Viable technologies in teaching register-based translation/interpreting
The algorithm of translation teaching. A record of the actions of a translator that he was taken in the translation process, the development of its creative potential. The synthesis of linguistic and translation competences and personal translation.
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Ivano-Frankivsk King Danylo Galytskiy University of Law
Department of Translation and Philology
Viable technologies in teaching register-based translation/interpreting
Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor
The present paper is focused on the Algorithm of Teaching Translation / Interpreting based on linguistic and translation competence and performance skills. The term register-based concerns a professional discourse of Economy characterized by specific lexis and idioms and represents a conceptual Economy system of the English language worldview. The algorithm includes 11 steps among which the Think-Aloud Protocol in the reformulated form to make the process of interpreting more creative.
Key words: translation/interpreting, algorithm, register-based, professional discourse, think-aloud protocol, source language (text), target language.
У статті запропоновано алгоритм навчання перекладу, який включає 11 кроків, серед яких протокол тих дій перекладача, які він здійснив у процесі перекладу, причому протокол передбачає не оцінку праці перекладача, а розвиток його творчого потенціалу. Об'єктом аналізу є професійний текст економічного дискурсу.
Ключові слова: переклад (усний і письмовий), алгоритм перекладу, професійно спрямований текст, протокол дій перекладача, мова оригіналу, мова перекладу.
Настоящая статья представляет собой 11-шаговый алгоритм обучения переводу. Сюда включён также протокол действий переводчика, которые он предпринимал в процессе перевода, причём протокол предполагает не оценку работы переводчика, а развитие его творческого потенциала. Рассмотрен синтез лингвистических и переводческих компетенций, технологического перевода и личностного перевода.
Ключевые слова: перевод (устный и письменный), алгоритм перевода, профессионально ориентированный текст, протокол действий переводчика, язык оригинала, язык перевода.
A faithful translation of the English economic text into a Ukrainian one cannot be achieved unless Economy culture of the countries is introduced to the Translation training Curriculum. We suggest overhauling major objectives of the Economy-based translation training: a) excellent skills in the working languages (Semester 1-2); b) a full appreciation of Translation as a basis of translation theories and professional activities and practicum in literary translation. (Semester 2); c) specificity of economic translation (Semester 2-3); d) training students in different types of economic translation (Semester - 4) and practicum in computer translation; e) economic translation practicum in the professional status (Semester 4); f) the conceptual system of Economy branches provided by instructors from the Economy Department. And semantic domains of the Economy conceptual systems provided by instructors from the Department of Translation (Semester 5-6);
g) the ores of translation(Semester6) and practicum in the future professional job (semester 7);
h) new innovative technologies in translation and new trends in linguistics in the contrastive framework plus probation in the World Economy institutions (consecutive, conference and sight translation (Semester 8).Translation theories and linguistic background are not useless as “some professionals” might say that trainees need the field professional skills only, not the academic theories. When the beginners or non-professions have to translate different professional discourses they come to senses that linguistic and translation theories are aimed at ensuring trainees to transfer the author's intended meaning of the Source Text and culture into the Target Text and culture [4; 8]. The term register-based concerns a type of discourse or a professional discourse [9, p. 56-59] in TEFL Methodology it corresponds to the term of LSP. Thus, Economic English is a professional discourse characterized by specific lexis and idioms and represents a conceptual Economy system of the home country. Naturally, economy-based translation must reflect the ethno-cultural view of the Source Language (SL) using the Target Language (TL) means. Wang Ling underlines that “the goal of register-based translation is to reproduce an economic text in the TL which has the same meaning as the ST and transfer the economic culture of the ST to the TT” [7, p. 37; cf.: 3]. The end-goal of the present paper is to elaborate an algorithm of various types of activities for the Economy-Based Translation, a wedlock of linguistics and translation. The object of the investigation is a text fragment from the book “Marketing Strategy,” by Steven P Schnaars, samples of its Ukrainian translations by students and computer (see the conceptual system of economy [10, p. 170--173].
