Scenarios of implementing the mechanism of collaborative alliances on the territories of natural resource extraction with risk factors

Scientific and methodical approach to coordinate the interests of different groups in forming cooperative alliances of levels of the hierarchy. Identification of scenarios of socio-economic and spatial development taking into account risk factors.

Рубрика Экономика и экономическая теория
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 30.08.2018
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Sumy State University

Scenarios of implementing the mechanism of collaborative alliances on the territories of natural resource extraction with risk factors

Halynska Yu.

PhD in Economics, Associate Professor

We offered the scientific-methodical approach on coordination of interests of different groups in forming the collaborative alliances of different levels of hierarchy in this article. Based on the scenario approach, using the variability criteria that determine some changes in implementing the mechanism of collaborative alliances in the territories of natural resource extraction, we determined the most probable scenarios of socio-economic and spatial development, taking into account the risk factors.

Key words: collaborative alliance, scenarios of participants' interaction, natural resources, risks in the functioning of collaborative alliances.

Галинська Ю.В.

к.е.н., доцент, Сумський державний університет (Суми, Україна)

СЦЕНАРІЇ ВПРОВАДЖЕННЯ МЕХАНІЗМУ КОЛАБОРАЦІЙНИХ АЛЬЯНСІВ НА ТЕРИТОРІЯХ ВИДОБУВАННЯ ПРИРОДНИХ РЕСУРСІВ З УРАХУВАННЯМ ФАКТОРІВ РИЗИКУ

В статті запропоновано науково-методичний підхід щодо узгодження інтересів різних груп при формуванні колабораційних альянсів різних рівнів ієрархії. На основі сценарного підходу за допомогою критеріїв варіативності, які визначають зміни у впровадженні механізму колабораційних альянсів на територіях видобування природних ресурсів були визначено найбільш ймовірні сценарії соціально-економічного і просторового розвитку з урахуванням факторів ризику.

Ключові слова: колабораційних альянс, сценарії взаємодії учасників, природні ресурси, ризики при функціонуванні колабораційних альянсів.

Галинская Ю.В.

к.э.н., доцент, Сумский государственный университет (Сумы, Украина)

СЦЕНАРИИ ВНЕДРЕНИЯ МЕХАНИЗМА КОЛЛАБОРАЦИОННОГО АЛЬЯНСА НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ ДОБЫЧИ ПРИРОДНЫХ РЕСУРСОВ С УЧЕТОМ ФАКТОРОВ РИСКА

В статье предложен научно-методический подход согласования интересов различных групп при формировании коллаборационных альянсов различных уровней иерархии. На основе сценарного подхода с помощью критериев вариативности, которые определяют изменения во внедрении механизма коллаборационных альянсов на территориях добычи природных ресурсов, были определены наиболее вероятные сценарии социальноэкономического и пространственного развития с учетом факторов риска. cooperative alliance economic risk

Ключевые слова: коллаборационный альянс, сценарии взаимодействия участников, природные ресурсы, риски при функционировании коллаборационных альянсов.

Formulation of the problem. Permanent changes in rental policy in Ukraine not only do not contribute to the stability of economic situation in the country, but, on the contrary, destabilize and motivate fuel-producing companies, which are the main payers of rental income. The state, in its turn, does not receive rental income from the extraction of natural resources, despite the gradual growth of the rent payment percentage. The social and environmental tensions are increasing in the regions where the natural resources are extracted. All this factors lead to the formation of a nontransparent and inefficient natural resource market, the ruin of Ukrainian regions and the increase of environmental hazard.

In other works, we have already proved the need to create such an instrument that would promote the interest of all participants in the redistribution of rental income from the natural resources extraction and would be an effective organizational form for the formation of social responsibility (Halynska Y., 2017). Such an organizational form can be represented by a collaborative alliance, in which all participants (state - fuel-producing company - local communities) will have a certain socio-economic interest in the balanced allocation of rental income and will function through the mechanism of systemic interaction.

The practice of management of foreign countries shows that the basis of ensuring the stability and effectiveness of socio-economic relations is the mutual interest of all participants in the creation, distribution and redistribution of rental income and social security of the population in the regions of their extraction.

But the problem is that we have identified some risks in the process of this mechanism development, which could be faced by the alliance members (state - local communities - fuel- producing companies) during operation of the collaborative alliances. Therefore, we developed the scientific-methodical approach on coordination of interests of different groups in forming the collaborative alliances of different levels of hierarchy using the scenario method. Taking into account that the organizational mechanism of rental income redistribution can provoke various consequences and the development of unforeseen events, both in the regions and in the country as a whole, it is necessary to consider the variability of events, taking into account different criteria.

