E.R. von Stern: philologist, historian, archaeologist

Overview of various aspects of the scientific work of an outstanding archaeologist of the late XIX - early XX century, Ernst Romanovich von Stern. The facts of his biography and achievements in archaeological, educational, epigraphic, museum activities.

Рубрика История и исторические личности
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E.R. von Stern: philologist, historian, archaeologist

In the history of archaeological research, including in antiquity, late XIX - early XX century deservedly called the heyday of classical archeology. One of the outstanding personalities, who at that time was behind the formation and development of this discipline was a talented scientist, philologist, historian and archaeologist Ernest R. von Stern (1859-1924).

About E.R. Stern personality and his role in the development of domestic archeology was written several studies, which can be divided into four chronological periods.

The first period (covering the beginning of XX century) are lifetime publication that describes E.R. Stern scientific works [1]), and describes some of the results of scientific activities and achievements of this researcher [2].

For the second period (the second half of the twenties of XX century) is characterized by a concise, but for the most part, comprehensive biographical study of the life of this scientist, it is the most widely represented by D.P. Shestakova.

The third period (first half of the 50-80 years XX century) begins with references to the role of the archaeological research North-Western Black Sea by E.R. Stern. For the beginning of this period is characterized by a careful description of the activities E.R. Stern, primarily within the research history of the North-Western Black Sea, but it was a great achievement, considering the more than twenty years of silence on behalf of the scientist. At that time, especially widely highlighted achievements in classical archeology E.R. Stern by V.V. Lapin, while disagreeing with his «emporium» Great Greek colonization theory [3].

For the fourth period (1989 - today) characterized by the appearance of a significant number of publications on specific aspects as scientific activity (archaeological, teaching, epigraphic), and on the whole personality of E.R. Stern. This period began publication by V.P. Vanchugov on the role E.R. Stern in Odessa Society of History and Antiquities [4]. General biography of E.R. Stern by V.P.Vanchugov was also considered [5], and biography by E.D. Frolov [6], T.A. Izbash and L.V. Novikova also [7].

Among the study of certain aspects of the scientists life covered such aspects of his scientific work as a Stern-epigraphist [8], Stern-teacher [9], Stern in Odessa [10]. Was presented as part E.R. Stern-archaeologist, the first explorer of ancient Tyras [11], initiator systematic excavations at isle Berezan [12], the researcher of Cucuteni- Trypillian culture [13].

It should be noted that the vast majority of biographers positively evaluated about the role E.R. Stern in the development of the national archaeological science, his contribution to antiquity science, a prominent role in the leadership of the Odessa Archaeological Museum.

Future scientist was born June 25, 1859 in Zeyersgof (Rooyen) In Volmarsk region, Livonia [14]. His father - Robert Nicholas Stern (1811-1868) graduated from the University of Dorpat, was a tenant of several estates in Livonia [15].

In 1877 E.R. Stern graduated with honors from high school and Dorpat from 1877 to 1880. Thanks to a scholarship of the Russian government, he studied at the Russian philological seminar on classical philology at the University of Leipzig. [16] Chief mentor of E.R. Stern in Leipzig was Justus Herman Lipsius, which he passed strict philological school, perfected his language training, was introduced to the art of critical interpretation of texts [17].

Then in 1880-1883 years. E.R. Stern was seconded to the University of Dorpat in preparation for the magister title [18]. There he defended two theses: a magister in 1883 [19] and a doctorate in 1884 [20].

At the end of 1884 E.R. Stern was invited to Novorossiysk University in place of private-docent of the department of classical philology. Two years later, in 1886, 27 -year-old scientist is approved by the extraordinary, and then, in 1888, full professor of Novorossiysk University [21].

Since January 1893 Stern takes the post of Secretary of History and Philology department, and in September 1905, becoming its dean [22]. During his activities in Novorossiysk University, as well as a full member of the Odessa Society of History and Antiquities (joined its ranks April 5, 1891 [23]) E.R. Stern gained deserved reputation in the wider scientific community both Russia and Europe [24].

Getting Started in Novorossiysk University E.R. Stern exhibited extraordinary talent for organization. He was also rector of the Higher Courses for Women at the same university [25].

