Historiography of research of ukrainian chamber art: chronological, problematic and methodological aspects of classification

The studies of the Ukrainian chamber art with the aim of classifying their types according to chronological, problematic, methodological criteria. Methodology. Historiographical, source study, analytical, typological and comparative methods of research.

Рубрика Культура и искусство
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 30.08.2018
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Historiography of research of ukrainian chamber art: chronological, problematic and methodological aspects of classification

Kravchenko Anastasia, Ph. D in Arts,

Postdoctoral Student of the Department of culturology

and cultural- artistic projects of

the National Academy of managerial staff of culture and arts

Summary

The purpose. The article analyzes the studies of the Ukrainian chamber art with the aim of classifying their types according to chronological, problematic and methodological criteria. Methodology. Historiographical, source study, analytical, typological and comparative methods of research are applied. Scientific novelty. The author's classification of the types of research of Ukrainian chamber art is presented in terms of their chronology, problems and methodology, which made it possible to identify existing gaps, to find and approve the necessary criteria for further analysis of artifacts of chamber creativity as cultural and aesthetic phenomena in their historical, cultural, semiotic and intermediate parameters. Conclusions. Chamber art is an integral part of the Ukrainian musical culture, which becomes an object of national, regional, bio-bibliographic research in the aspects of historical, cultural, philosophical, art criticism and musicological problems. The analysis of the special literature reveals the dominance of classical musicological strategies for studying historical genre, style and stylistic aspects of Ukrainian chamber creativity. Despite the attraction of musicology to the interdisciplinary approaches of modern humanitaristics and the existence of some works, where the poly-methodological principles have been successfully applied to the analysis of musical phenomena of classical and non-classical chamber art of Ukraine, the theoretical and methodological potential of related sciences is not sufficiently involved. In this regard, theoretical and methodological studies lead scientists to the level of deep cultural, aesthetic and philosophical reflection and the development of the newest research parameters for the chamber art, which provide for the application of integration approaches based on the synergy of musicological traditions and modern interdisciplinary opportunities for scientific interpretation of the "old" and "new" "music (the philosophy, aesthetics and semiotics of music, the theory of intermediality, culture-hermeneutic analysis, cognitive interpretation, etc.). Approbation of these necessary criteria for the analysis of musical artifacts as cultural and aesthetic phenomena lays the foundation for a new cultural doctrine of modern musicology, which leads to a comprehension of the historical, cultural, semiotic and intermediate aspects of chamber art in the context of the universalistic paradigm of postmodern culture. Consequently, the expediency of searching for a system research model that would allow forming a comprehensive view of the development of the Ukrainian chamber art is unquestionable.

Keywords: chamber art of Ukraine, historiography of the problems of the Ukrainian chamber art, the semiology of art, cultural musicology.

Мета роботи. У статті здійснюється аналіз досліджень камерно-інструментального мистецтва України з метою класифікації їх типів за хронологічними, проблемними та методологічними критеріями. Методологія. Застосовано історіографічний, джерелознавчий, аналітичний, типологічний, порівняльний методи дослідження. Наукова новизна. Надано авторську класифікацію типів досліджень українського камерно-інструментального мистецтва в аспектах їх хронології, проблематики і методології, що дозволило виявити наявні прогалини, віднайти та затвердити необхідні критерії подальшого аналізу артефактів камерно-ансамблевої творчості як культурних і естетичних явищ у їх історико-культурних, семіотичних та інтермедіальних вимірах. Висновки. Камерно-інструментальне мистецтво є невід'ємною складовою музичної культури України, що стає об'єктом національних, регіональних, біобібліографічних досліджень у вимірах історичної, культурологічної, філософської, мистецтвознавчої, музикознавчої проблематики. Аналіз спеціальної літератури виявляє домінування класичних музикознавчих стратегій дослідження історико-жанрових, стильових та стилістичних аспектів вітчизняної камерно-інструментальної творчості. Незважаючи на тяжіння музикознавства до залучення інтердисциплінарних можливостей сучасної гуманітаристики та наявність окремих праць, де поліметодологічні принципи успішно застосовані щодо аналізу музичних феноменів класичного і некласичного камерно-інструментального мистецтва України, теоретико-методологічний потенціал суміжних наук залишається недостатньо задіяним. У зв'язку із цим, теоретико-методологічні роздуми виводять науковців на рівень поглибленої культурологічної, естетико-філософської рефлексії у розробці новітніх параметрів дослідження камерно-інструментального мистецтва, що передбачає застосування інтегративних підходів на основі синергії наявних музикознавчих традицій та сучасних інтердисциплінарних можливостей наукової інтерпретації "старої" та "нової" музики (зокрема, філософії, естетики та семіотики музики, теорії інтермедіальності, культур-герменевтичного аналізу, когнітивної інтерпретації). Затвердження цих необхідних критеріїв аналізу музичних артефактів як культурних і естетичних явищ закладає підвалини новітньої культурологічної доктрини сучасного музикознавства, що веде до осмислення історико - культурних, семіотичних та інтермедіальних вимірів камерно-інструментального мистецтва, в контексті універсалістської парадигми постсучасної культури. Відтак, не підлягає сумніву доцільність пошуків системної дослідницької моделі, що дозволила би сформувати комплексний погляд на розвиток камерно-інструментального мистецтва України.

