A brief history of collective practices in the visual arts of Transcarpathia

Main trends of Transcarpathian art and their influence on the evolution of the phenomenon which nowadays has the name of "collective practices". Instruments the post-modern practices. The integration of the Transcarpathian art into Ukrainian art space.

Рубрика Культура и искусство
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A brief history of collective practices in the visual arts of Transcarpathia

Ivan Nebesnyk (junior)

Candidate of Art Criticism

Summary

transcarpahian art collective practice

Referred in the article are the main trends of Transcarpahian art and their influence on the evolution of the phenomenon which nowadays has the name of «collective practices».

The author speaks about the work of those artists whose influence on the development of this form of organized activity was decisive, starting from the beginning of the professional art movement in the region. Chronologically the investigation covers the period from 1990s till 2010s. The form of «art association» was realized for the first time in the activity of «Poptrans» group. «Shapka» («Сар»), «Esmarch's mug», «Open group» were the art-associations who declared their ideas and aesthetic views. Artists of 2010 used the instruments the post-modern practices. The synthetic experiments, combining video, performance and other forms were spread to a certain extent. The projects were realized with the help of galleries and among them the «Corridor» art space has played the main role. The artists themselves were the curators of the exhibitions. Due to self-organization of artists the circle of communication got wider. Its result was the new wave of the integration of the Transcarpathian art into Ukrainian art space.

Keywords: collective practices, Transcarpathian fine arts, Ukrainian contemporary art, modernism, postmodernism, sixties.

Аннотация

Краткая история коллективных практик в визуальном искусстве Закарпатья

Иван Небесник (младший)

В статье рассматриваются основные ветви закарпатского искусства, повлиявшие на эволюцию явления, которое сегодня определяется как «коллективные практики». Художники поколения 2010-х применяли постмодернистский инструментарий, распространение получили синтетические эксперименты, где соединились видео, перформанс и другие формы. Реализации проектов помогали художественные галереи, среди которых арт-пространство «Коридор» сыграло главную роль. Благодаря самоорганизации художников расширился и круг их общения, что повлияло на новую волну интеграции закарпатского искусства в украинскую художественную сцену.

Ключевые слова: коллективные практики, изобразительное искусство Закарпатья, современное искусство Украины, модернизм, постмодернизм, шестидесятники.

Анотація

Коротка історія колективних практик у візуальному мистецтві Закарпаття

Іван Небесник (молодший)

У статті йдеться про еволюцію явища «колективних практик» у образотворчому мистецтві Закарпаття. Автор зупиняється на творчості митців, які суттєво вплинули на розвиток цієї форми співпраці в образотворчому мистецтві краю. Хронологічні рамки дослідження охоплюють 1990-2010-ті рр., проте автором виявлено передумови виникнення цього явища.

У дослідженні описані процеси, що відбулися завдяки діяльності А. Ерделі та Ф. Манайла. На формування прогресивних рухів у мистецтві Закарпаття 1960-1970-х суттєвий вплив мала постать П. Бедзіра та його оточення. Митці цього покоління представляють генерацію перших випускників Ужгородського художньо-промислового училища. Завдяки свідомому стиранню дистанції між художником та його репрезентацією, закарпатськими шістдесятниками було закладено необхідні умови, які сприяли розвиткові прогресивних поглядів упродовж наступних десятиліть.

У процесі дослідження автором приділено увагу закарпатському арт- об'єднанню «Поптранс», чия творчість, упродовж 1990-2000-х рр., була окреслена широким діапазоном методів, а продукт їхньої діяльності (від самвидавів до живопису та інсталяції) сформував єдине цілісне обличчя.

Варто сказати, що період експериментів відбувся на початку 2010-х рр. Молоді художники намагалися розширити методи митців «Поптрансу». Серед арт-об'єднань, які декларували свої ідеї та сформували естетичні погляди були: «Шапка», «Кружка Есмарха», «Відкрита група». Митці покоління 2010-х застосовували постмодерністський інструментарій. Деякого поширення набули «синтетичні» експерименти, де поєднувалися відео, перформанс та інші форми. Реалізації проектів допомагали художні галереї, серед них арт-простір «Коридор» відігравав головну роль. Тут відбувалися виставки за кураторської ініціативи митців. Завдяки самоорганізації студентів та випускників художніх вишів розширилося коло спілкування, що стало поштовхом для нової хвилі інтеграції закарпатського мистецтва в українську художню сцену.

