Basic provision about phraseological units and ways of their translation
Phraseology as science. Ways of the translation of phraseological units. The phraseological unit signs. Stability of grammatical structure. Special character of grammatical structure. Semantic equivalence to the word. Constancy of component structure.
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1. CHAPTER I. BASIC PROVISION ABOUT PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AND WAYS OF THEIR TRANSLATION
phraseology translation grammatical word
1.1 Phraseology as science
Phraseology (from Greek phrases, 'expression' and logos 'doctrine') -- phraseological structure of language (that is set of all phraseological units), and also the section of linguistics, it studying. Though phraseological units consist of several words, they on value (all phraseological unit in general, but the words which aren't making it) and to use in the speech (the phraseological unit -- one sentence part matters) are similar to the word therefore are studied it is aware of a lexicology.
Value of the free phrase consists of values of the words making it which it is possible to trade places or to replace on faithful: The log goes down a watercourse (to float -- `to move on a water surface or in water', a current `water flow, the direction of such stream'). Value of the phraseological unit doesn't consist of values of the words making it, phraseological unit components usually it is impossible to trade places, to replace with others: He got used to go down stream all the time and isn't able to make independent decisions (to go down stream -- `to work as compel circumstances'). All phraseological unit in general matters. The phraseological unit is equivalent to the word not only on value, but also on a syntactic role: it is always one sentence part (The real old salt will never become puzzled -- a subject; He always comes off clear -- a predicate; He made it in a flash -- circumstance).
So, the phraseological unit differs from a free combination of words in constancy of structure and uniform value, is one sentence part, is reproduced "in finished form", but isn't created in the speech.
The phraseological unit possesses signs:
- Structural division
All phraseological units have the dismembered structure and are divided into components which only formally belong on the word, but as a part of a set phrase don't realize any of the lexical meanings. A very short time.
- Constancy of component structure
Each component of the phraseological unit keeps spelling separateness - separate registration. For the phraseological unit constancy of components and stability of lexical structure is characteristic. Honeymoon.
- Stability of grammatical structure. Special character of grammatical structure
Each phraseological unit is grammatical issued, i.e. it is included into this or that grammatical category corresponds to some part of speech and therefore possesses a set of forms, carries out the same syntactic function which is carried out by this part of speech. To leave dry, I will leave, I left
- Semantic equivalence to the word
The phraseological unit - more difficult unit of language than the word both from the point of view of structure and from the point of view of semantics. But for the majority ф. the functional proximity to the word and equivalence to the word is characteristic.
Semantic integrity, constancy of components and structure define important feature of structure. In system of language ф. exist as ready units, they aren't created in the course of the speech, and taken from memory in finished form.
Depending on degree of motivation of value of the phraseological unit word meanings, being its part, and from degree of their cohesion allocate the following types of phraseological units (classification was made by the academician V. V. Vinogradov).
1. Phraseological unions. Steady, lexically indivisible turns, which values aren't brought out of values of the words making them in any way, aren't motivated by them: to play the fool, to know inside out, an old bird. Also the phraseological units containing obsolete words belong to this group (it isn't visible zg, to idle, set chirring) and outdated forms of words (reluctantly, a stray sheep, the talk of the town).
2. Phraseological unities. Steady, lexically indivisible turns, which values are motivated with values of the words making them, but aren't brought directly out of them, and evolve from figurative reconsideration. In most cases to phraseological unity there corresponds the free phrase which, being associative rethought, and formed a basis to a metaphorical frazeologization only in a phraseological combination a beastly cold, thus the word the cold realizes the free value 'low temperature', and the word the dog has except phraseologically connected free value 'belonging to a dog' here. Values of phraseological combinations are motivated directly with values of the words making them.
Besides the specified types sometimes rank so-called phraseological expressions as phraseological units -- proverbs, sayings and "catchwords". They too are reproduced in the speech "in finished form", have constant structure, but thus dividing on the words making them, each of which possesses own lexical meaning. Value of phraseological expressions consists of values of the words making it, but usually figuratively: If you like to sled - you have to like to drive the sledge; Well how not to take care to the native little man!
frazeologization (to go down stream, neither fish nor fowl, to wash the dirty linen in public). We understand, we perceive that image which is created by phraseological unity: to reach a deadlock (at the deadlock it is impossible to continue advance, and it motivates value of the phraseological unit `not to have prospect, further development').