Ключові слова: камерно-інструментальне мистецтво України, історіографія проблем українського камерно-інструментального мистецтва, семіологія мистецтва, культурологічне музикознавство.

Цель работы. В статье проводится анализ исследований камерно-инструментального искусства Украины с целью классификации их типов по хронологическим, проблемным и методологическим критериям. Методология. Применены историографический, источниковедческий, аналитический, типологический, сравнительный методы исследования. Научная новизна. Предоставлено авторскую классификацию типов исследований украинского камерно-инструментального искусства в аспектах их хронологии, проблематики и методологии, что позволило выявить имеющиеся пробелы, найти и утвердить необходимые критерии дальнейшего анализа артефактов камерно-ансамблевого творчества как культурных и эстетических явлений в их историко-культурных, семиотических и интермедиальных параметрах. Выводы. Камерно-инструментальное искусство является неотъемлемой составляющей музыкальной культуры Украины, которая становится объектом национальных, региональных, биобиблиографических исследований в измерениях исторической, культурологической, философской, искусствоведческой, музыковедческой проблематики. Анализ специальной литературы обнаруживает доминирование классических музыковедческих стратегий исследования историко-жанровых, - стилевых и стилистических аспектов украинского камерно-инструментального творчества. Несмотря на тяготение музыковедения к привлечению интердисциплинарных возможностей современной гуманитаристики и наличие отдельных работ, где полимето - дологические принципы успешно применены к анализу музыкальных феноменов классического и неклассического камерно-инструментального искусства Украины, теоретико-методологический потенциал смежных наук остается недостаточно задействованным. В связи с этим, теоретико-методологические размышления выводят ученых на уровень глубокой культурологической, эстетико-философской рефлексии в разработке новейших параметров исследования камерно-инструментального искусства, предусматривающих применение интеграционных подходов на основе синергии имеющихся музыковедческих традиций и современных интердисциплинарных возможностей научной интерпретации "старой" и "новой" музыки (в частности, философии, эстетики и семиотики музыки, теории интермедиальности, культур-герменевтического анализа, когнитивной интерпретации). Утверждение этих необходимых критериев анализа музыкальных артефактов как культурных и эстетических явлений закладывает основы новой культурологической доктрины современного музыковедения, что ведет к осмыслению историко-культурных, семиотических и интермедиальных измерений камерно-инструментального искусства в контексте универсалистской парадигмы постсовременной культуры. Следовательно, не подлежит сомнению целесообразность поисков системной исследовательской модели, которая позволила бы сформировать комплексный взгляд на развитие камерно-инструментального искусства Украины.

Ключевые слова: камерно-инструментальное искусство Украины, историография проблем украинского камерно-инструментального искусства, семиология искусства, культурологическое музыковедение.

ukrainian chamber art

Basic maintenance of research

Relevance of the research topic. In recent decades, the Ukrainian musicological discourse has highlighted the tendency of a significant increase in the research of chamber ensemble problems, which, according to I. Polskaya's observations, "was not at the forefront of musical-theoretical thought and belonged to the accidental, peripheral branch of it" [6, 29]. In this connection a situation has arisen, where the functioning of ensemble practice in the "world of art" (B. Oliva [4]) and the accumulation of factual data about the composer's and performing chamber creativity of Ukraine far outstripped their scientific, theoretical comprehension. Considering the above, the relevance of further systemic, rather than selective, overview studies of this art form remains urgent, which raises the need for analyzing existing scientific works for determining promising vectors for studying the theory and history of the chamber ensemble and, in general, ensemble art as a cultural and artistic phenomenon and a multicomponent system.