Analysis of publications. Many works are devoted to the topic of using a scenario approach in forecasting political and social processes. They mainly include the American, British, German, Russian scientists: L.I. Abalkin, A.S. Akhremenko, S. Braun, R. Bud, A.Viner, L. Gann, Yu. Hausemeier, Kh. Geshka, N. Glass, V. Dannikov, G. Zhukova, A. Zibe, S.V. Ildemenov, G. Kan, G.N. Kalyanov, E. Kveid, B.I. Krasnov, S. Kurganyan, A.T. Kutanov, D. Marka, Kmak-Gouen, E.G. Oikhman, E.V. Popov, T. Postma, Yu.V. Sidelnikov, E.D. Solozhentsev, B. Teilor, V.N. Trenev, K.A. Feofanov, A. Fink, R. Hammer, B. Hogwood, V.N. Tsigichko, A.Z. Sheier, O. Shlake, S. Yuditsky.

This method seems to be most effective for considering probable events in the future, because in addition to analyzing the factors affecting the company and the business as a whole, the possible development scenarios in the future and the possible interaction of strategic goals, flexible and "durable in terms of the future", strategy acquire special significance. The accepted development options include the plurality of possible pictures of the future, increasing the value, sensitivity and peculiarities of strategic decisions, goals and strategies implemented in the scenarios (Akimova, 2006).

This method allows answering the following questions:

What are the trends of a particular aspect of the development of the considered business system, the conditions and factors that determine them?

What problems can be faced by the investigated business system, where are located the bifurcation points, in which there can be a sharp change in the system parameters or structure?

How and to what extent the management decisions influence the trajectory of the future development of the predicted business system, what are the consequences of various options of the considered decision, what is the area of admissible alternatives to this solution?

The purpose of this article is to consider the interaction scenarios of alliance participants at the vertical level (state - territorial community - enterprise) and at the horizontal level (enterprise - enterprise) in the process of creating added value and its component - the natural resource rent.

Research results. Most scientists point out that the content of coercive mechanisms existing today has been the source of many problems of the transition economy, which are related to the development of informal links between the economic subjects [2,3,4,8]. Today, the market economy institutions are practically formed, but they largely fail to meet the reformation processes, which so far only unfold and do not sufficiently influence the course of further transformation of the country's economy. They cannot respond quickly enough to new relationships with economic agents and to introduce new coordination mechanisms.

Under the prevailing conditions, the extractive enterprises are not profitable to show higher income, since a rent payment is deducted in percentage correlation. As a result, there is a need to create a rental income redistribution mechanism, which would be interesting to all participants in this creation in Ukraine, and in some countries of Eastern Europe (Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, etc.).

The evaluation of the factors inherent in different forms of cooperation has shown that the greatest number of factors have the highest value for the effective interaction of business entities at the collaboration. This suggests that firstly, collaboration is the most transparent form of interaction between the subjects in comparison with other forms of cooperation, and secondly, similar forms of interaction such as cooperation have differences in the formulation of goals, communication form, presence of competition, etc. Thus, the collaborative alliances are the organizational form that will facilitate the optimal redistribution of rental income between the state - region and the extractive enterprises.

An analysis of the studies of leading economies of the world has showed that one of the real mechanisms for replenishing the budgets of the regions and the state is the optimal rent allocation from the natural resource extraction and the attribution of part of rental income to local budgets in order to restore the territories after natural resource extraction and life development of the territorial communities [9].

The own research made it possible to develop the scientific-methodical approach on coordination of interests of different groups in forming the cooperative alliances of different levels of hierarchy (horizontal and vertical). The use of the scenario approach reveals an effect that, by means of variability criteria, determines changes in implementing the mechanism of collaborative alliances in the territories of natural resource extraction and taking into account the risk factors.

The introduction of new forms of work organization at the state level or at the enterprise level will always face the risks and counteractions of individual work participants. Therefore, it is necessary to "play" the options of events and risk occurrence at different levels (state, fuel- producing companies and regions where the natural resource extraction takes place).