3. Phraseological combinations. Steady combinations of words which include in the structure as a component with free (realized in different contexts) value, and a component with not free (phraseologically connected) value. For example, in a combination the sworn enemy a noun the enemy possesses free compatibility, and the adjective the bewitched is used only with the word the enemy, has phraseologically connected value. Cf. also: the pouring -- a rain; the bitter -- a frost; the pitch -- a gloom, darkness. The word with phraseologically connected value can have also others, free, values. For example, the word the dog matters 'the very strong' only in a phraseological combination a beastly cold, thus the word the cold realizes the free value 'low temperature', and the word the dog has except phraseologically connected free value 'belonging to a dog' here. Values of phraseological combinations are motivated directly with values of the words making them.
Besides the specified types sometimes rank so-called phraseological expressions as phraseological units -- proverbs, sayings and "catchwords". They too are reproduced in the speech "in finished form", have constant structure, but thus are divided into the words making them, each of which possesses own lexical meaning. Value of phraseological expressions consists of values of the words making it, but the sense usually figuratively changes: If you like to sled - you have to like to drive the sledge; Well how not to take care to the native little man!.
Phraseological units are classified on the basis of all phraseological unit corresponds to what part of speech on value and a syntactic role in the offer: verbal (to use words lightly, to shoot the breeze 'to talk, stir', to make a mountain out of a molehill 'to exaggerate'); nominal (purgatory 'torture'); adjective (the very picture of health `beautiful, healthy'); adverbial (the plenty is 'a lot of', from cover to cover 'entirely'). The phraseological unit can be similar on the structure not only the phrase, but also the offer, but also in this case on the syntactic role and value corresponds to the word: It still there is no telling how things will turn out (= It still isn't known). Money next to nothing (= it isn't enough Money).
Sometimes phraseological units characterize on the words making them (a noun and a noun belong to what parts of speech: side by side, in perfect harmony; noun and adjective: ill turn, clever fingers; verb, including adverbial participle, and noun: to lose courage, carelessly; verb and adverb: as wise as before, to see through).
Though phraseological units -- steady combinations of words, existence of several options of one set phrase is possible. Such options can differ with separate elements of lexical structure, sometimes -- stylistic coloring, but these distinctions don't break identity of a set phrase, in phraseological unities the uniform image remains: isn't worth a farthing -- copper don't cost a penny. It is necessary to distinguish synonymic set phrases from options of a set phrase: without knot <and> without hitch -- like clockwork; to idle -- to play the fool, to idle.</and>
Usually phraseological units have one value, but there are multiple-valued phraseological units (to know by heart, to give for memory; by right 'deservedly' and by right `for the reason'), and also phraseological units homonyms (to discuss whom - N for eyes and for eyes in value 'there is enough, it is a lot of that-N.'). Phraseological units are often homonymous to free combinations of words: to go down stream, to wave a hand. Phraseological units can enter with words and among themselves the synonymic and anatomic relations, for example: at the other end of the world -- at the end of the world -- far (synonyms); having rolled up sleeves / it is good -- carelessly / badly (antonyms). As well as words, phraseological units can have limited compatibility (having rolled up sleeves, carelessly -- only with to work, work, do).
As well as words, phraseological units can become outdated. So, misunderstood for the majority speaking the phraseological unit is outdated to kill a beaver with value 'be deceived in calculations'. The phraseological fund of language is replenished at the expense of phraseological units neologisms.
By origin phraseological units, as well as words, happen primordial, that is arisen in Russian or passed into it from language predecessor, and borrowed, including traced (that is word by word translated). Works of the Russian fiction (lost labor, on the village to the grandfather), the Russian folklore were a source of primordial phraseological units, in particular: proverbs (to be whipping the cat unbeaten it is lucky). Many phraseological units are connected with professional activity (to peel shaving, without a hitch, they make a pair), with the Russian life to stir up trouble, etc. Phraseological units old Slavic by origin are distinguished from loans (a voice crying in the wilderness, without a moment's hesitation). Tracing-papers, that is foreign-language steady combinations of word by word translated are widely presented: black hole, ill at ease. There are phraseological units-barbarism: Finita la comedia, a vivenda mode (in the traced look -- a way of life), the phraseological units-internationalisms which were usually evolving from texts and images of the Bible and Gospel (Babel, the prodigal son, Doubting Thomas), antique literature (a Gordian knot, a sword of Damocles), the West European folklore and literature (the princess on a pea, after us the deluge). Phraseological units can be assigned to certain speech genres, phraseological unities and unions usually are stylistically painted, possess expressional value.