In Odessa period of his life, Ernst von Stern maintained contact with the German community of the city. In 1885 he arranged a teacher of German in school of St. Paul. [26]. Then he was elected a member of the school board, and in 1908 was elected and approved its honorary trustee [27]. E.R. Stern also was a member of the South Russian German society. His popular scientific lectures he promoted the implementation of its educational objectives, was elected a member of the Audit Committee of the Company [28].

E.R. Stern soon became widely known not only as a scholar but also as a brilliant historian and archaeologist with a solid scientific program [29]. Obviously, it was largely as a force close to the ancient ruins in Odessa North-Western Black Sea region, and because of the existence there since 1839, «The Odessa Society of History and Antiquities». As wrote V.P Vanchugov : «This was a period when a brilliant education classical philologist obtained by E.R. Stern in Europe, was enriched and supplemented by in-depth knowledge of archeology in the Black Sea « [30 ]. In this situation E.R. Stern not ceased to use his philological «base», which remained robust tool for his subsequent scientific papers [31].

It should be noted that E.R. Stern paid much attention to Northern Black Sea epigraphy: published and studied the inscriptions of Olbia, Chersonesos and the Bosporus, interested Achilles Pontarhus dedications, inscriptions by religious communities [32]. Symbolically, the first work by E.R. Stern was dedicated to the study of the Black Sea north antiquities, refers specifically to epigraphy. This article was about Olbian proksenia discovered at Cape Adzhigol [33].

A.S. Rusyaeva first drew attention of the importance of scientific activity E.R. Stern as epigraphist. Examining in detail his work on the publication lamp with graffiti that E.R. Stern translated as: « I serve as a lamp and a candle gods and men «A.S. Rusyaeva noted that for the first time in domestic antiquity discipline E.R. Shtern rated the importance of such a scientific source as graffiti [34].

In 1896, while continuing to teach at the Novorossiysk University, E.R. Stern headed Museum Odessa Society of History and Antiquities and becomes its chief curator [35].

Being over 15 years the director of the museum E.R. Stern managed to raise his work to a new level [36]. This was achieved primarily by getting the entire area allotted to the needs of the museum building (before it greater part belonged to the city's public library), its comprehensive repair and arrangement of building a special museum furniture. In addition, all the museums collections were placed on a strictly scientific system (up E.R. Stern archaeological materials exhibited without respect to chronological order [37]). They were also established extensive museum catalogues, which have not lost their scientific value even today [38].

Invaluable contribution to the development of scientific Odessa Archaeological Museum said P.P. Kurennoy: « E.R. Stern holds immense, invisible to the public, but the important work - work on inventory, disassembling, streamline and systematize the Odessa Museum of History and Antiquities of the Company... Work E.R. Stern puts Odessa museum among the largest museums in Ukraine, Russia, and gives him a place of honor among the museums of Europe « [39].

Because E.R. Stern «was the real driver of the expansion and reorganization of the museum» [40] Museum at the beginning of XX century changed. As noted by contemporaries, E.R. Stern managed to put the museum «one of the first provincial in Russia, if not the first» [41]. Ten showcases created by the project, and with the participation E.R. Stern in 1909, until now, thanks to the latest design for its time, after minor repairs, decorating halls of the former Museum of the «Society «, and now - the Odessa Archaeological Museum [42].

Most scientific works by E.R. Stern can be classified into two large groups: it studies of ancient history, which include and both his dissertation and work on the archeology of the Northern Black Sea [43]. As an ethnic German E.R. Stern wrote his scientific papers in both Russian and German languages, which was, as the

D. P. Shestakov says, is extremely important in terms of «well-known Russian unreadable books in Western European science» [44]. In fact, E.R. Stern was the mediator, the link between the European and Russian archaeological science [45].

Scientific publications on archeology by E.R. Stern about Northern Black Sea can be divided into:

1) commissioning of scientific and the study of lapidary inscriptions;

2) the study of works of ancient art;

3) the publication of the results of its own archaeological excavations;

4) the broad historical and cultural inferences from archaeological material and historical data sources [ 46]. By the research by E.R. Stern was typical comparative study of ancient metropolis and colonies, as one indissoluble whole [47].

