region.

As a result of the researches carried out by us during 2019-2021 it was established that the yield and yield of seed potatoes change depending on a dose and a way of application offertilizers, weight of garden tubers and variety features. The highest indicators of structure of a crop yield and yield were received on the variant of experience, where on a background of action of the half- digested manure brought under the precursor and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer under the basic potato processing were brought in lines Nitroammophoska (N30P3oK30) and in top dressing. At the same time, the number of tubers under a bush increased from 9.0 to 9.5 pieces and the average weight of tubers from 78.1 to 79.5 g, the yield increased from 38.3 to 41.1 t / ha with increased weight of planted tubers. At intensification of potato growing the highest rates due to varietal peculiarities of Granada variety tubers yield, the size of which on the greatest transverse diameter of 28-60 mm were obtained on the experiment variant, where on the background of half-digested manure introduced under the predecessor and phosphate-potassium fertilizer under potato, line Nitroammophoska (N30P3oK30) and fertilization by ladders Ammonium nitrate (N30). At the same time, the share of tubers of this fraction varied depending on the weight ofplanting material from 44.9 to 54.6%.

On average over three years, the highest yield of tubers grade Granada received on the experiment variant, where on the background of the action of semi-digested manure and phosphate- potassium fertilizer made in lines Nitroammophoska (N30P3oK30) and in the ladder fertilizer Ammonium nitrate (N30) 100 g) - 41, 1 t/ha, which is 32.6% higher than the control (no fertilizer) and 1.5 t / ha more compared to the yield obtained with the same dose and method of fertilization, but with a weight of garden tubers 51-80 g. However, when pointing out the yield gains from planting large tubers, it is necessary to mention the cost of planting material. That is, the difference in planting material expenditure between the best two potato varieties in the experiment, the Granada, was 1.85 t/ha. Consequently, the expenditure of planting material was greater than the yield increase we achieved. A similar pattern was obtained for the early maturing potato variety Laperla and the medium maturing variety Memphis.

The important indicator of seed productivity of potatoes is multiplication factor, which changed depending on fertilizer, mass of garden tubers and variety features. The highest values of the reproduction factor as for quantitative as for mass value were observed in the variety Granada, on the experiment variant, where on the background of the action of half-decomposed manure introduced under the predecessor and phosphate-potassium fertilizer under potatoes, introduced in lines Nitroammophoska (N30P30K30 ) and in ladder feed Ammonium nitrate (N30). At the same time the multiplication factor by the quantitative value varied from 8.3 to 8.7 and by the mass value varied from 7.4 for planting tubers of largest fraction to 17.8 for planting tubers of smallest fraction. It was proved that only at planting by weight of planting tubers of 51-80 g the reproduction coefficients both on quantitative and mass value were maximally approached to each other and made 8,5 and 10,7 pieces. This points out to optimum ratio of seed material reproduction just at planting by weight ofplanting tubers of this fraction.

Key words: potatoes, seeds, doses, fertilization methods, planting tuber weight, yield, yield structure.

АНОТАЦІЯ

ВРОЖАЙНІСТЬ ТА НАСІННЄВА ПРОДУКТИВНІСТЬ СОРТІВ КАРТОПЛІ ЗАЛЕЖНО ВІД ЕЛЕМЕНТІВ ТЕХНОЛОГІЇ ВИРОЩУВАННЯ

Наведено результати досліджень, спрямовані на вивчення впливу доз і способів внесення добрив та маси садивного матеріалу на формування врожайності, насіннєвої продуктивності та структури врожаю бульб картоплі в умовах Вінницької області.

У результаті проведених нами досліджень впродовж 2019-2021 року встановлено, що урожайність та вихід насіннєвої картоплі змінюється залежно від дози і способу внесення добрив, маси садивних бульб та сортових особливостей. Найвищі показники структури врожаю та урожайності отримано на варіанті досліду, де на фоні дії напівперепрілого гною внесеного під попередник та фосфорно-калійного удобрення під основний обробіток картоплі внесено в рядки Нітроамофоску (N30P30K30) та у підживлення по сходах середньораннього сорту картоплі Гранада - Аміачної селітри (N30). При цьому кількість бульб під кущем збільшилася від 9,0 до 9,5 шт. та середньої маси бульб від 78,1 до 79,5 г, урожайність від 38,3 до 41,1 т/га, за збільшення маси садивних бульб. За інтенсифікації вирощування картоплі найвищі показники, завдяки сортовим особливостям, виходу бульб сорту Гранада, розмір яких за найбільшим поперечним діаметром 28-60 мм отримано на варіанті досліду, де на фоні дії напівперепрілого гною внесеного під попередник та фосфорно-калійного удобрення під картоплю, внесено в рядки Нітроамофоску (N30P30K30) та у підживлення по сходах Аміачну селітру (N30). При цьому частка бульб цієї фракції змінювалася залежно від маси садивного матеріалу від 44,9 до 54,6%,

