Historiographical and research comparative approaches to the analysis of problems of military reform in the Ukrainian provinces of Russia and their consequences for the daily life of the population in the second half of XIX century

Of aggravated global problems of economic, political, social, and interna¬tional nature almost in all the post-Soviet sovereign countries and between them as a whole. The role of armies, their reforms and impact on the everyday life of the population.

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UDC 930

historiographical and research comparative approaches to the analysis of problems of military reform in the Ukrainian provinces of Russia and their consequences for the daily life of the population in the second half of xix century

Mezeria O.A.

The current stage is characterized by a lot of aggravated global problems of economic, political, social, and international nature almost in all the post-Soviet sovereign countries and between them as a whole. This is caused by the following: the common global economic crisis; internal status of each independent countries inherited from the Soviet Union, including their significant interdependence in all spheres; search by each state of own future ways related to the Euro-integration and Euro-Atlantic processes; and occurrence of interstate conflicts, including military ones. The latter especially accentuates the role of armies, their reforms and impact on the everyday life of the population. This also applies to modern Ukraine with the presence of external aggression, and with Donbas and the Crimea which are not controlled by the Ukrainian Government.

In the author's opinion, the problem should be studied in several directions; in this case it is necessary to focus on taking into account of negative and positive sides of the mid-XIX century when reforming the Armed Forces of Ukraine in 20132017 and consequences of this process for the everyday life of the population. It concerns the comparative analysis of the following on the basis of the past and the present: study of foreign policy, common internal and regional factors; analysis of the internal development of armies, formation of military science and technology, gradual retreat from the stratification in military service in the XIX century before transferring the Ukrainian Armed Forces to the professional basis in the XXI century; and definition of the military reform effect on the everyday life of the population.

Key words: reform of the armies in the territory of Ukraine, everyday life of the population, the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

Мезеря О.А. Історіографічні та дослідницькі порівняльні підходи до аналізу проблеми військових реформ в українських губерніях Росії та їх наслідків на повсякденне життя населення в другій половині ХІХ століття.

На сучасному етапу реформування Збройних Сил Україні, особливо з тимчасовими втратами нашої держави контролю над територіями Донбасу та Криму, вкрай необхідно знов та знов звертатися до минулорічної та багатовікової історії взаємовідносин із сусідніми країнами, тобто, у часовому просторі. Тому, як уявляється, актуальним та науково-практично значимим постає проблема вивчення та врахування минулого позитивного та негативного досвіду у зазначеній сфері з північним сусідом України - Росією. Особливим періодом можна означити у цьому плані середину ХІХ - початок ХХ століть.

У зв 'язку з вищеозначеними чинниками автором вирішується завдання означення дослідницько-порівняльного аналізу впливу армії на повсякденне життя населення України.

Ключові слова: Збройні Сили України, реформа армій на території України у часовому просторі, дослідницько-порівняльний аналіз, вплив армії на повсякденне життя населення.

Мезеря А.А. Историографические и исследовательские сравнительные подходы к анализу военных реформ в украинских губерниях России и их влияния на повседневную жизнь населения во второй половине ХІХ столетия.

Статья в исследовательско-аналитическом обзоре раскрывает тему подходов автора в плане его взглядов на проблему рассмотрения вопросов, связанных с изучением темы реформ российской армии во второй половине ХІХ века, и, в настоящее время, применительно к Вооруженным Силам Украины и, особенно, влияния нахождения армии иной страны, на повседневную жизнь населения.

Акцентируется внимание на обращение в научных разведках к исследованию ряда выделенных проблем изучения. Среди них: анализ учета негатива и позитива реформ середины ХІХ - начала ХХ столетий при при сравнении реформирования Вооруженных Сил Украины в 20132017 гг. и влияния последствий этого процесса на повседневность населения. Это касается ряда факторов, в том числе: изучения внешнеполитических, внутренних и региональных факторов; анализа становления современной армии, развития военной науки и техники; перевода ВСУ на контрактную основу; определения степени влияния армии на повседневность жителей.

Ключевые слова: Вооруженные Силы Украины, реформа армий на территории Украини, исследовательсь- ко-сравнительный анализ, влияние армии на повседневную жизнь населения.

Мезеря Олександр Анатолійович, кандидат історичних наук, доцент, доцент кафедри правознавства Східноукраїнського національного університету імені Володимира Даля.