Phraseological units are in a varying degree reflected in explanatory dictionaries. There are also special dictionaries of phraseological units. In 1967 there was "A phraseological dictionary of Russian" under edition of A. I. Molotkov in whom more than 4000 phraseological units are explained. In 1984 "The educational phraseological dictionary of Russian" of E. A. Bystrova, A. P. Okuneva, N. M. Shansky where about 800 phraseological units are explained was published.
1.2 Ways of the translation of phraseological units
Before passing directly to ways of the translation of phraseological units, it is expedient to take up at first a question of a translation theory in general and stories of its emergence. Translation practice arose in the 20-30kh years of our century. Then it reflected a formalistic view of the translation. Translators of that time studied formal deviations from the original. In 30e years the translations were carried out by already high-classified translators, such as T. V. Shchepkina-Kupernik, S. Ya. Marshak, M. Ya. Lazinsky. During the same period work on the translation of literature of the people of the USSR began. The big role in it was played by all-Union congress of writers (1934). Private and cooperative publishing houses were closed. Since this time and till 50th years translated literature left only in the state publishing houses under strict control. That fact that to many talented poets and writers the right for own creativity was forbidden or limited, it led to emergence of their translations (A. Akhmatova, M. Tsvetaev). In the 30th years there was a school of a literary translation which was created by I. A. Kashkin who was a historian, the critic, the theorist and the practician of the translation. It translated Chaucer ("The Canterbury Tales"), Hemingway. M.P. Bogoslovskaya, V. M. Toper, O.P.Kholmskaya anew translated Ch. Dickens, and also other English and American authors. Their translations published in the International Literature magazine (1933-43). Then in 1955 this magazine revived under the name "Foreign Literature", existing to this day.
In days of the Great Patriotic War there was a considerable recession translation and publishing, and in the 50th years of work on the translation renewed and gained new scope. Translation activity of such master as R.Ya.Rayt-Kovaleva which translated "The Catcher in the Rye" Salinger belongs to an etim to the period. From 1967 to 1977 200 volumes of library of the world literature were published. They included 26 thousand works of 3 thousand authors. From the middle of the 80th years there are numerous publishing houses which along with the available literary editions had intention to publish those works which weren't transferred before. The Izvestiye publishing house in the 80th years published a series under the name "Library of the Foreign Literature Magazine". From English-speaking authors such authors as Bradbury, S. Hill, V. Woolf were published. At the end of the 8th years and in Russia associations of translators began to arise (1989): Moscow association of translators, Union of translators of Russia. Then the following translators were awarded ranks of winners of an award: I. M. Berstein (And. In, A. Murdoch), N. M. Demurova (L. Carroll "Alice in Wonderland"), A. Ya. Sergeyev (the American poetry).
In 1930 A. B. Fedorov's article "Receptions and problems of a literary translation" was published. The foundation of the translation was laid by A. B. Fedorov "About a literary translation" (1941), "Introduction to a translation theory" (1953). Till 50th years the translation theory developed in literary aspect. The essential contribution to development of the linguistic direction was made by the follower and A. B. Fedorov's pupil Ya. I. Retsker. Fedorov's ideas were met with irritation, it was criticized by Kashkin considering that, on the one hand, the linguistic translation theory is limited, with another - the translation of any text can't be theoretically comprehended without genre features. Thanks to A. D. Schweitzer, L.S. Barkhudarov and V. N. Komissarov's works the translation theory gained more intensive development. As for the translation of phraseological units, a lot of attention in theoretical works is paid to them. The problems connected with it are considered differently, various methods of the translation are recommended, incoincident opinions meet. And it is explainable: the unambiguous, standard decision can't be here. There are moments when with equivalent phraseological compliance it is necessary to look for other ways of the translation as this equivalent doesn't suit for this context. Even in borders of one group of phraseological units the individual decision can be demanded.
To speak about methods of transfer of phraseological units, it is necessary to classify all phraseology of this language on groups in which borders it would be observed as the prevailing this or that reception, and this or that approach to transfer of phraseological units on the translating language.