The purpose of the article. The article analyzes the studies of the chamber art of Ukraine with the aim of classifying their types in aspects of the problems, methodology and chronology, which allows identifying the existing gaps, finding and approving the necessary criteria for further analysis of artifacts of chamber creativity as cultural and aesthetic phenomena in their historical, cultural, semiotic and intermedial parameters.

Statement of basic material. In the general system of the musical genre hierarchy, the chamber ensemble occupies an important place, characterized by the forked genre invariants (with practically inexhaustible possibilities for further modifications of their organology) and unique aesthetic-semantic parameters, which are characterized by "the creation of an atmosphere of easy communicativity and semantics of the combination of the personal and general-human, and also the extraordinary ability to display in the "microframe" a lot of actual features of the modern era" [1, 189]. All this focuses the research attention on the problems of the chamber ensemble not only in the genre-historical and theoretical plane, but also in general on the questions of chamber art in all the variety of material and spiritual components of compositional, concertperforming, pedagogical creativity that finds its reflection in the researches of special and general directions.

General studies include works of a panoramic nature, where the study of questions of chamber art is not the main subject of scientific understanding, but one of the components of a more general musicological problem. The data on ensemble creativity available here, as a rule, are not analyzed comprehensively and are not systematized in detail, and therefore are presented in an overview. However, in special musicological studies, an analytical projection of general theoretical and methodological positions on a specific material of chamber creativity is carried out, the comprehension of the specifics of which is of an in-depth and targeted character.

Scientific works can be classified according to chronological criteria into several main groups. Among them, studies whose authors have the goal of investigating the genesis of the Ukrainian chamber ensemble during long historical periods, for example, the end of the XIX-XX centuries (T. Slyusar) or the ХХ century (V. Andrievska, P. Dovgan). In other studies, narrower chronological frameworks are selected, for a detailed analysis of transitional cultural processes and phenomena against the background of certain historical, so - cio-cultural transformations or the study of chamber music in the context of the study of bio-bibliography of life periods and the creativity of some personalities. For example, the attention of scientists is directed to the study of chamber creativity and performance of the 1920s - the stage of the revival of national culture (M. Gerega, I. Savchuk). Intensive understanding is acquired by the art of the epoch of the "sixties" (Ye. Basalaeva), including the nature of the influence of its cultural and creative potential on the ensemble music of the following decades - 1960-80s (N. Dika), 1960-2014 (A. Utina). In addition, scientists study chamber music of the periods of the last third of the ХХ century (G. Astalosh, T. Omelchenko), 1970s-1980s (L. Volkova), 1980-90s (O. Beregova) and the turn of the XX-XXI centuries (O. Grabovska, A. Chibalashvili).

In addition to special studies, the questions of the Ukrainian chamber art of these and other chronological segments are also included in a fragmentary way in general research, where the study of chamber problems is carried out at the national, regional and bibliographic levels in the aspects of its historical, art criticism, musicological, cultural and philosophical comprehension.

At the national level of research on these issues, the main place is occupied by musicological studies on the history, theory and practice of composer's and performing (including pedagogical) chamber art. Among the above subject areas, studies on the history and theory of genre evolution are highlighted. They are devoted to creating a holistic view of the functioning of certain genres in the "morphological system" (A. Sokolov) of Ukrainian music. For example, in Ukrainian science, a historical and musicological view on the dynamics of the development of national invariants of ensemble genres, such as the suite (P. Dovgan), the violin sonata (T. Omelchenko), the piano trio (L. Volkova) in terms of their typological, structural-semantic and performance analysis is developed. The attention of scientists is also given to the genesis of ensemble genres in the regional context of the interaction of European, national and local musical traditions. In particular, there are complex historical and genre studies of the Lviv chamber sonata (T. Slyusar) and genre models of the chamber ensemble from the heritage of composers of Donbass region (A. Utina) are systematized according to the principle of structure formation.