Ключові слова: колективні практики, образотворче мистецтво Закарпаття, сучасне мистецтво України, модернізм, постмодернізм, шістдесятництво.

Stating the problem

There is a piculiarity in the art culture of Transcarpathia (Zakarpatska oblast of Ukraine) which distinguishes it among other art centres of Ukraine. From the time the art school was established (1946) a diffusion process is taking place here and due to it the official art, the opposition and the art education coexist in a variety of relations. Compactness of Transcarpathian art continues to contribute to the situation when a niche of a segment (in the stylistics or concept) may be taken by a small group of artists. Therefore, we cannot ignore the processes that take place in various regional artistic circles. In this article we try to represent the tree of the Transcarpathian fine art, which would objectively highlight the processes focused on the phenomenon which is the closest to the concept of «art group» or is characterized by collective approach in the visual arts.

Research actuality is conditioned by studying the segment of collective practices in the visual art of the art centres of Ukraine is just beginning to build a structure in the works of Ukrainian art critics, art curators and culturologists. Today one can hardly find any consistency in the presentation of this theme, and analysis has not yet reached the level of general conclusions. However its topicality appears first of all in modern art practices and we cannot ignore these processes.

Correlation of the authorial work with important scientific and practical tasks

This article is a part of the scientific theme «Ways of development of graphic art in Transcarpatia» in Transcarpathian Academy of Arts. Its task is to review and analyse the processes in the modern pictorial art of Transcarpathia since 1990s untill 2010s, where the form of collective practices is spreading more and more. This article is also the first study of such aspect and it throws light on the chronology of the phenomenon. Consequently its goal is to determine the main vectors of the development of collective practices in Transcarpathia art. The results of the study should form the basis for further analysis of the modern art in the contemporary history of Ukraine.

Pointing out the earlier unsolved issues of the general problem which are tackled in the article

Studies of features of A brief history of collective practices in the visual arts in Ukraine and Transcarpathia in particular have not been performed so far. This article opens evolutional aspect of the above issue.

The novelty of the scientific research consists in presenting the short history of collective practices in the visual arts of Transcarpathia in the culture of local traditions in fine arts.

Exposition of the basic material

In the Transcarpathian art culture there is a feature which distinguishes the region among other art centers of Ukraine. From the time the art school was founded (1946), there exists a diffusion process which makes possible the coexistence of the opposition, the official art and art school in a variety of relationships. The compactness of Transcarpathian art continues to contribute to the situation when a niche of a segment (in the stylistics or concept) may be taken by a small group of artists. Therefore, we cannot ignore the processes that take place in various regional artistic circles.

In this article we try to represent the tree of the Transcarpathian fine art, which would objectively highlight the processes focused on the phenomenon which is the closest to the concept of «art group» or is characterized by collective approach in the visual arts.

When we discuss the theme and speak about the organized artistic movement in Transcarpathia, we find it necessary to remember Adalbert Erdelyi (1891-1955) - the founder of the regional school of art [4]. At the time of the artist's activity (1920s-1950s.) we can also distinguish Fedir Manaylo (1910-1978) among his colleagues. The activity of these artists influenced the basic processes that can be still observed as traces of the inheritance in the art of Transcarpathia. Besides his active creative work, A. Erdelyi tried to analyze the genesis of Transcarpathian art, basing on his own work, works of his colleagues and students. The artist developed the philosophical context of his own ideas (as we learn from his literary heritage).

The role of Fedir Manailo was somewhat different. His approach to plastic tasks and methods of creating images significantly influenced the younger generation and this has formed an indissoluble heredity in the history of Transcarpathian art (the mid-twentieth century). Unlike the elitist Erdelyi, Manailo proposed the key, which can help young people to see better the prospect of their work and to solve plastic problems of their projects. The component of «isms» that he brought from the pre-war Prague dominated in his works. As for the subject, Manaylo proposed a clear formula (particularly after he had to adapt his art to the Soviet regime requirements), based on folk traditions in legitimate combination with modified modernism. Formalism in his way of thinking attracted young artists and provided them with a variety of tools in their work.

