Stages of reforming of accounting system in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Determination of the main reasons for and methods of formal harmonization of financial statements. Characteristic analysis of financial reporting standards adopted in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Investigation stages accounting reform in the country.
|Рубрика||Бухгалтерский учет и аудит|
|Размер файла||14,2 K|
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Stages of reforming of accounting system in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The article identifies the main causes and formal ways of harmonization of financial reporting. Analyzed accounting standards adopted in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Investigated the stages of reforming of accounting standards within the country.
Keywords: accounting, financial reporting, reform of accounting, IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards), NAS (National Accounting Standard)
Этапы реформирования бухгалтерского учета в Республике Казахстан
В статье определены основные причины и формальные способы гармонизации финансовой отчетности. Проанализированы стандарты бухгалтерской отчетности, принятые в Республике Казахстан. Исследованы этапы реформирования бухгалтерского учета в стране.
Ключевые слова: бухгалтерский учет, финансовая отчетность, реформирование бухгалтерского учета, МСФО (международный стандарт финансовой отчетности), НСФО (национальный стандарт финансовой отчетности)
International convergence of principles and procedures for financial accounting determines the harmonization of financial reporting. In a broad sense, the harmonization of economic processes, with respect to goods, taxes should be understood mutual agreement, the information in the system, unify, coordinate, organize, and promote mutual satisfaction. Harmonization of financial reporting may occur at various levels: international and local. Harmonization of financial reporting at the international level means that the financial statements of the individual countries must meet the requirements of IFRS. Harmonization of financial reporting at the international level is a long and laborious process. Harmonization of financial reporting at the local level suggests that the financial statements in a single country, a member of the Continental group, must comply with the accounting standards of any continent. For example, the European Community have their own guidelines for accounting and auditing their own demands on the harmonization of financial reporting experience on the harmonization of reporting of transnational organizations. Ways to harmonize financial reporting can be substantial and formal. Under significant ways harmonization of financial statements should be understood convergence of domestic and international accounting standards (principles, concepts, methods, procedures, accounting and reporting), and on this basis of harmonized financial statements. Under a formal way to harmonize the financial statements should be understood mechanical methods of translation of financial statements of a single country with a functioning accounting principles and standards of another country or group of countries. Currently, formal ways of harmonizing financial statements were developed in the following forms:
Transformation of financial statements using the conversion factors. The coefficients take into account the peculiarities of the valuation of assets, the uniqueness of accounting methodology, etc. They show how important the information would figure if the accounting was based on the proposed principles and standards. The disadvantage of the method is the complexity of the development of the correct conversion factors for enterprises of different industries and facilities.
Transformation of financial statements on the basis of additional calculations. Knowing the distinctive features of a system of records from each other, make up table for determining the positive and negative influence of individual factors on the index information. On the basis of the calculations made changes to the financial statements.
Preparation of financial statements according to the methodology of another country on the basis of primary documents completed in accordance with international standards. With this method, the inaccuracies restatement of financial statements. Work is performed in an automated way.
Under these current economic conditions and the expansion of international relations of Kazakhstan national accounting system is in the process of reform.
Beginning of this process can be considered as acceptance of the program of Kazakhstan's transition to internationally accepted accounting and statistics system in accordance with the requirements of a market economy. Kazakhstan's accession to the International Monetary Fund, the transition to convertibility of tenge broad international relations, foreign investment urgently require the organization of accounting in accordance with the standards that are compatible with international ones. financial statements accounting reforming
Leading government agencies, coordinates the work in Kazakhstan to implement international standards adopted by the UN and the European Community are the Ministry of Finance, Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan, and the National Bank of Kazakhstan.
Accounting Reform in the Republic provides for the implementation of several consecutive steps and included:
Study the experience of reforms in other countries. Study the experience of reforms implemented in other countries and production based on this optimal variant transition of accounting to international standards. So in 1995, a decree having the force of law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Accounting". The introduction in 1996 of Kazakhstan Accounting Standards (KAS), developed on the basis of international standards, was the beginning of the transition to IFRS. Another key point was the transition in 1995-1996, accounting of transactions on accrual basis in the recognition of income and expenses. This method is one of the main principles of IFRS. The advantage of accrual over previously used the cash method is the ability to determine the current financial condition of the subject by an objective analysis of the expected real income or disposal of financial resources.