The pieces of Ukrainian ensemble music also fall into the analytical discourse of special historical and genre studies of the European chamber tradition. For example, in the theses of M. Karapinka and L. Zima some works of Ukrainian composers (V. Bibik, G. Gavrilets, V. Stepurko, Yu. Ishchenko, S. Zazhytko, B. Lya - toshinsky, V. Silvestrov, J. Gomelska, A. Tomlionova) are "inscribed" in the context of the study of the evolution of the genre paradigms of the sonata for viola and piano and the piano quintet from the Baroque to the turn of the ХХ-ХХІ centuries. A holistic interpretation of the questions of performing and interpreting character in the context of the genre genesis of the piano duo in European music, where several pieces of Ukrainian authors are present (Yu. Ishchenko, B. Filts), is made in the research works of O. Shcherbakova and Yu. Shcherbakov. Some information about chamber music of Ukrainian composers is also present in studies of a general direction, which do not directly concern the chamber ensemble problems, where the questions of the evolution of certain genres of instrumental music are raised in their historical dynamics (A. Melnik, V. Metlushko, I. Tukova, M. Borisenko, O. Kurchanova, K. Chechenya).

As this review shows, the problems of historical genre in musicological studies constantly intersect with the historical style research, which is an essential and integral part of the comprehension of evolutionary cultural and artistic development. After all, the processes of genre formation take place against the background and in interdependence with the processes of style formation in music, when "the peculiarities of music characteristic of each genre simultaneously serve as the embodiment of both the national style and the historical style" [3, 70]. Proceeding from this, it is possible to single out a group of scientific works, where the attention of scientists, first of all, is directed to comprehending the historical style (and/or historical stylistic) situation in the genre context of Ukrainian chamber music.

In the scientific heritage of Yu. Gribinenko, N. Dika, Ye. Basalaeva, G. Astalosh, V. Andrievska, O. Kolesnik, there are wide-ranging issues related to the problems of style and stylistics in the intersection of composer creativity and performance. Among them, there are, for example, studies of musical poly-stylistics, typological classification of intertextuality (its textological, aesthetic-axiological and artistic features), general and distinctive style trends in the creative work of various regional schools in the national context of the development of chamber art, the study of the stylistic aspects of ensemble performing practice, peculiarities of the stylistic timbre evolution of ensemble parties and the expressive means of some instruments, as well as the specificity of the cultural-style originality of the author's "handwriting" on the materials of chamber music of Ukrainian composers and their performing and interpretative implementation.

In addition to special studies, questions of composer's and performing style and musical stylistics are also raised in the works of general direction, where among the widely represented genre diversity, some examples of chamber music of Ukrainian authors also appear. Let's recall, for example, the thesis of I. Yergiev (genre, style and stylistic expressive transformations of modern accordion music), D. Androsova (minimalism as style-direction and style-thinking in compositional and performing practice), O. Gorodetska (style specificity of academic, neo-folklore and avant-garde trends in Ukrainian music of the 60s of the ХХ century), Ye. Kharchenko (intertextual reading of style, genre and intonation in solo-ensemble and symphonic music of Ukraine of the ХХ century), Z. Yadlovska (historical style and stylistic trends of development the violin art of Ukraine in the 1960s-1980s), K. Meidenberg-Todorova (interpretative style principles of modern aleatory and sonoristic compositions), O. Goblik (style and genre interpretations of the Ave Maria incipit: from canonical to secular instrumental music), etc.

The analysis of some Ukrainian chamber compositions can also be found in the theoretical musico - logical works, which, along with other musical examples, factually support and illustrate certain theoretical concepts. Among them, for example, studies of artistic integrity as a universal category and a factor in the modeling of musical compositions (B. Siuta), motority as a category of musicology (O. Subbota), phenomena and concepts of variability (O. Verba), modality as a specific quality of timbre properties (M. Denisenko), mobility of the structures of instrumental sound formation (V. Muzhchil), and others.

However, despite the obvious dominance of classical musicology strategies in the study of the chamber art of Ukraine, we observe the processes of gradual integration of artistic, philosophical and cultural positions of scientific understanding of the ensemble heritage. When using the musicology of the interdisciplinary methodological capabilities of modern humanitaristics, "the credibility of the subjective factors of the creative process, the perception of music and culture as phenomena of a holistic psychological nature, interest in altered states of consciousness as self-valuable "signs'-artifacts of other dimensions of reality, becomes very revealing" [7, 18-19].