Such famous linguists as Sh. Balli, V. V. Vinogradov, B. A. Larin, N. M. Shansky, as a starting point take the linguistic classifications which are adjusted generally on criterion of a nerazlozhennost of the phraseological unit, on unity of its components depending on which and from a number of additional signs of motivation of value, metaphoricalness - the place of phraseological unit in one of the following sections is defined: phraseological unions (idioms), phraseological unities (metaphorical units), phraseological combinations and phraseological expressions [8:100].
Such classification, indicative concerning creative use, in theory and practice of translation can consider A. V. Fedorov's work. Having sorted the main the then (1968) linguistic schemes, he stops on offered by V. V. Vinogradov and comprehends it from the point of view of theory of translation. So, for example, he notes lack of a clear boundary between separate headings, different degree of motivation, transparency of an internal form and national specificity of unities which can demand from the translator approximately the same approach as idioms.
In opinion Ya. I. Retskera the same classification is very convenient for theory and practice of translation, but it takes from it only unities and unions, considering that in relation to these two groups of phraseological units it is necessary to apply unequal methods of transfer. So, the translation of phraseological unity, in his opinion, has to be whenever possible figurative, and a transfer of a phraseological union has to be made mainly by reception of complete transformation [7: 151].
Vlakhov and Florin note that possibility of achievement of the adequate dictionary translation of phraseological unit depends on ratios between units source language (SL) and the target language (TL).
1. Phraseological unit has in TL the exact, not depending on a context full-fledged compliance (semantic value + connotations), i.e. the phraseological unit SLequal to the phraseological unit of TL is translated by an equivalent.
2. Phraseological unit can be transferred to SL this or that compliance, usually with some derogations from an adequate translation, i.e. the phraseological unit of SL approximately equal to the phraseological unit of TL is translated by option (analog).
3. Phraseological unit has no in TL equivalents, analogs, untranslatable in a dictionary order, i.e. the phraseological unit of SL, unequal to the phraseological unit of TL, is transferred by other, not phraseological means.
Simplifying the scheme, it is possible to tell that phraseological units transfer or the phraseological unit - the phraseological translation, or other means not phraseological transfer [18: 195].
From the translation point of view English phraseological units share on two groups [18; 143].
- the phraseological units having equivalents in Russian;
Phraseological equivalents can be two types:
The I constant equivalent compliance which is the unique translation and doesn't depend on a context. This type of the translation is called by Ya. I. Retsker "equivalent" in article in which the question of natural compliances at the translation into the native language was for the first time raised [50;19]. As any equivalent compliance is an equivalent, it is expedient to call the specified type of the translation a monoequivalent. These compliances can arise as result of a literal translation of English phraseological units, for example:
time is money - «время-деньги»,
to dance to somebody's tune - «танцевать под чью-либо дудку»,
tired as a dog - «устал как собака»,
dumb as a fish - «нем как рыба»,
to kill like a dog - «убить как собаку».
II on the other hand, existence in Russian of two and more equivalents of English phraseological unit from which for the translation of this text choose the best or any is possible in case both of them or everything are equivalent. Such equivalents are called selective [16;47].
For example: «рукой подать»
1the spatialvalue - is close;
2. the temporary value - is close (Prior to a sports contest no distance);
3. value of a place- now (Now = close behind a village fence meadows begin).
After S. Vlakhov and S. Florin we note that at a choice all indicators of initial phraseological unit, and also its style and color are considered. Sometimes stylistic discrepancy or existence of color doesn't allow in the translation it would seem the most suitable unit. One of striking examples the variety style of synonyms - phraseological units of "dying": from raised to go to other, to the best world, to die, fall asleep an eternal rest to roughly colloquial to kick the bucket, to kick off, the bucket to kick, kick the bucket, horses to throw. For the translator all difficulty is that to him it is necessary to choose from such abundance and a variety of synonyms what could convey full-fledged meaning of initial unit. For example when transfer the German phraseological unit of ins Gras bei?en the translator has to penetrate with all gravity into a context to find out for himself intentions of the author and to choose the only from tens options - what would be chosen by the author if wrote in Russian [35: 21].
Besides this division, we after Kunin can classify equivalents as follows:The I Full equivalents are the Russian equivalents which in the majority are monoequivalents of English phraseological units, coinciding with them on value, on lexical structure, figurativeness of a stylistic orientation and grammatical structure. It that A.D.Raykhstein calls identity, i.e. full coincidence of the aspect organization and cumulative value [41;67].