Study of methods and principles of accounting operations in accordance with IFRS. A study of methods and principles of accounting operations in accordance with IFRS, works on the creation of methodological and regulatory accounting, the launch of the practical implementation of the new accounting principles that meet the requirements of IFRS. So in 2001 the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan was created Methodological Council on accounting and auditing. In creating this Council aim was transfer to IFRS accounting system across the state. It should be noted that the original task was to develop on the basis of IFRS own Kazakh accounting standards, however, on the basis of expediency, the Council adopted a decision on the legislative consolidation of the financial statements according to international standards adopted by the Committee in accordance with IFRS. As a result, in the first half of 2002, the biggest and most fundamental step in the transition to IFRS has been the introduction of the Ministry of Finance of Amendments and Additions to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Accounting" according to which it was clearly determined that with January 1, 2003 financial institutions, with the January 1, 2005 joint-stock companies and non-financial sector from 1 January 2006, all other organizations are preparing financial statements solely in accordance with IFRS, officially translated into the state and Russian languages. - Improve the existing regulatory and methodological framework in accordance with international requirements. Improvement of the existing regulatory and methodological framework in line with international requirements, training of accounting professionals of the financial sector, accounting and financial reporting in accordance with all requirements of IFRS. Since the Order of the Ministry of Finance of 21 June 2007 for number 218, on the basis of the Law "On Accounting and Financial Reporting", in Kazakhstan have adopted national Financial Reporting Standards (NAS NSFO№1 and №2).
National Accounting Standard №1 was designed to determine the order of accounting and financial reporting by small businesses applying under the tax laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan special tax regimes, as well as peasants or farmers, legal entities - agricultural producers, entrepreneurs which are small businesses.
National Accounting Standard №2 defines the procedure for the implementation of accounting and financial reporting: small and medium enterprises; non-profit organizations, branches and representative offices of foreign legal entities registered in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan in accordance with the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan; state-owned enterprises, based on the operational management (public enterprises).
January 31, 2013 order was issued the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the number 50 "On approval of the National Financial Reporting Standards" in the country introduced a single national accounting standard, which defines the principles and qualitative characteristics of financial reporting, accounting and financial reporting by small businesses as well as legal entities, whose sole activity is to organize the exchange of foreign currency transactions.
Reform of accounting in the financial system will provide transparency, accuracy and completeness of the analyzed information contained in the financial statements effectively used to maximize the economic benefits. In addition, innovations in accounting significantly increased the level of openness of the economy, which has become a requirement of time. On the openness of the economy is judged not only by the share of exports in gross domestic product, or other statistical indicators, but also by how much data about the economy are available to all who need them, and how high the transparency and reliability of these data. Maximum approximation to IFRS enables companies to compete across the Kazakhstan International Economics.
1. Гражданский кодекс РК от 27.12.94 г. за № 269-XII (с изменени-ями и дополнениями на 26.12.2012 г.)
2. Закон Республики Казахстан «Об акционерных обществах» от 13 мая 2003 года № 415-II.
3. Миржакыпова С.Т., Аппакова Г.Н., Иманкулова Ш.А., Бекова Р.Ж. «Основы бухгалтерского учета по МСФО» (учебное посо-бие для ВУЗов) Алматы, 2009 г.
4. Сейдахметова Ф.С. «Современный бухгалтерский учет» (Учеб-ное пособие) Алматы, 2005 г.
5. Круковская Т. А., Шаров А. В. История бухгалтерского учета: Учебное пособие. - Кемерово, 2006
6. Стуков С.А., Стуков Л.С. Международная стандартизация учета и отчетноти. М.: Изд-во «Бухгалтерский учет»,1998.
7. Кутер М. И. Теория бухгалтерского учета: - М., 2006
8. Соколов Я.В., Соколов В.Я. «История бухгалтерского учета» Учебник. - М., 2006.
9. Лупикова Е.В. «История бухгалтерского учета» Учебное посо-бие - М. 2007.
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