During the 1940s and 1950s the artists of Transcarpathia found themselves under strict control of the Soviet authorities. It was clear that the artists of formalistic trend would be restricted in rights and public exhibition activities. Since the second half of the 1960s the artists of the younger generation made certain attempts to go beyond the boundaries of social realism [4, p. 52]. Due to political thaw (known as Khrushchov Thaw) experimental search continued. The Transcarpathian Sixtiers (non-conformists in art and literature of 1960s) experienced the practice of Tachisme and Op-art, introduced the elements based on stylistic research of Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism [3].

In the works of the Sixtiers we see the search of philosophical sence, ideological reactions and attempts of intellectual analysis of art. These were the approaches that continued the traditions of Erdelyi and Manailo (without underestimating the role of such Transcarpathian masters of art as Andriy Kotska, Havrylo Gluck, Adalbert Boretskyi and others).

At the turn of the 1960s and 1970s there were two main tendencies in the art of our land. One tendency partially adopted the principles of socialist realism, the other one embodied protest movement of the Sixtiers. There were also artists that combined both tendencies thus creating a link between the two branches. Pavlo Bedzir, Liza Kremnytska and Ferents Seman represent the Transcarpathian Sixtiers movement. In the early stages of their activity these artists managed to avoid the authorities attention, presenting their works as decorative art pieces - similar practice was successfully realized by the artists in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and in the Baltic countries.

Pavlo Bedzir (1926-2002), one of the first graduates of the art school in Uzhhorod (Uzhhorod School of Art and Crafts, 1946), studied the history of European art of the 20th century He learned Hungarian language to have possibility to read literature on art and philosophy not available for Ukrainian and Russian reader. This knowledge to a great extent widened his intellectual search. It also found a response in the hearts of junior colleagues [2]. The ideas of Bedzir had influence on the work of such artists as Pavlo Kovach (senior), Gabriel Buletsa, Maryan Oleksyak, Vadym Kharabaruk and others. Now the Uzhhorod places connected with Bedzir's life remain important. His studio was transformed into an art space which has a progressive status in the city. Today this informal location in «Khudozhfond» (Art Fund - an institution housing art workshops for the state orders in the Soviet time) is called the «Corridor» gallery and art events occur periodically there. The «Corridor» gallery is synonymous to the terms and practices of contemporary art in the region. The attempts to systematize its role and legacy on the art scene in Transcarpathia become more noticeable.

Together with Pavlo Bedzir and his wife Liza Kremnytska an Uzhgorod School of Art and Crafts graduate Ferents Seman (1937-2004) has been forming as a creative personality. His most productive years were the second half of 1980s and the first half of 1990s, but the consciousness of the artist was formed in the early 1960s. Seman got acquainted with the progressive art process of Estonia, and then absorbed the European art of the 20th century. Cocurrently with Ukrainian artist he developed his own style at the border of abstractionism and expressionism, and some works resembled the Dada methods [3]. His works not only filled the niche of the protest art, he created paintings of high quality (both in philosophical and plastic art sense), reflecting the stage of transition from modernism to postmodernism.

Such attention to the Transcarpathian Sixtiers was not accidental. What is now defined as an art gesture and social critics - was an inherent part of the activities of these artists in a greater or lesser degree, though perhaps not always intellectually processed. Bedzir, Kremnytska and Seman's communication potential was broken by the KGB agents who were seeking out the oponents of the Soviet ideology in the 1970s [2; 3].

The political regime of that time hunted down any possible associations in any sphere and tried to keep tight control over them. At this stage a period of calm in the experimental search comes. Some artists continue to work in closed workshops, others try to use their talent in more practical way.

Several factors caused a general slowdown of Transcarpathian fine art development in the late 1970s. On one hand the Union of Artists took a detached position towards the processes in the young artists circles. On the other hand a loss of conscious vector and disorientation of the artists of the generation of the 1970s was obseved. As a result, the art of Transcarpathia passed through the process of dissociation of aesthetic principles, closing the gaps with old achievements. Certain changes and democratic processes become visible later. Return to the experiments took place at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s.