У середньому за три роки найвищий врожай бульб сорту Гранада одержали на варіанті досліду, де на фоні дії напівперепрілого гною та фосфорно-калійного удобрення внесено в рядки Нітроамофоску (N30P30K30) та у підживлення по сходах Аміачну селітру (N30) із масою садивних бульб - 81-100 г) - 41,1 т/га, що на 32,6% вище ніж на контролі (без удобрення) та 1,5 т/га більше порівняно із урожайністю, яку отримали із такою самою дозою та способом удобрення, проте із масою садивних бульб 51-80 г. Однак, вказуючи на прирости врожаю від садіння великими бульбами необхідно згадати про витрати садивного матеріалу. Тобто різниця у витраті садивного матеріалу між кращими у досліді двома варіантами на сорті картоплі Гранада становили 1,85 т/га. Отже, витрати садивного матеріалу були більшими, ніж ми одержали приросту врожаю. Аналогічна закономірність була отримана у ранньостиглого сорту картоплі Лаперла так і середньостиглого сорту Мемфіс.

Важливим показником насіннєвої продуктивності картоплі є коефіцієнт розмноження, який змінювався у залежності від удобрення, маси садивних бульб та сортових особливостей. Найвищі показники коефіцієнту розмноження як за кількісним так масовим значенням відмічено у сорту Гранада, на варіанті досліду, де на фоні дії напівперепрілого гною внесеного під попередник та фосфорно-калійного удобрення під картоплю, внесено в рядки Нітроамофоску (N30Р30К30) та у підживлення по сходах Аміачну селітру (N30). При цьому коефіцієнт розмноження за кількісним значенням змінювався від 8,3 до 8,7 шт., а за масовим значенням змінювався від 7,4 за висаджування бульб найбільшою фракцією до 17,8 шт., за висаджування бульб найдрібнішою фракцією. Доведено, що лише за висаджування картоплі масою садивних бульб - 51-80 г коефіцієнти розмноження, як за кількісним так і масовим значенням були максимально наближеними один до одного і склали 8,5 та 10,7 шт. Це вказує на оптимальне співвідношення відтворення насіннєвого матеріалу саме за висаджування масою садивних бульб цієї фракції.

Ключові слова: картопля, насіння, дози, способи удобрення, маса садивних бульб, урожайність, структура врожаю.

The right choice of horticultural tuber size and scientifically based planting density is a crucial factor in solving the problem of the yield/planting rate relationship that makes it uneconomical to grow this crop. This is not the first time that science and practice have turned to establishing the most efficient planting rate for potatoes. Weight norms have gradually been replaced by quantitative norms. They began to be based on the number of tubers planted per hectare, depending on the soil and climatic conditions of the zone, then they adjusted for tuber size, variety and finally began to take into account the stem-forming capacity of tubers and the optimum stems in the area. According to the results of O.V. Mazur and G.V. Mironova. [12], the interaction of factors affecting these elements of technology, the ratio of levels of yield and plant nutrition, size of planted tubers and their quantitative and spatial location remained out of the researchers' attention [1-5].

According to the results of research Molotsky M.Y., Fedoruk Y.V., Krikunova O.V. [4] The influence of the fraction of planting material on the yield of seed tubers was the least in potato varieties Fantasia, Bagryana, Kolokola. In varieties Dnepryanka, Virineya, in the variant of planting of tubers of fraction 71-90 g the multiplication factor was 6, and at 30-50 g - 9. The highest multiplication factor was in the variety Yavir when planting tubers with a fraction of 30-50 g - 10.

As a number of academics believe L. Biliavska, Y. Biliavskiy, O. Mazur [6] The use of varieties with high adaptability to certain natural, climatic and phytosanitary conditions is the main component in obtaining consistently high yields, including potatoes. Larger tubers formed a higher yield: compared to tubers weighing 50-80 g, for planting tubers weighing 81-100 g, the yield increased by 7-8%. [1]. yield potato growing technology

According to the results of studies by Baranchuk Y.V., Molotsky M.Y. [1], Mazur O.V., Mazur O.V., Letka G.V., Mironova G.V. [7], Mazur O.V., Mironova G.V., Stashevsky R.V. [8], with increasing weight of planting tubers, their stemforming ability, the number of stems and seed tubers in a bush, plant productivity increased. When the weight of planting tubers increased from 15-30 to 151-180 g, the number of stems of variety Gart increased 1.9 times, and that of variety Zov 2.4 times. As the number of stems in the bush increases, the number of branches decreases. The larger tubers make the plants grow taller. Thus, the height of the bush variety Garth, when planting tubers weighing 151-180 g was 84.7 cm and weighing 15-30 g - 63.1 cm, in the variety Zov - respectively 81.4 cm and 59.9 cm. The larger the mother tubers, the more seed tubers are formed in the bushes, with the average tuber weight decreasing.

Plant productivity increases with the weight of garden tubers, but as the weight of seed tubers and the number of stems in the bush increase, the productivity per stem decreases [1].

