The peculiarities of word forming methods in english and kazakh languages

The concept of word formation, its role in the growth of language. Characteristics of the main word-formation methods in English and Kazakh languages, the results of their comparison. Their characteristics and specific differences and similarities.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
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Язык английский
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THE PECULIARITIES OF WORD FORMING METHODS IN ENGLISH AND KAZAKH LANGUAGES

Abdrakhmanova M.K.,

Taraz state pedagogical institute

In modern society people, knowing several languages, have a great potential of finding a prestigious job which leads to the improvement of their social welfare and consequently to the overall rise in the economy of the country. Therefore, the head of our country, N.A. Nazarbaev in his message to the people of Kazakhstan, highlighted the importance of learning three languages: “Kazakh- state language, Russian- a language of international communication and English, a language of joining in global economy”. [1]

The language itself is a social phenomenon and all the events that take place in the social, economic and cultural life of the country are reflected in the process of language development. If a society consists of separate individuals, a language includes separate words. Therefore, the words, the ways of forming them is of enormous interest for all the people who speak it and wants to master it comprehensively. word formation kazakh english

Knowing the pattern, we can easily guess their meanings - although we are not surprised to find other similar-looking words, which this analysis will not work. We accept as quite natural the fact that although we can use the verbs to pipe, to drum and to trumpet the words that are created by means of conversion i.e. acquisition of a new paradigm according to the change of a word from one part of speech to another, we cannot use the verbs to piano and to violin. [4]

We can cite another example in favour of what we have told above and the following anecdote shows that the intricacies of semantic associations in words made by conversion may prove somewhat bewildering even for some native speakers, especially for children.

“Mother”, said Johnny, “is it correct to say you `water a horse' when he's thirsty?”

“Yes, quite correct.”

“Then”, (picking up a saucer) “I'm going to milk the cat”.

The joke is based on the child's mistaken association of two apparently similar patterns: water, n. - to water, v.; milk, n. - to milk, v. But it turns out that the meanings of two verbs arose from different associations: to water a horse means “to give him water”, but to milk implies getting milk from an animal (e.g. to milk a cow). [3]

Furthermore, the following controversial points in the word forming systems of both languages should be taken into account:

a) if in English the boundary between word formation and semantic change can be difficult to define: a new use of an old word can be seen as a new word derived from an old one and identical to it in form (conversion).

b) meantime, according to some Kazakhstani linguists' point of view, shortening in Kazakh cannot be regarded as the way of word formation since by this method one cannot make a new word with a new lexical meaning. [10]

In addition to this, we can definitely say that the theme of our research work is of great importance as even native speakers confront with difficulties in selecting and using an appropriate word while speaking or reading and the subject of our investigation is not thoroughly studied (as only one work was devoted to it, namely not to the methods of word formation but to the ways of translating compound words from English into Kazakh). [11]

Word building in English falls into the following types: main and secondary. Main or principal ways of English word formation are the following: affixation, composition, conversion and abbreviation. There are also secondary ways of word-building: sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blends, and back formation. [5] In Kazakh language a new word is formed in three ways: synthetic, analytic and lexico-semantic. [8]

English affixation, which is subdivided into prefixation and suffixation, is the formation of words by adding derivational affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to bases. One distinguishes between derived words of different degrees of derivation.

Classifications of derivational affixes are based on different principles such as: 1) the part of speech formed, 2) the lexico-grammatical character of the stem the affix is added to, 3) its meaning, 4) its stylistic reference, 5) the degree of productivity, 6) the origin of the affix (native or borrowed), etc. [7]

Suffixation function in both languages and are used to form one part of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. In Kazakh in the words such as ж?лде-гер, ?ол-да, с?з-ше?, the words ж?лде, ?ол, с?з are root morphemes, and -гер,-да, -ше? are suffixes added to the root in order to make a new word. [8]

It is necessary to point out the fact that one can easily recognize English prefixes in such words as un- (unhappy), over- (overhead), although Kazakh prefixes are ambiguous phenomenon in linguistics and very few in number. In Turkic languages such as Kazakh there are no prefixes like in English and Russian languages. Though, there are very few borrowed prefixes in Kazakh (бей- in беймаза, бейуа?, бейтаныс, бейхабар, and на- in наразы, нама??л), the above mentioned Persian prefixes function as one and indivisible form of borrowed words but not as prefixes. [9] Thus, we cannot definitely say that prefixation exists in Kazakh.

To sum up, we can say that the only difference between English and Kazakh affixation is that there is no prefixation in Kazakh language like in English.

Composition is the way of word-building when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word.

Compound words in English can be formed not only by means of a) composition but also by means of:

b) reduplication, e.g. too-too etc. and also by means of reduplication combined with sound interchange , e.g. rope-ripe ;

c) conversion, from word-groups, e.g. to micky-mouse, can-do, makeup etc,

d) back formation, from compound nouns or word-groups, e.g. to bloodtransfuse, to fingerprint etc.,

e) analogy, e.g. lie-in ( on the analogy with sit-in) and also phone-in, brawn-drain (on the analogy with brain-drain) etc. [6]

Classification of compounds. In English compounds traditionally fall into three types: neutral, morphological and syntactic. In neutral compounds the process of compounding is realized without any linking elements. According to the structure of the constituent stems neutral compounds are subdivided into three groups:

a) Simple neutral compounds consisting simple affixless stems e.g. sunflower, bedroom. b) Derivational compounds which have affixes in their structure e.g. blue-eyed, golden-haired etc.

c) Contracted compounds having shortened (contracted) stem in their structure e.g. TV-set,V-day (Victory day), H-bag (handbag).

Morphological compounds, combining two stems by a linking vowel or consonant, are few in number, e.g. Anglo-Saxon, handiwork etc.