In this period the criteria established during the Soviet era changed. Tenets of socialist-realism but also those of modernism lost its relevance. For this reason art process localized in tight groups, and general tendency led to organizing independent unions.

Interesting experiments in figurative art of Nadiya Ponomarenko and Liudmyla Korzh-Radko took place in this period. Collaboration between the artists formed the ground for organizing the creative teams based on gender (among them a group of New Form, since 2000 ). It is also worth mentioning that the artist (in the circumstances that evolved in the artistic environment of the region) never associated themselves with alternative movements in the Transcarpathian art, but their impact through educational and creative activities left a mark in the creative generation of the 2000s [1].

The long isolation from the European art became an obstacle for domestic critics and they could not describe these processes adequately. Thus the period which is referred to as «transitional» (by a number of Ukrainian art critics) lasted more than a decade (from the end of 1980s and during the 1990s.). Therefore, the phenomenon of art groups did not attract the professional circles attention as insignificant, but in fact as incomprehensible. The activity of Hlib Vysheslavskyi was a rare exception (even at the national background). Critic and artist, he wrote articles on the matter and was the editor of «Terra incognita» journal, devoted to contemporary art [1].

An important event took place in 1988 at the Uzhhorod architecture bureau. It was the exhibition of one of the first art associations called Left Eye. Vadym Kharabaruk, Ishtvan Molnar, Robert Vatsi and Serhiy Biba were the participants. The works of the group were presented only in one exhibition but the role of this action was far more significant. Left Eye art association did not present the outlined concept, but all the group members saw artists' prospects as creating something not determined, be it even with chaotic structuring in aesthetics and views. Methods of Left Eye did not count on the support of the traditional forms of domestic version of modernism. Echoes of Italian transavantgarde and Russian non-conformism of the 1980s were felt in their work.

The development of postmodern aesthetics found continuation in the creative work of the Left Eye reformed version - in the Poptrans group (Vadym Kharabaruk Andiy Stehura, Robert Sailer, Pavlo Kovach, later Marsel Onys'ko and Nataliya Shevchenko). The art group proposed an approach not ligitimized in Ukrainian art - the use of printed forms, as a completed art product (it can also be interpreted as a «ready-made»). Artists used the technique of collage (both computer and manual). Their production contained different things from leaflets and posters, to self-published literary products («Bortovyk», «36 Parts of the Body that I'm Afraid to Show You», «1-1» and others) [1].

Collage principle was also used in the paintings and installations of Poptrans artists. As for the ideological component, there was a tangible influence of the Soviet conceptualism and Sots-Art. Especially clearly it is read through the relationship with the visual cultural layer of socialist past. The images arose from the space of «popular» (as snippets taken out of media context, pictures from magazines or randomly selected video frames) with deliberate flavor of Soviet design. At the same time, these images did not sharpen the commercial gloss, but created an image of something authentic and even sacred (though in an ironic way).

It was quite natural for Pavlo Kovach (born 1959) to join the «Poptrans» group in the transition period of 1980s and 1990s. Method of «metaphysical knowledge», originaly belonging to P. Bedzir, differs the manner of Kovach. This method was accompanied by the rise of meditative contemplation of the work of art, which P. Bedzir explained as a spiritual practice. Aesthetically and conceptually this approach perfectly fit the «Poptrans» practice. Later P. Kovach developed these ideas separatly from the group [1; 2].

The processes in the Transcarpathian art from the end of 1980s and during the 1990s had the character of «fermentation». The ideas in art quickly arose and quickly disappeared. Majority of the artists worked unevenly, with significant breaks and also breaks in the evolution of ideas and style. Creative groups appeared for a short period and did not produce plastic ideological integrity (which was still characteristic for Poptrans group artists). Eventually, these movements, even chaotic, had positive impact and changed the situation.