In order the author could systematize the variational events of functioning of the collaborative alliances in the field of natural resource extraction; we sorted the options of event occurrence by S indicator, with the combination of expert, system and empirical methods. The event scenarios are considered in accordance with three expert groups. The expert groups worked in 2015 and 2016. Three options of the event development were adopted as the base (optimistic, pessimistic, and most probable). Based on the interdependence formalization between the collaborative risks of different groups, we suggested choosing the risk management tools depending on their manifestations, as well as on other factors, the specific combination of which should be established on the basis of S indicator. The main S variation criteria are: il - level of collaborative alliances;

ir - risk type;

im - competition type of the fuel-producing companies;

ic - type of socio-ecological and economic crisis (situation in the country) (Table 1).

S {if; if; im;ic}, in which:

il - level of collaborative alliances

- state level;

- fuel-producing company level;

- regional level);

ir - risk type

- increase in the resource price;

- resource depletion in the region;

- state control over the fuel-producing companies;

- market;

- monetary;

- liquidity risk;

- increase in the rent payments;

- legal;

- strategic);

im - competition type of the fuel-producing companies

- intra-industry;

- inter-industry;

- imperfect;

- perfect;

ic - type of socio-ecological and economic crisis (situation in the country)

- economic;

- social development;

- monetary;

- liquidity;

- trust;

- ecological;

Table 1

Scenarios of implementing the mechanism of collaborative alliances depending on the variability criteria S {il; ir; im;ic} (fragment)

Optimistic development option

The most probable

Pessimistic development option

S {1; 1;1;6>

S {1; 7; 2;1>

S {1; 7; 2;6>

- financial resource receipt for the regional development and environmental protection;

S {1; 4;2;4> S {1; 1;2;2> S {1; 4;2;2>

- decrease in the enterprise's profit by increasing the cost price of natural resources;

S {1; 2;1;6> S {1;1;2;1>

there will be no equal redistribution of rental income between the collaboration participants;

increase in rent payment;

S {1; 3; 1;1>

S {2;1;2;2> S {1;7;1;3> S {2;3;1;2> S {2;7;2;5>

the state provides the exploration of minerals, regulation in the natural resource extraction through its own structures;

the costs for social and environmental needs of the regions will be reduced;

S {2;7;2;1>

S {1;3;2;3>

S {2; 2;2;4> S {3; 1;2;6>

increase in revenues to local budgets;

the natural resource prices may increase;

S {3; 2;2;1> S {3;7; 2;2> S {2; 7;1;6> S {2; 6;1;3>

Difficulty in coordinating the interests of the parties;

shifting revenues towards peripheries;

the corruption schemes are possible;

S {1;3;1;2>

S {2;5;2;1>

S {1;5;1;2>

S {1;8;3;3>

S {2;9;3;6>

the budget revenues will increase;

optimization of costs for the natural resource extraction through the system of state benefits for the income taxation and VAT in the implementation of large investment projects;

S{2;6;3;1>

S {3;5;4;2>

S {3; 2;4;1>

S {1; 9;1;1>

S {3; 6;1;3>

the interests of extractive enterprises and mining regions will be taken into account;

it is necessary to reform the legislative and legal aspects;

S {1;7; 2;2>

S {1; 3;3;5>

S {2; 7;4;1>

S {2; 5;4;1>

S {3; 7;1;6>

constant changes in rent payments in the environmental management lead to a decrease in natural resource extraction;

stop of operating low- tech enterprises;

S {1;5;3;5>

S {2; 1;4;2>

S {3; 9;3;5>

S {3; 3;3;5>

S {2; 9;1;6>

S {1; 5;1;6>

raising

confidence in the state;

obtaining certain advantages from participation in the collaboration with business in the mining industry through the rental income receipt;

S {2;3;2;4>

S {2;5;3;3>

S {3; 4;1;1> S {3;6; 2;1>

control over the key economy sectors;

the problem of taking into account the interests of all parties

S {1;8;2;2>

S {2;8;4;5>

S {3; 9;3;1> S {1;7;3;1>

the need to revise the regulatory framework;

increased competition at the domestic level;

corruption schemes;

S {2; 5;1;3>

S {3;4;2;1>

the resource prices should decrease and become stable;

the use of a part of the natural rent for the

development of

S {1; 7;4;1>

S {2; 6;3;3>

-decreasing the profit of enterprises by increasing the cost price of natural resources;