Thus, the expansion of the spectrum of the problem field of musicology to the art history, criticism and cultural sciences is mainly actualized in studies on the cultural "regionica" (V. Lychkovah), where the cultural and historical specifics of the artistic space and phenomena localized within individual fragments of the national landscape are comprehended. In regional studies, chamber art is viewed as an integral system which functioning in the regional socio-cultural space presupposes a certain balance and interaction of structural components, including compositional and performing creativity, pedagogical ensemble school, instrumental and material resources, concert organizations and art-management. In studies, the importance of the creative activity of composers, performers, scientists, educators, public figures - movers of regional and national cultural processes in Ukraine (O. Grabovskaya, A. Kravchenko, A. Utina, and others) is also emphasized. Despite the fact that the study of chamber music in regional aspects began recently, these studies still do not distinguish by variety of their geography, but there is a tendency of its gradual expansion.

Cultural vectors are also actualized during the research of chamber creativity as one of the components of the national artistic culture. For example, the study of the semiotic influence of art polylogue is carried out on the basis of ensemble pieces in various planes and technologies of interaction between music and painting, literature, theatre, numerical symbols, computer and digital devices in the genre, stylistic, formbuilding and program-contextual aspects of modeling music (A. Chibalashvili, M. Perepelitsa, I. Rakunova, and others).

The search horizons of musicology, aimed at analyzing the specific musical structural and performing parameters of creativity, are also very enriched by the principles of philosophy and the aesthetics of music. This provides not only musicological analysis (genre and style palette, textural, technical-constructive, expressive possibilities and related problems of performing and interpretative nature), but also coverage the questions of spiritual life and sensual-aesthetic intentions of composers' creativity. It is this philosophical and aesthetic view of the Ukrainian chamber music, which, in the course of the historical evolution of its genre and semantic qualities, preserves the "genetic genre code - the semantic core of chamberness as an aspiration for a higher spiritual sphere" [5, 103] and makes a philosophical approach to studying musical past and reality is especially relevant.

According to these positions and based on the developed philosophical methodological foundations of the study of the nature of composer's thinking and figuratively-semantic, musical-expressive levels of compositions, the pieces of chamber art of Ukraine are studied in the theses of O. Beregova, I. Savchuk, bio - bibliographical research works of O. Martsenkivska, D. Kanevska, R. Varnava, and others.

Through the prism of various interdisciplinary aspects of comprehension of musical life, chamber problems are partly included in general research. Among them, let us recall O. Kozarenko's scientific works (the genesis of the national musical language as a semiotic system in the stages of pre-style, style and meta/over-style), B. Stronko's (universal-ontological basis of the typology of qualities of being-time in music), N. Pilatyuk's (philosophical, psychological and social aspects of the functioning of derivative genres), O. Ushapivska's (ethical-philosophical and cultural studies of the reflection of landscape in the music of Ukrainian composers of the XX century), T. Bondarchuk's (study of systemic stylistic and figurative-semantic interconnections of various arts of the postmodern era), M. Maksimenko's (synthetics, multi-graphic arts of performance in the cultural and information continuum of today) and others.

This complex way of understanding the issues of chamber art in the variety of its historical, musico - logical, artistic, cultural and philosophical positions is a clear indication of the "extraverted development" (according to O. Samoylenko) of contemporary musicology. Because the "exit" for its own categorical framework in the interdisciplinary zone of the projection of scientific ideas, complements the factography and factology of ensemble creativity, performance and pedagogy with extremely important details. In this regard, further interdisciplinary studies of chamber music on the basis of the positions of philosophy and the aesthetics of music (V. Lichkovak, V. Medushevsky, V. Sukantseva, O. Ryabinina), musical semiotics (O. Kapichina), theory of intermediality (O. Aznacheeva, I. Borisova, R. Brugzene), cultural-hermeneutic analysis (V. Moskalenko, A. Kolesnik), cognitive interpretation (A. Amrakhova) and other approaches of the philosophical and aesthetic spectrum that lay the foundation of the theory and history of the chamber art of Ukraine are promising. Therefore, the approval of these necessary interdisciplinary criteria and approaches to the study of modern music in the context of the semiology of art and "cultural musicology" (according to Markova [2]) and their approbation on the material of composer's and performing art is topical and deserving theoretical attention.