Starting from the second half of the 2000s the impetus for the creation of new art associations raised the problem of synthesis of arts: music, poetry and visual practices. These initiatives have arisen partly in the students circles of Transcarpathian Art Institute. Active cooperation continued later together with the students and graduates of the Lviv National Academy of Arts. March Cats (since 2006), cleux (since 2009) festivals encouraged the involvement of artists from outside of the region. The organizers of these performances were Anton Varga (curator of the visual part of the March Cats project) and Vik Kovrei (curator of the literary part of the March Cats project). An interesting point of these actions was a combination of artists from different generations in one exposition space which has shown a new perspective in the context of Transcarpathian art.

Even within these festivals, a certain evolution of ideas is traced. If the March Cats combined literature and visual art in one place (this was already a certain achievement), the cleux project had more synthetic nature. At the first two festivals (2010 and 2011) the artists were given the task to respond to a poetic piece during the performance of musicians (without literal illustrations to the text), - a sort of «action painting». The third and the fourth « cleux» had thought- out scenarios: artists and poets presented a joint performance on the stage. The experience obtained at these festivals gave young curators a broader understanding of collective cooperation (starting from organization of the actions and to the specific art products, performed in larger scale). These actions laid the groundwork for a new wave of art in the region.

Thus, in 2010 the curators of the visual part of the March Cats fest (in Yosyp Bokshay Transcarpathian Regional Art Museum) were Anton Varga, Yuriy Biley and Pavlo Kovach (junior) and in 2012 Anton Varga and Stanislav Turina became the curators of the visual part of March Cats fest (projects Greed in «Uzhhorod» gallery and Io 733 woods in «Corridor» gallery). At 2013 March Cats project Arina Radionova (together with A. Varga and S. Turina) was invited as a curator of the exhibition Eros Error («Ііко» gallery). This point has contributed to a greater expansion of cooperation of Transcarpathian artists, who were joined by the partners from Lviv, Kharkiv and Donetsk.

An important role in the development of the new art practices (in Western Ukraine) was played by Lviv underground «Detenpyla» gallery (apartment-studio), where the first actions were carried out by Transcarpathian artists Stas Turina,

Pavlo Kovach (junior) and Yuriy Bilei. For a series of events that took place in the gallery a term «kvartyrnyky» («kvartyra» means apartment) was used (similar term was used for the informal exhibitions held secretly in the apartments in Soviet period from 1960s to 1980s). But they became legitimate in short time and entered the curator level. As for the aesthetic message, it is more the case of presentations of works, than the question of their final value. The «underground» aspect was emphasized due to the image of careless apartment-studio where a visitor found himself. All the mysterious «kitchen» of the artist came to the surface, revealing details that were hidden before that moment. What was inaccessible became the object of contemplation. To intensify this effect, artists-curators of «Detenpyla» invited artists of diametric views to participate in exhibitions and events. Soon a substantial layer of artists could feel themselves a part of a creative participation.

Among the graduates of the Transcarpathian Art Institute the «Shapka» («Сар») art group (Olesia Sekeresh, Ksenia Halchenko, Olexandra Tokareva) was formed. Artists of this association first caused discussions when they became the nominees of «Pinchuk Art Prize» (2009) with their Life project. In the course of development of the visual language of the group a humanistic and later a feminist tone emerged. It has become evident due to the method of approach and themes of their works (projects Mexicana (2009), Third Day (2010). Materiality, naturalness and at the same time fantazy have become the key symbols of their language. Although conceptually feminist component was expressed later, the symbols used by the authors, and first of all the choice of the themes (equally in photography and art objects) showed just such priorities. In their projects (as Pereproklasty (2012) group used the entourage of conceptualism, though any relationship with the world of politics or social research was denied, artist gravitated to the psychological aspects of a person.

The «Kruzhka Esmarcha» (Esmarch's Mug) association (years of activity: 2009-2015) was formed at that time in Uzhhorod. Artists of the group (Victor Melnychuk, Ivan Nebesnyk (junior), Oleh Suslenko, Ruslan Tremba) were graduates of A. Erdelyi Uzhgorod College of Arts and Lviv National Academy of Arts. The approach of «Esmarch's Mug» can be described as a hybrid between late modernism, which broke with the plastic value of the work, minimalism and conceptualism. The practice of the group enabled the combination of fiction and spontaneous inclusion into exhibition space (using the details and structure). The apartment exhibition Continuum in Lviv (2012) was the first successful team project. This place was later legalized as «Gallery at Yefremova, 26». The main idea here was based on the V. Kandinsky's postulate about musicality and abstract nature of visual art.