S{1;1;9;1>

S {2; 8;1;1>

S {3;8;1;1>

the need for complete reform of public administration;

stop of operating enterprises, the result of which will be the budget shortage, the growth of social

mining region and its inhabitants, taking into account the interests of extractive enterprises;

tension in the region and the country as a whole

S {2;4;3;4}

S {2;5;3;3}

S {2;6;4;5}

S {2;8;3;2}

S {3;3;4;5}

increase in the asset value of extractive companies;

introduction of new technologies at the enterprises;

provision of new jobs;

S {3;2;1;1}

S {3;1;4;4}

S {2;4;3;3}

S {3;7;1;2}

S {3;8;4;1}

increase of target funds for the mining region development;

imbalance of interests of the cooperation participants;

optimization of economic interests with the use of natural resources of a specific territory;

S {1;3;3;1}

S {1;1;1;5}

S {2;6;3;4}

S {2;3;4;1}

S {3;1;1;1}

increase in the additional risks;

increase in the resource price;

conflict of interests;

S {2;5;1;1}

S {2;4;2;3}

- optimization of economic interests with the use of natural resources among all collaboration participants;

S {2;6;1;1}

S {2;4;3;1}

S {1;2;3;1}

S {3;5;3;1}

increased competition between the extractive enterprises;

the resource prices should decrease;

S {2;1;3;1}

S {2;7;3;2}

increase in the rent payments;

increase in the resource price;

S {2;6;1;3}

S {2;9;3;4}

improving the company's image,

increase in the market asset value;

S {2;6;2;1}

S {2;4;3;6}

the need to upgrade the technological base of enterprises;

introduction of new energy-saving technologies;

S {3;8;2;1}

S {2;9;4;1}

S {3;4;3;1}

introduction of new, unfamiliar methods and rules of work;

complexity of introducing the cooperation mechanism in the environmental management;

resistance from the side of country's population;

S {3;4;4;1}

S {3;5;4;2}

- development of target funds for the restoration of regions;

S {1;3;2;2}

S {3;7;3;6}

S {3;2;1;5}

increase in the volume of natural

resource exploration and extraction;

guaranteed receipt of the share of rental income from the natural resource extraction;

S {2;4;3;2}

S {3;2;1;3}

deterioration of the economic situation of the regions;

depletion of regional resources;

S {1;4;1;2}

- socially-oriented cooperation between the state and extractive enterprises;

S {1;3;3;2}

S {3;3;1;1}

socio-economic development of the regions;

control over the extraction of natural resources by the state and communities;

S {1;4;1;6}

S {2;1;1;3}

S {2;5;1;1}

the complexity of creating the collaborative alliances in the mining industry;

increase in the cost price of production;

increase in the intraindustry competition;

S {3;4;1;2}

S {3;8;3;2}

S {3;9;2;5}

S {3;5;1;2}

S {3;2;3;2}

increase in

financing the

regional social programs;

growth of the

S {2;7;3;1}

S {2;1;3;2}

S {3;4;2;5}

S {3;9;1;5}

- optimization

redistribution of

rental income

between the state, regions and

S {3;2;3;1}

S {3;2;2;1}

depletion of regional resources;

increase in the natural resource prices;

welfare of

citizens;

development of

the region where the resource

extraction takes place;

increase in the

regional social

standards;

extractive

enterprises;

increase of public confidence;

development and implementation of social programs;

S {3;2;4;2}

S {3;4;4;2}

S {1;4;4;1}

development of mechanisms of material and moral

compensation for regions after the resource extraction;

additional revenues to the budgets of all levels;

optimal coordination of interests of the collaborative alliance participants;

S {2;9;4;1}

S {3;4;1;3}

S {3;9;1;2}

S {3;8;4;2}

positive rating of extractive enterprises;

development of the socio-economic sphere of regions; -implementation of state environmental protection programs for the regional development;

S {1;7;1;2}

S {2;1;4;2}

S {2;2;3;5}

S {3;2;4;4}

discrepancy of regulatory framework to changes in the rental policy;

growth of corruption schemes;

depletion of the resource base, especially the resources of national importance;

increase in the general risks;

S {3;6;4;1}

S {3;4;2;2}

S {1;6;4;3}

S {1;9;2;5}

- increase in financing the social fields; medicine, education, culture, regional development, infrastructure improvement;

S {3;5;4;2}

S {3;1;4;5}

S {2;3;2;5}

S {3;2;4;5}

mutual

responsibility of the parties in the rental income redistribution;

saving natural resources for future generations;

the possibility of regional development;

S {2;6;3;1}

S {2;5;3;1}

S {3;6;4;2}

S {3;4;3;6}

the need for additional costs for the introduction of new technologies at the enterprises to maintain their competitiveness;

sub-optimal redistribution of rental income;

increase in the cost price of production of the enterprises;

There is a number of problems regarding the coordination of interests of the parties with observance of the established communication rules in the course of implementing the cooperation. There is formal or real cooperation in the course of cooperation, since the legal agreement and contractual drawing up is not enough for the emergence of the collaboration process and its desired end result.