The number of similar compliances isn't numerous, the phraseological units of international character based on mythological legends, bible legends and historic facts belong to this group.
Example: Augean stables - Авгиевы конюшни
Pyrrhic victory - Пиррова победа
Achilles' heels - Ахиллесова пята
The apple of discord - яблоко раздора
The salt of the earth - соль земли
From phraseological units of other types A. V. Kunin notes:
- comparisons: as bold (brave) as a lion - «кроткий (храбрый) как лев»;
as free as a bird - «свободный как птица»;
as cunning as a fox - «хитрый как лиса»;
as busy as a bee - «трудолюбивый как пчелка»;
- proverbs: extremes meet - «крайности сходятся»;
habit is a second nature - «привычка - вторая натура».
The II Partial equivalents are doesn't mean any incompleteness in value transfer, and only contains lexical, grammatical or lexical and grammatical divergences with identical value of the same stylistic orientation. Therefore the partial equivalent on degree of adequacy of the translation should be considered equivalent to a full equivalent.
Partial equivalents in turn share on the following groups:
- partial lexical equivalent.
A. V. Kunin, as well as V. N. Komissarov, subdivide them into two subgroups:
1. the Russian equivalents of English phraseological units coinciding on value, a stylistic orientation and the relatives on figurativeness but who are a little dispersing on lexical structure. The following turns can be an example:
- light as a feather - «легкий как перышко»;
- put by for rainy day - «отложить на черный день»;
- a dog in the manger - «собака на сене».
- like a tired butterfly - «как сонная муха»
- as flies to sugar - “как мухи на мед”.
and also some proverbs:
- hawks will not pick hawks' eyes out - «ворон ворону глаз не выклюет»;
- don't count your chicken before they are hatched - «цыплят по осени считают».
2. the Russian equivalents of English phraseological units coinciding with them on value, on a stylistic orientation but different in figurativeness. V. N. Komissarov calls this phenomenon analog. The following turns can be an example:
- to be born with a silver spoon in one's mouth - «родиться в сорочке»;
- when pigs fly - «как рак на горе свиснет», «после дождичка в четверг»;
- he that sleeps with dogs must rise up with fleas - «с кем поведешься, от того и наберешься»;
- put the cat near the goldfish bowl - «пусти козла в огород»;
- all is fish that comes to his net - «доброму вору все впору»;
- the dog that fatches will carry - «тот, кто сплетничает с вами, будет сплетничать о вас»
- we don't kill a pig every day - «не все коту масленница».
- partial grammatical equivalent.
The Russian equivalents of English phraseological units coinciding with them on value, on stylistic coloring and figurativeness, but differing in number in which there is a noun, or a word order belong to this group:
Divergence in number:
- fish in troubled waters-«ловить рыбу в мутной воде»;
- play in somebody's hands - «играть на руку»;
- catch old birds with chaff - «провести старого воробья на мякине».
Divergence in a word order:
- all is well that ends well - «все хорошо, что хорошо кончается»;
- a hungry fox dreams about chicken «голодной лисе все куры снятся»;
- strike while the iron is hot - «куй железо, пока горячо».
The III Tracing or literal translation of phraseological units in the presence of a full or partial equivalent.
Despite existence of a full or partial equivalent, steady combinations of words sometimes it is necessary to translate literally. Such translation is especially important when the image consisting in the phraseological unit isn't indifferent for understanding of the text, and replacement it in any other manner doesn't give sufficient effect. For example:
-the lion's share - «львиная доля»;
- love me - love my dog - «любишь меня - люби и мою собачку» (т.е. все, что со мной связано);
- crawl along like a turtle - «ползти как черепаха».
The literal translation is often applied in the presence of an expanded metaphor, phraseological synonyms, a word-play and puns. The turn of "care killed a cat" is translated«заботы до добра не доводят»; «не работа старит, а забота». However existence of opposition in the following fragment from Shakespeare demands a literal translation: - Claudio, what! Courage, man! What care killed a cat, thou hast mettle enough in thee to kill care (Shakespeare, “Much Ado About nothing”, act 5, scene 1).
- Клавдио, подбодрись, дружок! Хоть говорят, что забота и кошку уморить может, у тебя такой живой нрав, что ты можешь и заботу уморить.