Potato yields are directly related to the weight of planted tubers; the plants were best developed from seed tubers, 80-100 g. Increasing the weight of planted tubers and planting density contributed to an overall increase in yield from 10.6-12.6 to 12.0-14.4 t/ha. However, the yield (minus seeds used for planting) was the highest in the variant of using small tubers weighing 30-50 g for planting, so along with the average seed fraction of tubers weighing 60-80 g, which is usually used in production, it is advisable to plant healthy. small tubers weighing 30-50 g [9].

Potato yields do not always depend on the weight of planted tubers: tubers weighing 25-49 g and 50-80 g hardly differ in terms of productivity. The highest yields were formed by tubers with mass of 15-24g and 50-80g with the calculated density of stems - 200 thousand stems per 1 ha, and for mass of 25-49g - 250 thousand stems per 1 ha and application of 60 t/ha of manure. N90P90K90.. [10].

It is established, that irrespective of weight of blown up fractions of tubers and areas of feeding the yield of potatoes increased with increase of quantity of fertilizers. At joint introduction of manure and mineral fertilizers by norm the N60P60K90 increase of a crop capacity of variety Svitanok Kyivskii has made 30,6 %, Lugovska - 37,3 %, and at norm N90P90K120 - accordingly 44 and 47 % [1].

The weight of tubers, which was formed in the bush, on the variant without fertilizers was 314 g per bush, for the application of 50 t/ha of manure - increased by 21 %, at 50 t/ha of manure + N45P45K45 - by 35 %, and at 50 t/ha of manure + N60P60K60 - by 43 % [11].

The purpose of the research is to establish the dependence of formation of yield, seed productivity, number of stems, number of tubers under a bush, mass of tubers from one bush depending on fertilization and varietal features of potatoes.

Materials and Methods. Studies on the study of potato varieties were conducted in the farm "Olvia-S" village Sopyn Vinnytsia district of Vinnytsia region. The farm is located in the North - Eastern part of Vinnitsa region. The research was conducted during 2019-2021.

The hydrothermal regime has been contrasting over the years of study. The highest amount of precipitation during the growing season was 476.8 mm in 2019, which is 117.8 mm more than the mean annual data and 147.8 mm more than the amount of precipitation in 2020. The least amount of precipitation was recorded in the conditions of 2021 - 305 mm. As for the temperature regime, it was higher in all study years compared to the long-term average by 3.7; 1.3 and 1.2 °C, respectively.

The soil cover of the experimental plot is represented by deep low-humus medium- loam chernozem. The basic seed material of potato varieties was used for the research. Three-factor field experiment was laid according to the following scheme: Factor A - varieties: Laperla - early, Granada - medium-early, Memphis - medium- early. Factor B - nutrition background and method of application of mineral fertilizers. Under the precursor (winter wheat) we applied semi-prepared manure - 40 t/ha. Calimagnesia (K28Mg8S15) and simple superphosphate (P30) were applied under the main tillage of potatoes. At planting time Nitroammophoska (N16P16K16) and ammonium nitrate (N34) were applied in lines or during preplanting tillage. Factor B -weight of planting tubers: from 25 to 50 grams; from 51 to 80 grams; from 81 to 100 grams. Planting material expenses on the average by variants of experiment were: 1) for planting tubers with mass of 25-50 grams - 2-2,15 t/ha; 2) for planting tubers with mass of 51-80 grams - 3,6-3,75 t/ha; 3) for planting tubers with mass of 81-120 grams - 5,4-5,55 t/ha for varieties Laperla, Granada and Memphis.

Phenological observations: phases of germination, budding, flowering and destruction of tops were visually observed (according to the method of examination of plants of potato varieties and groups of vegetables, melons, spices [13].

Germination capacity of tubers, onset of phenological phases, total yield, crop structure were determined. All records and observations were conducted in accordance with the recommendations for research on potato growing [14].