The most famous scientific work related by E.R. Stern about region Bosporus kingdom is his monographic study of ancient ceramics of Theodosia [48]. Altogether

E. R. Stern was published 9 scientific works thematically related to the Bosporus, and read four reports at meetings of the Odessa Society of History and Antiquities. In these studies, fully manifested exceptional attention to detail researchers, the combination of a complex work of the historian, archaeologist and art historian with a very broad scientific base, the desire to move from the particular to the general. This allowed to make sufficiently accurate for its time, historical building and conclusions, to review some of the old dates. It was at work on the Bosporus E.R. Stern antiquities came to the conclusion that the ancient vase painters use templates to work with massive material rethinking subjects tastes to please customers, but nevertheless, even at the periphery of the ancient world often met highly products imported from the various centres of the ancient world.

Conduct the first independent excavations by E.R. Stern was began in 1900 in Tyras [49]. In 1903 and 1912 he continued excavation of this monument.

Evaluating research conducted by E.R. Stern in 1900, 1903 and 1912 in Tyras, it should be noted that it was the first archaeological excavations on its territory and, despite their small volume, it can be stated that they have brought significant results, as there only gave substantial real material existence of different periods of Tyras- Ackermann, but also allowed for the first time to discover and explore the cultural layer of undisturbed ancient times, it finally confirmed the location of the ancient polis [50].

In 1902-1903 years E.R. Stern also excavated settlements Petreny in Bessarabia, while immediately spoke out in favour of the fact that this settlement belonged Cucuteni-Trypillian culture [51].

E.R Stern was a pioneer of this monument of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, during the excavation of which was obtained by scientifically important material. During operation XIII Archaeological Congress, in its report E.R. Stern hypothesized connection painted ceramics from the Neolithic settlement Petreny ceramics Balkans and Thessaly and dated its III millennium BC. It should be noted that his report represented almost a complete set of all the information that existed at that time in science, about «painted pottery culture» [52], as at this time was called Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.

Some similar features Cucuteni-Trypillian culture from the Trojan and early Mycenaean cukture led E.R. Stern to the development of hypotheses about the movement of Indo-European community in the north of Europe (Dnieper-Danube region) to the south. On the shores of Asia Minor, the Aegean islands and the Greek mainland immigrants are creating a new culture - early Greek, in which the elements of the previous traced Tripoli culture [53]. Accordingly, pursuant to E.R. Stern, Cucuteni-Trypillian culture is the culture of ancient Greek predecessor [54]. Now this hypothesis can not be considered true, but it meets the needs of his time and opportunities then the level of development of historical science.

However, the most significant scientific biography of E.R. Stern as an archaeologist, became spent in 1904-1909 and 1913 his systematic archaeological excavations of the ancient Greek settlement on the island of Berezan.

For seven seasons on the excavation on Berezan island by E.R. Stern has been significant in scope excavations revealed a large area of land of the ancient Greek settlement. The excavations was identified stratigraphy settlements by two construction periods of its life. Results of excavations have led to the creation of the relative chronology of this site [55]. It should be noted that E.R von Stern, for the first time in the historiography, indicated that isle Berezan was an ancient Greek settlement, and the oldest in the Northern Black Sea [56]. In addition, he first came to the conclusion that as dwellings settlers used the land in -depth design - the dugout, and that they were built by the Hellenic, not barbaric population [57].

Excavations on the island Berezan, ancient Tyre and Cucuteni-Trypillian culture settlement Petreny were significantly replenished the museum of «Odessa Society». So Berezan collection totalled 12 thousand Inv. u, from Petreny - 2.8 thousand Inv. u, and they are «up to the present time are the basis for modern researchers « [58].

E.R. Stern archaeological sources used to determine the characteristics of the Great Greek colonization and thus built the first in the historiography of the theoretical model of colonization, based on the totality of archaeological data received by that time [59].