Рецензент: д.і.н., проф. ДовжукІ.В.

General problem setting and its relevance. The turn of the XX and XXI centuries is characterized by many aggravated global problems of economic, political, social, interstate and international nature and others almost in all the post-Soviet sovereign countries and between them as a whole. This is caused by several factors.

First, this is the world-wide economic crisis. Second, the internal situation in each of the independent states resulted from their development as independent countries. The latter has inherited not only complex consequences of the “Soviet and undivided” nature (i. e. interdependence, first of all) in all spheres. Third, search by each state of own future paths related to the European integration and European-Atlantic processes. Fourth, the occurrence of interstate conflicts, including armed ones, between the former Soviet republics.

The latter makes a particular accent on the role of armies at different stages, their reforms and impact on the everyday life of the population. Therefore, the role of the army in the society is of significant importance, particularly through its social and political factors. This also applies to modern Ukraine with the presence of external aggression, and with Donbas and the Crimea which are not controlled by the Ukrainian Government.

Analysis of researches and publications. We should note that the reforming of the pre-revolutionary Russian army, which was on the territory of Ukraine, attracts much attention of both domestic and western researchers. When studying this problem, it is necessary to pay attention to its rather significant historiographical potential. The historiography of reforms in the Russian army and its impact on the population of the Ukrainian lands in the second half of the XIX century can be divided conditionally into several chronological and subject groups.

According to the chronology, the historiography is divided, first, into Russian of the second half of XIX - early XX century.

Second, a considerable analytical material is contained in the scientific papers of the Soviet period. These are primarily the monographs P. Zaionchkovskyi [1] and L. Bieskrovnyi [2].

Third, several approaches to consequences of the military reforms in the second half of the XIX century have been identified in the recent years. A number of Ukrainian researchers devoted their papers to the problem of military settlements in the Ukrainian provinces. They include the papers of V Tsubenko [3] and O. Sharmar [4]. They also cover the everyday life of military settlers, but they have time limits covering only the beginning of the reforms and relating primarily to the military population. The impact of the military reforms on the everyday life of the civilian population in the Ukrainian provinces has not been subject to detail analysis.

It is worth noting that the historiography is divided by subjects. In particular, the modern Ukrainian historians pay most attention to the impact of the reforms in the second half of the XIX century on the everyday life of the Ukrainian population. In this respect, attention should be paid to thesis researches, which consider indirectly the regional peculiarities and everyday life of certain social groups of the Ukrainian population in the context of reforms [5].

The author of this article also started studying this problem at the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century. In 2011, he published the article “Military reforms in the Ukrainian provinces in the second half of XIX - early XX century in the context of everyday life” [6], and in 2012, he published the paper “Russian army and population of Ukraine: aspects of everyday life (second half of XIX - beginning of XX centuries)” [7], where he analysed the social consequences of the military reforms for the civilian population.

Ukraine, as a sovereign modern state, has a short history. However, close relations with its nearest neighbours, adoption of centuries-old experience, and sometimes very negative relations with them should be studied in detail. These positions made the author of this article express his vision of scientific searches in studying the problem of military reforms in the Ukrainian provinces of Russia in the XIX century, and this allowed formulating the main goal of own researches. In addition, he concretizes it by disclosing the comparative research approaches and does not claim to be final a priori of conclusions.

Basic material presentation. First of all, the issue regarding the reason of this subject attractiveness appears. The answer may be wordy, but the author focuses on the following provisions. First, reforms of each army are preceded by substantial historical and legal, social and economic, and public and political drivers. Second, in the process of reforms the army initiates the development of the above drivers, and changes, directly and indirectly, all spheres of the society existence. Third, the army being reformed brings to life a number of important factors of the society existence, in particular those having an impact on the change of the mentality, way of life of the state's residents and their everyday life. Fourth, the army reforms are based on significant developments in the field of science and technology, and at the same time significantly promotes the distribution of their achievements in “peaceful” sectors of the economy. Fifth, and this is quite possible to agree with the statements of modern Ukrainian scientist A. Reient about the need in retracting from two extremes while analysing historical events “... maybe it is time to refuse from taking one component as the dominant - either of material or spiritual origin. In simplest cases, the event nature is defined by one dominant and in complex ones, by a combination of several dominating factors” [8].