We will agree with the point of view of S. Vlakhov and S. Florin claiming that the prerequisite for tracing is the sufficient motivation of value of phraseological unit values of its components. I.e. tracing is possible only when the literal translation can bring to the reader true contents of all phraseological unit (but not values of the parts making it). It is feasible, first, concerning figurative phraseological units, mainly the phraseological unities which kept rather fresh metaphoricalness. In true idioms phraseological unions - the figurative basis is almost not perceived, and tracing-papers from them it seems senseless, for example:
let the cat out of the bag - «разболтать секрет»;
enough to make a cat laugh - «курам на смех»;
wait for cat to jump - «занимать выжидательную позицию»;
that cock won't fight - «этот номер не пройдет».
Secondly, a number of proverbs which don't possess implication are exposed to tracing: extremes meet.
Thirdly, a tracing-paper it is possible to transfer also some steady comparisons, but only having convinced that the TL carrier will apprehend them correctly: the hare soul, for example, will be clear for those people, at which hare - a cowardice symbol; but at Indians this small animal symbolizes wisdom so in India the translation by a tracing-paper will be unclear to the reader. English bite the hand that feeds you («кусать руку, которая тебя кормит») causes idea of an ingratitude; the English proverb of fish and visitors smell in three days can also be translated a tracing-paper: "«рыба и гости протухают через три дня»", such translation, despite implication existence («нельзя злоупотреблять гостеприимством»), will be understood by everyone. Otherwise, than a tracing-paper which approaches with the lexicological and phraseological and free translation here and you won't translate characteristic English proverbs of type of rules of hygiene: After dinner sleep a while, after supper walk a mile can assume, for example, such air: «Пообедавши - вздремни, ужин съел - гулять иди».
IV Literalism. Tracing essentially differs from literalism in that tracing - a justified literal translation, literalism - the literal translation distorting sense of the translated statement. For example: in a bee line- «напрямик»;
dog my cats! - «черт возьми!»;
see the elephant - «приобрести жизненный опыт»;
to eat crow - «признавать свои ошибки»;
to have butterflies in one's stomach - «нервничать от страха».
If to translate these phraseological units literally, nonsense as literalism breaks a language form will turn out, i.e. seeks for linear line-by-line mechanical replacement of elements of a source text.
V «Obertonalny» the translation is the some kind of occasional equivalent used for the translation of the phraseological unit only in this context. I. Ya. Retsker calls it "contextual" replacement. It is necessary to consider of this equivalent is defined only by features of a context, and in other context the translation can not be a "obertonalny", and full or partial equivalent.
To have a bee in one's bonnet means «носиться с какой-то идеей», «быть с причудой», but this translation has to be replaced with "obertonalny" in the following fragment: Everybody knew that “young Mont” had a bee in his bonnet about children immigration (J.Galsworthy. “Swan Song”, p. 1, ch.12)
Все хорошо знали, что иммиграция детей - конек «Молодого Монта».
The VI Descriptive translation of phraseological unit is reduced, on the merits of the case, to the translation not of the phraseological unit, but its interpretation as it often happens to units which don't have equivalents in PYa. It can be explanations, comparisons, descriptions, interpretation - all means retelling the matter of phraseological unit in the clearest and short form. We will apply this type of the translation to proverbs and sayings. Creative approach of the author to the offered material is most fully reflected in various options of the descriptive translation. In this case the most interesting is the translation of proverbs from Russian into English where components of an English proverb or a saying, for example are in certain cases used: шила в мешке не утаишь - "truth will out" (cf. English proverb - "murder will out")
Draws attention as well other type of the descriptive translation in which figurativeness of the Russian proverb or saying, for example is in whole or in part transferred:
«за что купил, за то и продаю» - I sell my goods at the price I've paid for them
Many descriptive translations are rhymed, for example:
«дуракам закон не писан» - fools are fools, they observe no rules;
«в гостях хорошо, а дома лучше» - East or West, home is best;
«знает кошка, чье мясо съела» - well knows the kitten, whose meat is eaten.