Finally, modernist romantic of the visual language of «Esmarch's Mug» led not to a radical way, but more to the theatrical understanding of space. This became especially noticeable at the Doctor Esmarch's prescriptions exhibition («Dziga» gallery, 2013), where the objects with their own plastic value were left alone along with thought-out organization of the space. As for the exhibition Weather forecast («Gallery at Yefremova, 26», 2013), where apart from the blank sheets of paper on the walls and space devided by furniture, there were no instructions and explanations. This confirmed further group crisis and abandonment of projects production in the key of post-modernist «isms». Summing up the legacy of the group we can determine its role as another link between the new wave of conceptual art (from the 2000s) and the traditions that came from modernism [5].

An important shift in search of collective art practice was gained by the first results of the «Open Group» (from 2012). The members of the group were Pavlo Kovach (junior), Yuriy Biley, Stanislav Turina, Anton Varga, Oleh Perkovskyi and Yevhen Samborskyi. The artists were graduates of LNAA (except A. Varga (Transcarpathian Art Institute and Kharkiv National Academy of Decorative Art), A. Perkovskiy and E. Samborskiy) and organized the group in Lviv. It was quite logical, that basing on the experience from previous practice, the group made the accent on collective and open artistic process, as opposed to modernist individualism. The idea to organize the group was stipulated by a desire to get out into the open space, bypassing the dictates of a gallery, curator and authority of the individual.

It was natural for the «Open Group» to come to the form of environment. In this respect the art object Gallery Two (2012) should be highlighted. It was presented at the Art Picnic «Kredens» in the surroundings of the town of Vynogradiv. Since that time the infestation of projects that involved area (urban or «uncivilized») began. The opening of the symbolic gallery has become an end in itself, as revenge for the limitation of official art institutions. It is not exaggeration if we say that the art group changed the situation with Ukrainian art associations, as the number of participants is not limited to the number of tasks and is determined by the idea and needs of the specific project. From this we see that the sense of the new democracy was in priority of concepts reasonably put forward, and this has become the group's main method which can not be separated from its aesthetic principles. The process, reflected further on in performative actions of the team, has become an important and integral element in the method of the «Open Group».

After reward in 2013 and winning the First Prize of «Pinchuk Art Prize» (important Ukrainian competition in the sphere of contemporary art) in 2015 the «Open Group» got wider possibilities for dialogue which is still going with the Ukrainian art scene.

In the context of this article, it is necessary to mention the galleries, which has played an important role in legitimizing the collective art research practices. One of them is Lviv «Dziga» gallery, which became a kind of an outpost for many Transcarpathians since the 1990s. Due to cooperation with «Dziga» different experiments, artists introspection and symbiosis in different approaches were possible. All in all, the activity of Vlodko Kaufman (b. 1957, art director of «Dziga» art association) as a curator is a subject of another large-scale study. In fact this gallery seems to be the only one in Western Ukraine, which systematically has been developing its program for the sake of art community, not pursuing commercial objectives. For uncompromising, methodicalness and quality of the program «Dziga» gallery's activity can be considered as educational.

In the context of this article we should mark the activity of «Ііко» gallery (which has started its work in Uzhgorod in 2013І), where Mykhaylo Ilko is the general manager and Taras Tabaka is the curator of visual projects. Defined as the main task of the gallery is the renewal of the connections between the generations of Transcarpathian art and education of the new competitive generation. Today the priority line of «Ilko» gallery is painting. The actions carried out here do not put emphasis on collective activity, but all mentioned artists had possibility to participate in curator projects of Taras Tabaka.

The activitiy of the «Corridor» gallery has already been mentioned in this article. The first collective action in this area was the exhibition organized by P. Kovach to commemorate the work of P. Works preserved in the workshop of Bedzir were shown in the atmosphere of the Soviet «Khudozhfond» corridor. This event was a kind of the beginning of the revival of the ideals of freedom, confessed by Sixtiers.