The event development scenarios have shown that when creating the collaborative alliances in all event options (optimistic, pessimistic, and most probable), the additional costs will be increased for the introduction of new technologies at the enterprises to maintain their competitiveness, and the cost price of production of the enterprises and the rent for natural resource extraction can be increased. One of the main problems revealed is the inconsistency of interests of the collaborative alliance participants in the environmental management. That is, there are no guarantees that the opportunist mood will not be present in the alliance. However, in addition to an optimal redistribution of rental income from the natural resource extraction, a collaborative alliance is created for the formation of social responsibility in the resource redistribution. If all the alliance participants will adhere to the agreements within the framework of the alliance, then there will be a collaborative effect based on the synergy phenomenon. The

Collaborative effect will be manifested in the increase of value added, which in turn will affect the growth of natural resource production, improvement of working conditions, increase in tax revenues to the budget and improvement of the regional infrastructure.

Conclusion

The studies have shown that no enterprise can hope for the preservation of competitive advantages only by means of their own forces in a modern economy. The partnerships and alliances make it possible to combine internal resources of the company with the resources coming from the outside. The creation of collaborative alliances can outline the interests of specific regions, as well as formalize the relationships between the enterprises. There is a collaborative effect that results from the interaction of their participants in the process of functioning of the collaborative alliances. Since the collaborative effect arises on the basis of synergy phenomenon, then the effect can be both positive and negative. The considered scenarios of event variability allowed us identifying both positive and negative trends in the creation and operation of collaborative alliances in the environmental management.

The identified event scenarios can help to develop the anti-risk mechanisms and implementation strategies for creating and operating a collaborative alliance in the environmental management. The introduction of three options for the event development (optimistic, pessimistic, and most probable) makes it possible to select those options that will be most appropriate in the specific areas of natural resource extraction.

This approach has been developed in general for all regions of Ukraine's mining industry, but it can be applied in a particular region, if there are specific factors that are not mentioned in our approach.

References

Halynska, Y. V. Collaboration or cooperation: concept definitions when merging interests of the state and extractive companies of Ukraine / Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management, Vol. 8, Issue 4. India, 2017. - P.1470-1476. [E-resource]. - Access mode: www.scitecresearch.com

Sergeev, R. Natural rent: world experience and Russian mistakes // Analytical Journal Russian Entrepreneur. 2002. № 9. - P. 10-11.

Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents [E-resource]. - Access mode: www.tradingeconomics.com/kazakhstan/total-n

Belonin, M. D. Valuation of the stock of the rental tax system in the oil industry // Mineral Resources of Russia: Economics and Management 2004. - №4. - P.18-23.

Roggenkamp, M. Oil and Gas. Netherlands law and Practice // Chancery Law Publishing Ltd., 1991.

Kosow, Hannah: Methods of future and scenario analysis: overview, assessment, and selection criteria / Hannah Kosow ; Robert GaBner. DIE Research Project “Development Policy: Questions for the Future”. - Bonn: Dt. Inst. fur Entwicklungspolitik, 2007 - (Studies / Deutsches Institut fur Entwicklungspolitik;

Mietzner, D., Regereu, G. Scenario Approaches - History, Differences, Advantages and Disadvantages us seminar: new technology foresight, forecasting & assessment methods- Seville 13-14 May 2004

Maluy, І. On the issue of the theory of land tenure and the problem of reforming land relations. // Ukraine economy. - 2000. - № 8. - P. 49-54.

Halynska, Y. V. The main questions regarding the inclusion of the rental component in the formation of incomes of the nature of operating enterprises / Scientific Journal «Intelekt ХХІ», Kharkiv: Publishing house «Gelvetika», - Issue.2, - 2017. - P. 288-294

Akimova, O. Essence, forms and peculiarities of the scenarios approach in the modern management. Specialty 22.00.08 - Management Sociology. Abstract of a Ph.D. Thesis in Sociological Sciences. Moscow - 2006.Размещено на Allbest.ru

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Рекомендуем скачать работу.