Results and Discussion.Yield and yield structure of potatoes depending on fertilizer, weight of planted tubers and variety features are shown in (Table 1). At increase of weight of planted tubers the number of tubers in variety Laperla has increased from 6,1 to 6,5 pieces, and weight of an average tuber from 58,7 to 60,2 g, yield from 19,5 to 21,4 t/ha at the control variant (without fertilizer). At application of 40 t/ha of the semi-digested manure under the precursor - winter wheat, calamagnesia K56Mg16S30 and simple superphosphate (P30) under main potato cultivation (background) and increase of planted tubers mass the number of tubers per bush has increased from 6.9 to 7.3 units, and the mass of the average tuber from 63.5 to 66.3 g. Increase in yield structure, was noted on the variant, where on the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and the action of semi-digested manure was made in lines Nitroammophoska N30P30K30 (locally), the number of stems 1 to 7.6 pieces, and the weight of the average tuber from 70.4 to 72.2 g and yield from 27.2 to 29.9 t / ha. The highest increase in yield structure and yield was observed on the experiment variant, where with increasing mass of planted tubers on the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and the action of semi-digested manure was the introduction of nitroammophoska (N30P30K30) in lines and in the ladders of Ammonium sulphate (N30). The number of tubers under the bush from 7.5 to 8.1 pieces, the average weight of tubers from 72.7 to 73.5 g. On the variant of experiment, where on the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and action of semiprepared manure was carried out scattering under pre-sowing cultivation of Nitroammophoska (N45P45K45) and in top dressing by ladder ammonium nitrate (N15) the number of stalks of previous two variants of experience. This indicates a more efficient use of fertilizer by the plants when applied locally compared to the scattered application method. The best among the varieties studied were the indicators of yield structure and yield in the variety Granada, which was noted in all variants of the experiment. Thus, in the control variant the number of tubers under a bush has varied from 6,5 to 7,0 pieces, and the average mass of tubers from one bush from 71,5 tog, and yield from 25.3 to 27,7 t / ha. On the background of the action of semi- distilled manure made under the predecessor and the phosphorous-potassium fertilizer increased the number of tubers under the bush from 7.8 to 8.3 pieces and the background of the action of semi-decomposed manure made under the predecessor and the phosphate-potassium fertilizer was made in the lines of Nitroammophoska N30P30K30 (locally). Number of tubers from 8.6 to 9.1 pieces and the average weight of tubers from 77.4 to 79.0 g, as well as the level of yield from 36.3 to 39.2 t / ha with increased weight of planted tubers. The highest rates of yield structure and yield were noted on the experiment variant, where on the background of the action of semi- prepared manure introduced under the predecessor and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer were introduced in the lines of Nitroammophoska (N30P30K30) and ammonium nitrate in the ladder fertilizer(N30).

Table 1

Yield structure of potatoes depending on the fertilization, mass of planting tubers and varietal characteristics

Fertilization (factor С)

Mass of planting tubers, g (factor В)

Yield, t/ha

Yield structure

The number of tubers under the bush, pcs.

The mass of tuber per bush, g

1

2

3

4

5

Laperla

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

19.5

6.1

58.7

51-80

20.5

6.3

59.4

81-100

21.4

6.5

60.2

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under predecessor + K56Mg16S30 +P30 (background)

25-50

23.8

6.9

63.5

51-80

25.0

7.1

64.8

81-100

26.4

7.3

66.3

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

27.2

7.1

70.4

51-80

28.3

7.3

71.3

81-100

29.9

7.6

72.2

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

+ N30

25-50

29.7

7.5

72.7

51-80

31.1

7.8

73.1

81-100

32.5

8.1

73.5

Background +

N45P45K45

(scattered) + N15

25-50

28.0

7.2

71.6

51-80

29.6

7.5

72.4

81-100

31.1

7.8

73.2

Granada

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

25.3

6.5

71.5

51-80

26.3

6.7

72.1

81-100

27.7

7.0

72.9

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under predecessor + K56Mg16S30 +P30 (background)

25-50

31.6

7.8

74.6

51-80

32.6

8.0

75.1

81-100

34.3

8.3

75.8

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

36.3

8.6

77.4

51-80

37.6

8.8

78.2

81-100

39.2

9.1

79.0

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

+ N30

25-50

38.3

9.0

78.1

51-80

39.6

9.2

78.9

81-100

41.1

9.5

79.5

Background +

N45P45K45

(scattered) + N15

25-50

37.3

8.8

77,8

51-80

38.5

9.0

78.6

81-100

40.1

9.3

79.1

Memphis

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

21.3

6.2

62.9

51-80

22.1

6.4

63.3

81-100

23.3

6.7

64.0

40 t/ha of semi-rottec manure under

predecessor +

K56Mg16S30+P30 (background)