Subsequently, the «Corridor» has attracted young people of art. During the first collective action - the exhibition Pokrovtsi (2010) organized by P. Kovach, artists performed their works on the walls of the gallery. Later some exhibitions of «March Cats» fest took place in the gallery, and the geography of participants has expanded to Ukrainian scale. Although this type of gallery cannot maintain regularity of official institutions, artistic events are held here quite regularly. Actions held from 2013 till nowadays under supervision of Petro Riaska are parts of the project called Temporary Exhibition. The nature of the exhibitions seems to be stipulated by the economy conditions, these exhibitions put emphasis on impermanence of the work of art, which are subjected to destruction or oblivion. This is a kind of a chain, where the evolution of the projects is in close connection with the authors and their ideas. Among the actions we single out the Voluntarily Compulsory Action social protest (2014) by Danylo Kovach and Attila Hazhlinski. Young authors sought to collect a large number of artists of their generation unprotected from the arbitrary doings of the authorities. Activists of the gallery also extend the range of participants, which eventually became open to curatorial projects including 1000 km view, where curators were Lizaveta Herman and Mariya Lan'ko.

So, the collective experience in the art of Transcarpathia has its own history. Perhaps it is too soon to speak of definitive results regarding the last decade, but art groups, festivals and projects that we have reviewed in this article have already their own ways, which deserve analyzing and systematization.

Conclusions

The collective practices experience in the art of Transcarpathia has its chronology. It's not the time yet to speak of final results in this question, but the activity of art-groups, festivals and projects that we have concerned in this article already have their own ways which are worth analysing and systemizing.

From the distance of time it becomes evident that philosophy approach in Transcarpathian fine art which has its origin in the works of A. Erdeli and F Manaylo, was beyond the conformist analysis. Another approach was applied by Soviet critics in different periods of time (starting from the second half of 1940s). However, modernistic trends reflected in the art of the founders of the Transcarpathian art school had their followers. It was the renewal of modernistic principles through the art of Transcarpathian Sixtiers that caused the appearance of the collective practices. The questions of the development of postmodernistic culture remain open as well as the question of factors that have influenced the integration of such forms as performance and installation in the visual art of the region.

Starting with the «Poptrans» art-group activity collective practices in Transcarpathia demonstrated a certain variety of approaches. This phenomenon became the most noticeable since 2009, when we observe the growth of the quantity of art actions. The evolution of approaches from the objects to performances and installations is evident. The collective practices are interesting in their search in different fields from feministic identification to social projects.

Apparently, collective practices in Transcarpathia need for their development a platform available for carrying out regular art actions. Therefore the «Corridor» nonformal gallery continues to play the main role in the realization of the projects that need representation. It is obvious that at the present moment a «classic» gallery is not ready to provide the necessary conditions for the art forms which do not leave tangibles.

References

1. Небесних і. Графічне мистецтво Закарпаття другої половини XX ст.: етапи розвитку, стилістичні особливості / Іван Небесник // Вісник Харківської державної академії дизайну і мистецтв. № 6 (вересень). 2015. Харків. С. 75-84.

2. Небесник І. Мистецтво шістдесятників у контексті графічного мистецтва Закарпаття. Друга половина 1960-х-1970-ті рр. / Іван Небесник // Вісник Харківської державної академії дизайну і мистецтв. № 9. V Міжнар. форум «Дизайн-освіта 2009». Харків, 2009. С. 65-77.

3. Небесник І. Творчість П. Бедзіра та Є. Кремницької в контексті розвитку графічного мистецтва Закарпаття (друга половина 1960-х - 1970-ті рр.) / Іван Небесник // Вісник Львівської національної академії мистецтв. Спецвип. Ужгород: Вид. В. Падяка, 2009. С. 68-77.

4. Небесник І. Художня освіта на Закарптті у XX столітті: історико-педагогічний аспект. Ужгород: Вид. Закарпаття, 2000. 164 с.

5. О'Догерти Брайан. Внутри белого куба. М.: Ад Маргинем Пресс, 2015. 144 с.: ил.

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