E.R. Stern also paid great attention to the development of the «correct, scientific, archaeological excavations procedure» [60]. He was of the opinion that: «it is better not to make excavations, than to produce them wrong,» and in order to prevent the destruction of archaeological sites, applied to the Commission for the Conservation of ancient monuments at the Moscow Archaeological Society with a proposal to develop the basic requirements for the method of archaeological excavations [61].

One of the first E.R. Stern started the fight against fraud antiquities, which at the end of XIX century began to flood the Russian and Western European antique markets. The most famous episode in this struggle was the performance on E.R. Stern in Archaeological Congress in Riga (1896) [62], where he was the first to prove falseness «tiara of Saitafarn» [63], as if presenting by citizens of Olbia to Sarmatian chief, but in fact made in Odessa by jeweller Israel Rahumovskiy and bought the Louver for big money [64]. Not accidentally E.R. Stern contemporaries called «the enemy of counterfeiters» [65].

During his research, museum and educational activities in Odessa E.R. Stern formed a separate antiquity school, build on a truly scientific basis [66]. From it came such eminent scientists - students of E.R. Stern as M.I. Mandes, E.G. Kagarov, B.V. Farmakovsky, M.F. Boltenko , P. Nikoresku etc. [67].

Unfortunately, very active and fruitful period of Odessa life and scientific work of E.R. Stern was interrupted. In 1910 die from the disease younger son of E.R. Stern that tipped the way of life of the scientist [68]. When in 1911 E.R. Stern achieved re- invitation from the University of Halle, to assume the post of head of department professors ancient history, he decides to leave Odessa.

Before leaving Russia Ernst von Stern was in the rank of State Councillor and for his scientific achievements awarded the Order of St. Stanislaus 2nd degree and Anne 2nd degree, a commemorative medal to commemorate the reign of Alexander III. Had he and the foreign award - Cavalry Cross of the Order of the Austrian Franz Josef (DAOO, f.52, op.2, d.240, L.2,3) [69].

After a 25-year professorship at the Novorossiysk University E.R. Stern moved to Germany and became dean of the Faculty of History and Philology of Halle- Wittenberg University, twice elected rector ( in 1921/1922 and 1923/1924 years) [70].

Despite the obvious difficulties, E.R. Stem already a professor at Halle, was able to excavate in Tyras in 1912 [71] and on the island of Berezan in 1913 [72]. Continue its further fieldwork in North-Western Black Sea region prevented the First World War and the ensuing revolutionary events in Russia.

Despite these circumstances E.R. Stern not leave work on new publications issued, after his departure, only on archeology and ancient history wrote 22 scientific works, not including reviews of the work of others [73]. In March 1913 he was first introduced in the scientific society «Borodinskiy» (Bessarabian) Bronze Age hoard [74], making this the archaeological complex of the report at the International Congress of Historians in London [75].

E.R. Shtern also pay more attention to the events of the revolution and civil war in Russia, which is reflected in the publications of a political nature [76]: «The leaders and subordinates, politicians and parties in Russia today» [77], «Russian agrarian question and Russian revolution» [78], «Bolshevism in theory and practice» [79]. Until his death (April 27, 1924 [80]) E.R. Stern not leave work on new publications. Summarizing, we note that E.R. Stern was one of the most prominent historians of his time classics, whose scientific interests were equally directed both ancient history and archeology at the Northern Black Sea, and a combination of different research as archaeologist, historian and philologist.

Sources and Literature

stern biography archaeologist

1. Zhebelev S. A. Otzyv o trudah E.R. fon Shterna, posvjashhennyh klassicheskim drevnostjam Juzhnoj Rossii // Zapiski Odesskogo obshhestva istorii i drevnostej (next - ZOOID). - 1901. - T. 23. - S. 95-112.

2. Пропгцптпріа. Sb. statej, izdannyj Imperatorskim Odesskim obshhestvom istorii i drevnostej v chest pochetnogo chlena Ernesta Romanovicha fon-Shterna // ZOOID. - 1912. - T. XXX. - S. 7-10.

3. Lapin V.V. Grecheskaja kolonizacija Severnogo Prichernomorja (kriticheskij ocherk otechestvennyh teorij kolonizacii). - K., 1966. - C. 86-88.