Syntactic compounds are formed from segments of speech, preserving in their structure numerous traces of syntagmatic relations typical of speech: articles, preposition, adverbs, as in the nouns: lilly-of -the-valley, good-for-nothing etc. [3]

In Kazakh language analytic method of word building falls into the following categories:

a) composition (с?з?осым) баспас?з, ?нерк?сіп, б?гін, ?осая? etc. It is similar to the English simple neutral compound where a word is produced by joining simple affixless stems.

b) reduplication `?осарлау т?сілі'. ) One of the seven criteria of forming the words by reduplication (`?осарлау т?сілі') is very similar to the English reduplication of compound words. In reduplication new words are made by doubling a stem, either without any phonetic changes as in bye-bye, or with a variation of the root-vowel or consonant as in ping-pong, chit-chat etc. The examples of reduplication in Kazakh are ?ып-?ызыл, ?п- ?лкен, ?ап-?ара etc.

b) combining (тіркестіру) is a method in which as a result of long usage of word combination, the components of it acquire only one meaning e.g. кіріп шы?, алып кел, он алты, ?ара торы etc;

d) abbreviation or shortening method (?ыс?арту) is not considered to be a method of word formation as it does not have any word building character. According to Kazakhstani scholars' point of view it is a language phenomenon caused by the influence of Russian language. For example, in the word ТарМПИ the shortened word doesn't usually get a new meaning, the meaning is the same, therefore it cannot be a way of word building. However, shortening is one of the methods which is related to main way of word building in English.

There are two main types of English shortenings: graphical and lexical. Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening of words and word-groups only in written speech while orally the corresponding full forms are used.

Concluding, we can emphasize the difference in classification of word forming methods of English and Kazakh languages and in the ways of forming compound words as there are no compound words in Kazakh language that are made by dint of back formation, conversion and analogy.

Moreover, we have to point out the fact that Kazakh shortenings are not investigated thoroughly enough and there was no datum about the types of shortened words.

Conversion is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system. It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. [2] E.g. I need some good paper for my room. (The noun «paper» is an object in the sentence). I paper my room every year. (The verb «paper» is the predicate in the sentence).

Conversion is also widely used in Kazakh language. It is referred to the lexico-semantic way of word building. For example, the word `жа?а' (жа?а к?йлек, жа?а ?діс) is an adjective meaning `new' and `жа?а' in жа?а келді is adverb `just.

In conclusion, we can definitely state that if one is competent in word forming methods of both languages he will succeed in understanding or at least guessing the meaning of a new word which is used only by that author and regarded as the peculiarity of his style of writing. As the proof of our words we can cite examples taken from the excerpts of English and Kazakh writers: e.g. waggonette (four-wheeled open horse drawn carriage) [13] is made by adding semi-productive and noun-forming suffix -ette, as we know the root word `wagon' means the same as waggonnette; we have come across the word с?йлемпаз [12] for the first time, since we are aware of the fact what the root implies and we know the suffix -паз is an adjective forming suffix we might guess the meaning of them easily. Thus, с?йлемпаз will mean `talkative' because the root word с?йлеу means `to talk'.

Bibiliography

1 ?аза?стан Республикасыны? Президенті Н.?.Назарбаевты? ?аза?стан хал?ына Жолдауы. 2007 жыл?ы 28 а?пан.

2 Амандыкова Г., Кабышева Л. Лексикология английского языка: Учебник.- Астана: Фолиант, 2008

3 Антрушина Т.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов. - М.: Дрофа, 2004

4 Гинзбург Р.З., Хидекель С.С., Князева Г.Ю. и Санкин А.А.. Лексикология английского языка. - 2 изд., испр. и доп.- М.: Высшая школа, 1979

5 Дубенец Э. М., Lexicology of the English Language, Курс лекций и планы семинарских занятий по лексикологии английского языка (для студентов третьего курса), Московский педагогический университет, 2004.

6 Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка: Лексикология декодирования. 2-е изд., перераб. Л., 1981

7 Минаева Л.В. English lexicology and lexicography. М.: АСТ, Астрель, 2007

8 portal.ukgu.kz . «?аза? тіліні? с?зжасам т?сілдері»: лекция тезистері

9 Тіл біліміне кіріспе: д?рістер конспектісі/??раст. Жармакин О. ?. -Павлодар, 2007

10 ?азіргі ?аза? тіліні? с?зжасам ж?йесі. -Алматы: ?ылым, 1989

11 www.ukgu.kz. Ереханова Ф.Т. А?ылшын тіліндегі біріккен с?здерді? ?аза? тіліне берілуіні? трансформациялы? модельдері. Автореферат-Алматы: ?азХ?ж?ТУ, 2010

12 Майлин Б. Ш??аны? белгісі. Алматы: Жазушы, 1974

13 Уайльд О. Избранная проза. Сборник на англ.яз..-Сост. Самуэльян. -М: «Менеджер», 2004

Т?йіндеме

Ма?алада с?зжасам туралы жалпы т?сінік, а?ылшын ж?не ?аза? тілдеріндегі негізгі с?зжасам т?сілдеріне, оларды? т?рлері мен топтауына сипаттама беріледі.

Сонымен ?атар, а?ылшын ж?не ?аза? тілдеріндегі с?зжасам т?сілдеріне салыстырмалы талдау жасалып, ??састы?тары мен ерекшеліктері аны?талып, ж?не оны? тілді дамытуда?ы р?лі зерттеледі.

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются понятие словообразования, ее роль в пополнении языка, а также дается характеристика основным словообразовательным методам в английском и казахском языках. А также даются результаты сопоставления и сравнения основных методов словообразования английского и казахского языков и описывается их общая характеристика и особые различия и сходства.

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