25-50

30.0

8.1

68.2

51-80

30.9

8.2

69.4

81-100

32.6

8.5

70.2

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

31.4

8.2

70.4

51-80

32.9

8.5

71.3

81-100

34.5

8,8

71.9

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

+ N30

25-50

33.2

8.5

71.7

51-80

35.2

8.9

72.5

81-100

36.7

9.2

73.4

Background +

N45P45K45

(scattered) + N15

25-50

32.9

8.5

71.2

51-80

34.0

8.7

71.9

81-100

35.6

9.0

72.6

Source:own research results

At the same time, the number of tubers under the bush from 9.0 to 9.5 pieces and the average weight of tubers from 78.1 to 79.5 g and yield from 38.3 to 41.1 t/ha. That is, the yield at this experiment variant for planting with 81-100 g mass of planted tubers was the highest and was 41.1 t/ha, which is 32.6% higher than on the control (without fertilization) and 1.5 t/ha more compared to the yield obtained with the same level and method of fertilization, but with a mass of planted tubers 51-80 g. However, indicating the yield increases from planting large tubers, we should mention the cost of planting materials. That is, the difference in planting material use between the best two potato varieties in the experiment, the Granada, was 1.85 t/ha. Consequently, the expenditure of planting material was greater than the yield increase we achieved. The similar regularity was received at early-ripening potato varieties Laperla and a mid-ripening Memphis where the yield was 32,5 and 36,7 t/ha that in comparison with the control (without fertilizer) on 34,2 and 36,5 % more, and the gain from planting large tubers was 1,4 and 1,6 t/ha at the first variant, and the difference in expenses of planting material between the best in experiment two variants was 1,8 t/ha. The variant of the experiment, where on the background of phosphorate-potassium fertilizer and action of the semi-digested manure, Nitroammophoska (N45P45K45) was brought in scatter under pre-sowing cultivation and Ammonium nitrate (N15) in the ladder fertilization provided in comparison with the previous variant 9 3 pieces and average weight of tubers from 77.8 to 79.1 g and yield from 37.3 to 40.1 t/ha with increased weight of planted tubers. This indicates a lower efficiency of scattered fertilizer compared to local application, in which fertilizers are placed at a certain depth of soil with a better moisture supply, forming a zone with an increased concentration of nutrients, which are more fully used by plants during the growing season. The mid-maturing variety Memphis in all the variants of the experiment provided intermediate values for the elements of yield structure and yield levels between the best mid-early variety Granada and the early maturing variety Laperla. The results of our research indicated a high strength (Fig-1).

Number of stems, thousand pcs./ha Fig. 1. Correlation dependence between stem number and yield

Source:own research results

Correlations between yield and number of stems; correlation coefficient (r=0.84) with a coefficient of determination of 71.0%. Thus, when the number of stems is increased, the yield increases significantly.

The results of the research indicate that by increasing the weight of horticultural tubers from 25 to 80 g in the structure of the yield significantly increases the proportion of tuber size by the largest transverse diameter of 28-60 mm. Thus, on the control variant (without fertilizer) in the variety Laperla from 42 to 51.1% (Fig.2).

Fig. 2. Potato yield of the potato crop depending on fertilisation, bulb size and varietal characteristics Source:own research results

The highest rates yield of tubers Laperla, the size of which at the largest cross diameter of 28-60 mm were obtained on the experiment variant, where on the background of semi-distilled manure made under the predecessor and phosphate- potassium fertilizer introduced in lines Nitroammophoska (N30P30K30)and (N30). The tuber yield was 44.1 to 53.5%, which is higher than the control by 2.1 and 2.4%.

At intensification of potato growing the highest indicators, thanks to variety features, the yield of tubers of Granada variety, the size of which on the greatest transverse diameter of 28-60 mm were received on the variant of experiment, where on the background of action of half-digested manure introduced under the predecessor andphosphorus-potassium fertilizer under potato. lines Nitroammophoska (N30P30K30) and top dressing by ladder ammonium nitrate (N30). At the same time, the proportion of tubers of this fraction varied depending on the weight of the planting material from

44.9 to 54.6%. This compared to the control variant by 2.4 and 3.4% more.

Yield structure of potatoes yields as a function of fertiliser, horticultural tuber weight and varietal characteristics (Table 2).

Table 2

Yield structure of potatoes depending on the fertilization, mass of planting tubers and varietal characteristics, %, 2019-2021

Fertilization (factor С)

Mass of planting tubers, g (factor В)

Yields,

t/ha

Yield structure

The number of tubers under the bush, pcs.

The mass of tuber per bush, g

1

2

3

4

5

Laperla

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

8.2

2.4

57.6

51-80

9.9

2.8

58.7

81-100

10.9

3.1

59.4

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under predecessor + K56Mg16S30 +P30 (background)

25-50

10.2

2.8

60.2

51-80

12.2

3.3

61.6

81-100

13.7

3.7

62.4

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

11.8

3.1

63.9

51-80

14.1

3.6

65.1

81-100

15.6

3.9

66.3

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

+ N30

25-50

13.1

3.2

67.5

51-80

16.2

3.9

68.8

81-100

17.4

4.2

69.4

Background +

N45P45K45

(scattered) + N15

25-50

12.2

3.0

67.2

51-80

15.4

3.8

68.1

81-100

16.5

4.0

68.9

Granada

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

10.7

2.6

70.2

51-80

12.8

3,0

70.9

81-100

14.2

3.3

71.6

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under

predecessor +

K56Mg16S30 +P30

(background)

25-50

13.7

3.2

71.4

51-80

16.2

3.7

71.9

81-100

17.9

4.1

72.5

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

15.9

3.6

73.6

51-80

19.4

4.3

74.3

81-100

20.9

4.6

75.1

Background + N30P30K30 (locally)

+ N30

25-50

17.2

3.9

73.9

51-80

21.2

4.7

74.6

81-100

22.5

5.0

75.5

Background +

N45P45K45

(scattered) + N15

25-50

16.6

3.8

73.7

51-80

20.3

4.6

74.2

81-100

21.8

4.8

75.1

Memphis

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

8.9

2.4

62.1

51-80

10.6

2.8

62.5

81-100

11.9

3.2

63.2

40 t/ha of semirotted manure

under

predecessor +

K56Mg16S30 +P30

(background)

25-50

12.8

3.3

64.8

51-80

15.8

4.0

65.9

81-100

17.2

4.3

66.7

Background +

N30P30K30

(locally)