Scientific novelty. According to this, we note that the author's classification of the types of research of Ukrainian chamber art presented in this article, in terms of their chronology, problems and methodology, made it possible to identify the gaps, to find and approve the necessary criteria for further analysis of artifacts of chamber ensemble creativity as cultural and aesthetic phenomena in their historical, cultural, semiotic and intermedial parameters, which is the novelty of the study.

Conclusions. In the conclusions, we note that chamber art is an integral part of the Ukrainian musical culture, which becomes an object of national, regional, bio-bibliographic research in the aspects of historical, cultural, philosophical, art criticism and musicological problems.

Historical research tends to comprehend the formation, regularities and periodization of the development of the chamber art of Ukraine from amateurism to professionalism in the context of socio-cultural, political, educational and artistic processes of the corresponding era. Art criticism is focused on highlighting the dynamics of the development of chamber art as a multicomponent system. Musicological research is concerned primarily with the analysis of the composer's (genre, style, form, content), performing and interpretative vocabulary (technical-articulatory, intonational, artistically expressive performing means) in their unity and conformity to the historical and cultural context. The cultural vector of the analysis of chamber problems is presented in the studies of national and regional processes of cultural creativity and their movers - creative personalities. In scientific works, where the spiritual, intellectual and ideological potential of a person is revealed, the study of genre, style, cultural and intonational connections of European, national, regional traditions of chamber art and features of the author's "handwriting" of composers acquires a philosophical emphasis.

The revealed tendency of a gradual increase in the number of studies of the philosophical-cultural and aesthetic direction has a great importance for the reconstruction of the picture of the national musical culture. However, despite the attraction of musicology to the interdisciplinary approaches of modern humani - taristics and the existence of some research works where the poly-methodological principles have been successfully applied to the analysis of musical phenomena of classical and non-classical chamber art of Ukraine, the theoretical and methodological potential of related sciences is not sufficiently involved. The analysis of the special literature reveals the dominance of classical musicological strategies for studying historical genre, style and stylistic aspects of Ukrainian chamber music, often without the using of non-classical and post-non-classical approaches and categories.

In this regard, theoretical and methodological reflections lead scientists to the level of cultural, aesthetic and philosophical studies and the development of the newest research parameters for the chamber art, which provide for the application of integration approaches based on the synergy of musicological traditions and modern interdisciplinary opportunities for scientific interpretation of the "old" and "new" "music (the philosophy, aesthetics and semiotics of music, the theory of intermediality, culture-hermeneutic analysis, cognitive interpretation, etc.). Consequently, the expediency of searching for a system research model that would allow forming a comprehensive view of the development of the chamber art of Ukraine is unquestionable. Approbation of these necessary criteria for the analysis of musical artifacts as cultural and aesthetic phenomena lays the foundation for a new cultural doctrine of modern musicology, which leads to a comprehension of the historical, cultural, semiotic and intermediate aspects of chamber art in the context of the universalistic paradigm of postmodern culture.

References

1. Kolesnik O.V. (2017). Language-stylistic identity of the chamber creativity by Evgeny Stankovich. Candidate's thesis. Lviv [in Ukrainian].

2. Markova O.M. (2013). Musical Culturology in the system of modern humanitarian knowledge. International Journal: Culturology. Philology. Musicology, 1.145-149 [in Ukrainian].

3. Nazaikinsky E.V. (2003). Style and genre in music. Moscow: The Humanitarian Publishing Center VLADOS [in Russian].

4. Oliva B.A. (2003). Art at the end of the second millennium (G. Courierov, K. Chekalov, Trans.). Moscow: Art magazine [in Russian].

5. Polzun L.I. (2017). "Bifunctional chambering code" as a semantic sign of instrumental ensemble genres. Herald of National Academy of managerial staff of culture and arts, 2, 103-107 [in Ukrainian].

6. Polska I. (2015). Chamber art of Ukraine: the ways of theoretical comprehension. Chamber ensemble: history, theory, practice, 34, 29-47 [in Ukrainian].

7. Samoylenko A. (2010). Methodological intentions of the category "spirituality" and methodical self-definition of modern musicology. Scientific Herald of the National Music Academy of Ukraine named P. Tchaikovsky, 85, 7-21 [in Ukrainian].

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