In the author's opinion, the problem should be studied by comparison in several directions; in this case it is necessary to focus on taking into account of negative and positive sides of the previous reforms of the Ukrainian army in 2013-2017 and its consequences for everyday life of the population.

The first concerns the drivers for the army deployment and its stages definition. The drivers should include a number of issues that are defined as foreign policy and general-purpose internal factors. For the latter, the regional factors are major. The foreign policy factors are derived from the global development of states, their relations and attempts to solve ambitious claims of territorial, economic, political and another nature. They are closely interconnected with the general- purpose internal factors, which are mainly caused by sustainable development of the Russian Empire and its components, including Ukraine, within the framework of global trends towards the capitalist and imperialist way. The interconnection of the foreign policy and general-purpose internal factors is the core, which defined the general directions of the army reforms. The following may be mentioned: the need for radical changes in the social and political, and economic situation in the Russian Empire, which is connected with the abolition of serfdom in the 60-ies of the XIX century and a number of reforms in education, social class relations; at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries - with the reforms and further development of industry, and its concentration, etc. However, the “pushing” importance of Russia's defeat in the Crimean War and the subsequent preparation of the states to the World War I should be emphasized as they caused in turn the total militarization of most European countries in the last third of the XIX and XX centuries. Hence, the Russian army reforms can be estimated as two-stage: the first stage - 60-70-ies of the XIX century, the second stage - 80-ies of the XIX century to 1904. In the author's opinion, the reform of the Armed Forces of independent Ukraine is also divided into two periods: before the beginning of 2014 and from the beginning of the external aggression to the present. However, the first direction should be determined by the factors that started acting in the postSoviet states and were manifested in relations between them.

The second direction is determined by overall needs in internal development of armies due to various changes in the society. First, this is the development of military science and technology caused by industrial growth in Russia, which was greatly influenced by upgrading of the industrial regions of Ukraine. Second, the gradual retreat from the stratification in military service and preparation for it, although this approach was implemented rather slowly almost until the World War I. Third, the general education reform had a positive impact both on the work of military schools and the training of new highly skilled future military men from the lowest to the highest rank. Fourth, one of the most important components of the army reform provides for passage to professional army.

The third direction relates to consequences of the army reforming. The following factors are critical for it. On the one hand, conditions for its democratization have been created, although this issue is rather disputable in view of military discipline and should be studied separately. On the other hand, the top management of the army remained consistent to the autocracy. Moreover, at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries, it started undertaking police functions of its loyal defender. The Armed Forces of independent Ukraine are based on the up-to-day legal, human and civilized principles.

The fourth direction is one of the most important from the point of view of its value, because it passes through the previous three ones as a red line and is closely associated with the regional aspects of the Russian army reforming in the territory of Ukraine. As it was mentioned before, the mining and metallurgical industry was highly developed in the Ukrainian provinces in the XIX century. Second, the army was trained outside the territory of Ukraine. Third, a significant number of military men connected their fate with Ukraine, and its citizens. In general, the military settlements in the Ukrainian provinces were the link, which greatly influenced on changes in living conditions of the population, its everyday life as a whole, and on changes in rather stable Ukrainian mentality.

global problem armie population

Conclusions

In the author's opinion, the problem should be studied in several directions; in this case it is necessary to focus on taking into account of negative and positive sides of the mid-XIX century when reforming the Armed Forces of Ukraine in 2013-2017 and consequences of this process for the everyday life of the population. It concerns the comparative analysis of the following on the basis of the past and the present: study of foreign policy, common internal and regional factors; analysis of the internal development of armies, formation of military science and technology, gradual retreat from the stratification in military service in the XIX century before transferring the Ukrainian Armed Forces to the professional basis in the XXI century; and definition of the military reform effect on the everyday life of the population.

References

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2. Beskrovnyy L.G Russkaya armiya i flot v ХІХ v. / L.G.Beskrovnyy. -- Moskva: Nauka. 1972. -- 615 s.

3. Tsubenko V.L. Viyskovi poselennya kavalern na teritoru Ukrami. 1817 -1867 rr. (formuvannya. sotsialno-ekonomichniy rozvitok. pobut) / V.L.Tsubenko: Avtoref. dis. ... d-ra ist. nauk: 07.00.01 / Odes. nats. un-t im. I.I. Mechnikova. -- Odesa. 2010. -- 30 s.

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