25-50

13.6

3.5

65.6

51-80

17.1

4.3

66.7

81-100

18.5

4.6

67.5

Background + N30P30K30 (locally) + N30

25-50

14.9

3.7

66.9

51-80

18.6

4.6

67.6

81-100

19.9

4.9

68.4

Background +

N45P45K45

(scattered) + N15

25-50

14.6

3.7

66.5

51-80

17.8

4.4

67.3

81-100

19.1

4.7

68.0

Source:own research results

The level of productivity of potato varieties varied depending on the studied factors, thus, when increasing the weight of planted tubers, the number of seed tubers in the variety Laperla increased from 2.4 to 3.1 units, and the weight of a seed tuber from 57.6 to 59.4 g, the potato seed yield from 8.2 to 10.9 t/ha on the control variant (without fertilizer). For the application of 40 t/ha of semi-decomposed manure under the precursor - winter wheat, calamagnesia K56Mg16S30 and simple superphosphate (P30) under the main potato cultivation (background) and increased weight of planted tubers the number of seed tubers per bush has increased from 2.8 to 3. The number of seed tubers increased from 2.8 to 3, and the weight of an average seed tuber from 60.2 to 62.4 g and the yield from 10.2 to 13.7 t/ha. Increase of yield structure was noted on the variant, where on a background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and action of the semi-digested manure was made nitroammophoska N30P30K30 (locally), number of tubers under a bush increased from 3.1 to 3.9 pieces, and weight from to 66,3 g, and yield of seed potatoes from 11.8 to 15.6 t/ha.

The highest increase in yield structure and yield was observed on the experiment variant, where with increasing mass of planted tubers on the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and the action of semi-digested manure was the introduction of nitroammophoska (N30P30K30) in lines and in fertilizer by pods of Ammonia seltri (N30). At the same time the number of tubers under the bush increased from 3.2 to 4.2 units, the average weight of a seed tuber from 67.5 to 69.4 g and seed yield from 13.1 to 17.4 t / ha. On the variant of the experiment, where on the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and semi-digested manure the Nitroammophoska (N45P45K45) was placed under pre-sowing cultivation and ammonium nitrate (N15) was used as a top dressing on sprouts two variants of the experiments. The highest yield of seed potatoes depending on the varietal characteristics, namely, the yield of seed potato was noted with intensification of its cultivation in the variety Granada, whose size by the largest transverse diameter of 28-60 mm was obtained in the variant of experiment, where on the background of the potassium fertilizer under potato, made in lines Nitroammophoska (N30P30K30) and in feeding on shoots ammonium nitrate (N30). At the same time the number of tubers under a bush increased from 3.9 to 5.0, and the weight of an average seed tuber from 73,9 to 75.5 t/ha, the yield of seed potatoes from 17.2 to 22.5 t/ha. The highest yield of seed potatoes with weight of seed tubers - 81-100 g - 22.5 t/ha. In the variant of experience identical on a dose and a method of fertilizer, however with weight of landing tubers - 51-80 grams the yield of 21,2 t/ha is received.

The results of our research indicated a high correlation strength between the number of stems and yield (r=0.93), with a coefficient of determination of 86%. During growth and development, each stem is an autonomous plant with its own root system, which forms stolons and forms tubers. That is, increase of number of stalks promotes increase of number of tubers and yield of potatoes, at optimum number of stalks per hectare.

Number of stems thousand pcs./ha

Fig. 3. Correlation dependence between number of stems and yield

Source:own research results

An important indicator of potato seed production is the multiplication factor, which varied with fertiliser, horticultural tuber weight and cultivar characteristics (Table 3). The multiplication factor varied according to the weight of planted tubers on the control variant from 5.5 to 5.8 pieces, depending on the weight of planted tubers. The multiplication factor by weight was significantly higher for planting potatoes with a mass of planting tubers of 25-50 g and was 9.8 units. At planting of tubers with a mass of 51-80 g it was at the level of 5.7 pieces, almost equal to the quantitative multiplication factor for the same mass of planted tubers - 51-80 g. Only at planting of potatoes with a mass of planted tubers 81-100 g the multiplication factor by weight was lower and was 4.0 compared to the quantitative multiplication factor of 5.8.

The highest rates of multiplication factor were noted in the variant of experiment, where with increasing mass of planted tubers on the background of phosphorus- potassium fertilizer and semi-digested manure action, Nitroammophoska (N30P30K30) was applied in lines and in feeding on shoots ammonium nitrate (N3o). At the same time, the quantitative multiplication factor increased from 6.8 to 7.4 tubers per bush.