We will apply also descriptive translation at an explanation of sense of phraseological units by means of a free combination of words, for example:
The next evening Rollie told me that everything was fixed ud with the master mechanic, but he be expected to buy a pig in a poke. He wanted to look me over first to see that I was sound in body and reasonably sound in mind. (J. Conroy, “The desinherited”)
На следующий вечер Ролли сказал мне, что есть полная договоренность с главным механиком, но нельзя предполагать, что тот примет на работу совершенно незнакомого человека. Он хотел сперва посмотреть на меня и убедиться в том, что я здоров физически и хотя бы относительно здоров в психическом отношении.
At the translation of the phraseological unit as the national painted unit we after VN Komissarov allocate three main types of compliances to figurative phraseological units of the original. In the first type of compliances all complex of values of the translated unit remains. In this case in TL there is a figurative phraseological unit coinciding with phraseological unit of the original both on direct and on figurative sense. As a rule, such compliances are found in the international phraseological units borrowed by both languages from any third language ancient or modern. For example: game isn't worth the candles "игра не стоит свеч", to play into somebody's hands "играть кому-то на руку". Use of similar compliance most fully reproduces the foreign-language phraseological unit.
In the second type of compliances the identical figurative meaning is conveyed in TL by means of other image at preservation of all other components of semantics of the phraseological unit (a partial and lexical equivalent on A. V. Kunin's terminology).
For example: to turn back the clock - «повернуть вспять колесо истории»;
the black sheep - «паршивая овца»;
to flog a dead horse - «тянуть кота за хвост»;
to get up on the wrong side of the bed - «встать не с той ноги»;
as flies to sugar - «как мухи на мед».
The third type of compliances is created by tracing of foreign-language figurative unit. For example: sell the bear's skin before one has caught the bear - «делить шкуру неубитого медведя»;
if you run after two hares you'll catch neither - «за двумя зайцами погонишься - ни одного не поймаешь».
Compliance of this type applicable only in case the image in initial unit "is rather transparent", and its reproduction in translation will allow the reader to understand the transferred figurative sense. In this case, if in the original the phraseological union where communication between a figurative and direct sense is insufficiently clear is used, tracing of an image will lead to destruction of sense of phraseological unit. Therefore sometimes it is necessary to refuse in general use of phraseological compliance and to be content with the description of the main (figurative) sense of the translated combination. For example: to be on high horse - «высокомерно держаться»;
to have butterflies in stomach - «нервничать от страха»;
start a hare - «отвлекать говорящего от темы разговора»;
to have a frog in one's throat - «охрипнуть».
Tracing of images is widely used for transfer of a national and ethnic component of value of the phraseological unit. The tracing-papers which are going back to antiquity, the bible and in general to any source of the European cultural and historical area. For example: Noah's ark - «Ноев ковчег»;
Cheshire cat - «Чеширский кот»;
A Trojan horse - «Троянский конь»;
Valaam's ass - «Валаамова ослица»;
Kilkenny cats - «Килкеннийские кошки».
Thus we can note that the translator needs to care of that the image was clear to the reader (and for this purpose it is necessary to know that expression of Kilkenny cats goes back to a legend of fierce fight between Kilkenny and Irish towns in the XVII century which led to their ruin), and in case of need to provide full value of understanding by means of the corresponding notes and footnotes.
Quite often the translator has an opportunity to choose between types of phraseological compliances. Depending on context conditions he can prefer the image existing in TL due to loss of a national and ethnic component. For example, we can translate fight like Kilkenny cats as "«бороться не на жизнь, а на смерть»", "to fight, as Kilkenniysky cats"; a cat has nine lives - бороться, как Килкеннийские кошки», "at a cat nine lives"«кошки живучи», «у кошки девять жизней». Or on the contrary to refuse use of the phraseological unit because of distinction in the emotional and stylistic characteristic. For example, Can the leopard change his spots? - «разве может леопард избавиться от пятен на своей шкуре?»
Thus we can note that to the translator fitted linguistic literature allows us to draw a conclusion:
- for each pair of languages the private translation theory describes system of phraseological units in SL and their compliance in TL and formulates recommendations to the translator about opportunity and expediency of use of compliances of each type in the conditions of a concrete context.
- There are many ways of the translation of phraseological units, however we have to remember that real translation process of phraseological units isn't reduced to selection of equivalent language compliances", and represents difficult process in which besides own skill of the translator play a role and the customer of the translation, and a set of cultural knowledge of potential recipients by which the translator, and nature of relationship of the contacting cultures, and many other factors influencing quality and the acceptability of the translation is guided.
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