4. Vanchugov V. P. Odesskoe obshhestvo istorii i drevnostej na rubezhe XIX-XX vv. i E.R. Shtern // 150 let Odesskomu obshhestvu istorii i drevnostej. 1839-1989. Tez. dokl. jubil. konf. - Odessa, 1989. - S. 24-27.

5. Vanchugov V. P. E. R. fon Shtern i arheologija Severnogo Prichernomorja na rubezhe XIX i XX vekov // Borysthenika-2004. - Nikolaev, 2004. - S. 7-13.

6. Frolov E. D. Nemeckij professor v russkom universitete: Ernest Romanovich fon-Shtern (18591924 gg.) // Sb. statej v chest 70-letija G. L. Kurbatova. - SPb., 2001. - S. 29-53.

7. Izbash T. A, Novikova L. B. Ernst Romanovich fon Shtern // Profesori Odeskogo (Novorosijskogo) universitetu: Biografichnij slovnik. - Odessa, 2005. - T. 4. - S. 442-445.

8. RusaevaA. S. Nauchnaja sudba jepigraficheskih issledovanij E.R. fon Shterna // Borysthenika-2004. - Nikolaev, 2004. - S. 14-22.; Rusaeva A. S. Graffiti Olvii Pontijskoj. - Simferopol, 2010. - S. 6-7.

9. Berezin S. E. Drevnegrecheskaja istorija v Novorossijskom universitete: kafedra klassicheskoj filologii // Drevnee Prichernomore. Sb. statej k 85-letiju P.O. Karyshkovskogo. - Odessa, 2006. - S. 14--20.

10. Hojsler A. Ernst fon Shtern, arheolog v Odesse i Galle // Tradicii rossijskoj arheologii. - SPb., 1996. - S. 54--56.; Kuzmischev A. G. Odesskij period v nauchnoj biografii E.R.Shterna // Drevnee Prichernomore. - Odessa, 2013. - Vyp. X. - S. 356-362.

11. Klejman I. B. Pervye issledovateli Tiry: Ernst Romanovich Shtern i Paul Nikoresku // Akkermanskie drevnosti. - Belgorod-Dnestrovskij, 1997. - S. 256-269.; Kuzmischev A. G. E. R. Shtern - pervyj issledovatel antichnoj Tiry // Naukovi praci istorichnogo fakultetu Zaporizkogo nacionalnogo universitetu. - Zaporizhzhja, 2013. - Vyp. XXXV. - S. 359-369.

12. Kuzmischev A. G. Berezan v arheologicheskih issledovanijah E.R fon Shtema // Bosporskie issledovanija. - 2012. - T. XXVI. - S. 433-461.

13. Ljashko S. M. Shtern Ernst Romanovich // Enciklopedija tripilskoi' civilizacii. - K., 2004. - T. II. - S. 628.

14. Dlozhevskij S. S. Ernest Romanovich Shtern (nekrolog) // Visnik Odeskoi komisii kraєznavstva pri Vseukrainskij Akademii nauk. - Odesa, 1925. - Ch. 2/3. - S. 100.

15. Hausmann G. Universitat und stadtische Gesellschaft in Odessa, 1865-1917: soziale und nationale Selbstorganisation an der Peripherie des Zarenreiches. - Stuttgart, 1998. - S. 310.

16. Shestakov D. P. Nauchnaja dejatelnost E.R. Shterna // Izvestija obshhestva arheologii, istorii i jetnografii pri Kazanskom gosudarstvennom universitete. - 1925. - T. 33. - Vyp. 1. - S. 147.; Shestakov D. P Issledovatel pamjatnikov klassicheskoj drevnosti na juge Rossii // D. P. Shestakov. Dva momenta iz istorii nashej arheologicheskoj nauki. - Vladivostok, 1926. - S. 22.

17. Frolov E. D. Decree. Op. - S. 34.

18. Izbash T. A., Novikova L. B. Decree. Op. - S. 442.

19. SternE. R. Catilina und die Parteikampfe in Rom der Jahre 66-63. - Dorpat, 1883. - 178 s.

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