Table 3

Breeding rate of seed potatoes as a function of fertiliser, planting tuber weight and varietal characteristics, 2019-2021

Fertilization (factor С)

Mass of planting tubers, g (factor В)

Breeding rate

by the mass

by the amount

1

2

3

4

Laperla

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

9.8

5.5

51-80

5.7

5.6

81-100

4.0

5.8

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under

predecessor +

K56Mg16S30 +P30

(background)

25-50

11.9

6.3

51-80

6.9

6.5

81-100

4.9

6.6

Background +

N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

13.6

6.5

51-80

7.9

6.7

81-100

5.5

6.9

Background + N30P30K30 (locally) + N30

25-50

14.9

6.8

51-80

8.6

7.2

81-100

6.0

7.4

Background + N45P45K45 (scattered)

+ N15

25-50

14.0

6.6

51-80

8.2

6.7

81-100

5.8

7.2

Granada

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

11.8

5.8

51-80

7.1

6.1

81-100

5.0

6.3

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under

predecessor +

K56Mg16S30 +P30

(background)

25-50

14.7

7.2

51-80

8.8

7.4

81-100

6.2

7.6

Background +

N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

16.9

8.0

51-80

10.2

8.2

81-100

7.1

8.4

Background + N30P30K30 (locally) + N30

25-50

17.8

8.3

51-80

10.7

8.5

81-100

7.4

8.7

Background + N45P45K45 (scattered)

+ N15

25-50

17.3

8.2

51-80

10,4

8.4

81-100

7.2

8.6

Memphis

1

2

3

4

Without fertilizers (c)

25-50

10.1

5.5

51-80

6.0

5.8

81-100

4.2

6.2

40 t/ha of semi-rotted manure under

predecessor +

K56Mg1цS30 +P30

(background)

25-50

14.3

7.4

51-80

8.4

7.6

81-100

5.9

7.9

Background +

N30P30K30 (locally)

25-50

14.9

7.6

51-80

8.9

7.8

81-100

6.3

8.1

Background + N30P30K30 (locally) + N30

25-50

15.8

7.8

51-80

9.5

8.2

81-100

6.7

8.5

Background + N45P45K45 (scattered)

+ N15

25-50

15.7

7.9

51-80

9.2

8.0

81-100

6.5

8.3

Source:own research results

Multiplication factor by weight was the highest for planting potatoes with a weight of planting tubers 25-50 g and amounted to 14.9 pcs. It was slightly higher compared to the quantitative multiplication factor for planting with weight of planting tubers 5180 g and amounted to 8.6 and for the quantitative value 7.2. Only at planting with a mass of planting tubers of 81-100 g, the quantitative value was lower at 7.4 and the mass value higher at 6.0.

Multiplication factor of plant propagation

Fig. 4. Correlation dependence between potato yield and quantitative seed multiplication factor

Source:own research results

The highest rates, both in quantitative and mass values were observed for intensification of its cultivation in the variety Granada, on the experiment variant, where on the background of semi-distilled manure introduced under the precursor and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer under potatoes, introduced in lines Nitroamophoska (N30P30K30) and in feeding on shoots ammonium nitrate (N30). At the same time the multiplication factor by the quantitative value varied from 8.3 to 8.7 units, and by the mass value varied from 7.4 for planting tubers of the largest fraction to 17.8 units, for planting tubers of the smallest fraction. And only at planting by weight of planting tubers of 51-80 g, multiplication coefficients by both quantitative and mass values were maximally close to each other and amounted to 8,5 and 10,7 pieces. This indicates an optimum ratio of seed reproduction just at planting by weight of planting tubers of 51-80 g.

Correlation dependence between potato crop yield and multiplication factor (Fig. 4). As a result of our research we established high strength of direct correlation between potato yield and quantitative seed multiplication factor (r=0.97) with determination coefficient of 94%. That is, when the quantitative seed multiplication factor increases, potato yields significantly increase.

Conclusions and prospects for further research

To obtain higher indicators by the stem number, the number of tubers under the bush, mass of tubers per bush and the level of seed potato yield, it is recommended to apply mineral fertilizers locally in the dose of N30P30K30 and when feeding the seedlings with Ammonium nitrate (N30) against a background of the effect of rotted manure and phosphorus- potassium fertilizer for Laperla, Granada and Memphis potato varieties.

For the rational use of the seed stock of potatoes, Laperla, Granada and Memphis varieties of different maturity groups should be planted using planting tubers with the mass of 51-80 g, as the cost of planting stock was higher than the yield gains when planting large tubers with the mass of 81-100 g. In addition, the yield structure (excluding seed stock) was maximum when planting tubers with the mass of 51-80 g.

Список використаної літератури

1. Баранчук Ю.В., Молоцький М.Я. Вплив маси садивних бульб, площ та рівнів живлення на ріст і розвиток картоплі. Картоплярство. 2000. Вип. 30. С. 94-102.

2. Кармазіна Л.Є., Купріянова Т.М., Вишневська О.А. Вплив комбінованої системи удобрення на продуктивність та вихід бульб насіннєвої фракції нових сортів картоплі. Картоплярство України - науково-виробничий журнал 2013. № 3-4. С. 40-44.

3. Мацера А.В., Поліщук І.С. Вплив позакореневих підживлень та добрив на формування врожаю бульб сортів картоплі в умовах Лісостепу Правобережного. Земля України - потенціал продовольчої, енергетичної та екологічної безпеки держави. 2014. Т. 2. C. 75-78.

4. Молоцький М.Я., Федорук Ю.В., Крикунова О.В. Ступінь використання поживних речовин з ґрунту і добрив різними сортами картоплі залежно від умов вирощування. Картоплярство - міжвід. темат. наук. зб. ІК УААН. 2007. Вип. 36. С. 85-103.

5. Литвин О., Влох В., Дудар І., Бомба М. Формування врожайності картоплі залежно від розміру садивних бульб в умовах Західного Лісосостепу України. Вісник Львівського національного аграрного університету. 2018. 22 (2). С.53-56.

6. Liudmyla Biliavska, Yurii Biliavskiy, Olexandr Mazur, Olena Mazur Adaptability and breeding value of soybean varieties of Poltava breeding. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 27 (№ 2) 2021, 312-322.

7. Мазур О.В., Мазур О.В., Льотка Г.В., Миронова Г.В. Оптимізація технологічних прийомів вирощування картоплі за органо-мінеральної системи удобрення в умовах зміни клімату. Сільське господарство та лісівництво. 2021. №21. С. 120-128.

8. Мазур О.В., Миронова Г.В., Сташевський Р.В. Удосконалення технологічних прийомів вирощування насіннєвої картоплі. Сільське господарство та лісівництво. 2021. №20. С. 245-254.

9. Мещерякова Є.П. Урожайність картоплі залежно від крупності насінних бульб і густоти садіння. Картоплярство. 1988. Вип. 19. С. 26-29.

10. Данько Г. В. Урожайність картоплі залежно від густоти стеблостою, маси бульб та рівнів мінерального живлення. Картоплярство. 1985. Вип. 16. С. 43-45.

11. Крикунова О.В., Молоцький М.Я., Погорілий С.О. Продуктивність рослин картоплі в Правобережному Лісостепу України залежно від умов вирощування. Картоплярство. 2000. Вип. 30. С. 160-170.

12. Мазур О.В. Мазур О.В., Миронова Г.В. Вивчення технологічних прийомів вирощування насіннєвої картоплі. Сільське господарство та лісівництво. 2021. №22. С. 237-250.

13. Картоплярство: Методика дослідної справи / За редакцією А.А. Бондарчука, В.А. Колтунова. Вінниця : ТОВ «ТВОРИ», 2019. 652 с.

14. Методика проведення експертизи сортів рослин картоплі та груп овочевих, баштанних, пряно-смакових на придатність до поширення в Україні (ПСП) / За ред. Ткачик С.О. Вінниця: ФОП Корзун Д.Ю., 2017. С. 6-7.

References

1. Baranchuk, Yu.V., Molotskyi, M.Ya. (2000). Influence of the mass of planting tubers, areas and levels of nutrition on the potato growth and development. Potato Cultivation, 30, 94-102. [in Ukrainian].

2. Karmazina, L.Ye., Kupriianova, T.M., Vyshnevska, O.A. (2013). Influence of the combined fertilization system on the productivity and yield of tubers of seed fraction of new potato varieties. Potato Cultivation of Ukraine - scientific-production journal, 3-4, 40-44. [in Ukrainian].

3. Matsera, A.V., Polishchuk, I.S. (2014). Influence of foliar nutrition and fertilizers on the yield formation of potato tubers in the conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe. Land of Ukraine - the potential of food, energy and environmental security of the state, 2, 75-78. [in Ukrainian].

4. Molotskyi, M.Ya., Fedoruk, Yu.V., Krykunova, O.V. (2007a). The degree of utilization of nutrients from the soil and fertilizers by different potato varieties depending on the growing conditions. Potato Cultivation - interdepartmental thematic scientific collection of papers of the Institute of Potato Cultivation of UAAS, 36, 85-103. [in Ukrainian].

5. Lytvyn, O., Vlokh, V., Dudar, I., Bomba, M. (2018). Formation of potato yield depending on the size of planting tubers in the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Bulletin of Lviv National Agrarian University, 22 (2), 53-56. [in Ukrainian].

6. Liudmyla Biliavska, Yurii Biliavskiy, Olexandr Mazur, Olena Mazur Adaptability and breeding value of soybean varieties of Poltava breeding. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 27 (№ 2) 2021, 312-322. [in English].

7. Mazur O.V., Mazur O.V., Liotka G.V., Myronova G.V. Optimization of technological methods of growing potatoes for organo-mineral fertilization system under climate change. Agriculture and Forestry. 2021. №21. С. 120-128. [in Ukrainian].

8. Mazur O.V., Myronova G.V., Stashevsky R.V. Improvement of technological methods of cultivation of planted potatoes. Agriculture and Forestry. 2021. №20. С. 245-254. [in Ukrainian].

9. Meshcheriakova, E.P. (1988). Potato yields depend...


Подобные документы

Работы в архивах красиво оформлены согласно требованиям ВУЗов и содержат рисунки, диаграммы, формулы и т.д.
PPT, PPTX и PDF-файлы представлены только в архивах.
Рекомендуем скачать работу.