Discussion. Demand for language services is booming and the global growth in demand for instant access to interpreting is an important part of this expansion. New appliances in the field of translation address the shortcomings in natural language processing and the system elaborated for those appliances can process any document containing multiple languages without human intervention. We live in the ubiquitous network society in with anyone can connect to the Internet and enjoy translation service anytime, anywhere. Translation technology has two more advantages - employing language access technology to facilitate translation and interpretation is cost-effective and time-saving. Bur analysing the final product, i.e. the TT and comparing it with the ST one can feel that most extra-linguistic information is left behind and the speakers intended meaning is revealed, besides the non-verbal information is not `read' by the translator either. Our opinion is that both types of translation/interpreting - technological and human - can correlate. The main aim of training translators/interpreters is to provide them with the linguistic and translation competence, develop their translation/interpreting performance and show the way of retrieving all the information possible from the ST and re-verbalize it into the TT. In the algorithm suggested Think-Aloud Protocol (elsewhere TAP) finds its place in the reformulated form. TAP is originated in the field of psychology and has been used in many disciplines . Although each study may vary slightly, the expectation is that trainees faced with a specific task, such as translating, participants will verbalize whatever comes to mind while performing the assigned task. In the think-aloud experiments  participants, ESL undergraduates, and Translation learners, are asked to express everything that goes on in their minds while they were translating - difficulties and success The atmosphere of the experiment should be stress-free and the participants should not have the feeling that they are being criticized for their translations [5, p. 56].
Experimenting. Translation technologies are changing the translation profession, raising a lot of questions in translation investigation and, primarily to the issues still waiting to be solved. We are in search of the ways to enact all the intellectual abilities of bilingual trainees in the process of translation. We have elaborated an algorithm based on the synthesis of linguistic and translation theories including TAP into the Methodology of Teaching Translation and Interpreting [11, p. 481-483] for trainers to recall the activities which occurred in their minds in the process of translation. Rather TAP will be used for the analysis of the translator's choice. The translator and hearers would help each other to overcome stumble points on the way to perfect translation. Here are the main steps of the algorithm.
1. SCAN THE TEXT from top ^ down (a sample of professional discourse of Economy [10, p. 56-59]) TO PINPOINT UNFAMILIAR WORDS. Scanning requires that the trainee browses the text looking for specific information. When trainees discover the key words being searched for, they will be able to recall the exact content of the text. Here is the ST: Business owners have two basic choices when marketing their products. First, they can create products and then find ways to generate demand among customers. For example, a company might promote a new product for which there is no existing need by creating consumer demand with a series of compelling advertisements. The second option is to identify consumer needs and then create products that meet those needs. The latter approach is called the “market pull” model of marketing, because it relies on consumer demand to pull the product to the marketplace, rather than having to push the product on consumers, according to the book “Marketing Strategy, ” by Steven P. Schnaars.
2. SKIM THE TEXT TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTEXT. Skimming is used to familiarize the reader as quickly as possible with the material to be read. It is also a rapid reading focusing on the TITLE (Promoting a product); Headings: Two models of promotion; TOPIC SENTENCE (Business owners have two basic choices when marketing their products); SIGN POSTS (product, consumer, product, , options, etc.) to get the main idea as well as effective preliminary step to reading thoroughly after skimming which provides an “overview” of the text, e.g.: There are two ways of promoting products to the marketplace, first, to pull the product to the market and to push the product on consumer.
3. CONSULT DICTIONARIES (MONOLINGUAL AND POLYLINGUAL), ENCYLO- PEDIAS, REFERENCE BOOKS, AND ELECTRONIC SOURCES. Write unfamiliar words and phrases underlined to look up them in the lexicographic and encyclopedic works and electronic devices. Try to verify their meaning and its use in the context, for instance, market may have two dominant component in its lexical meaning:
1) a public gathering held for buying and selling merchandise; 2) the entire enterprise of buying and selling commodities and securities (American Heritage). In the given text the second component is dominant. Then the lexeme consumer may be monosemantic in the Economy discourse: 1) One that consumes, especially one that acquires goods/services for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and manufacturing (American Heritage).
4. READ THE TEXT ALOUD. Read- ing-Aloud like Talking-aloud may help trainees concentrate on the text semantics, stress the key words, the main characters and a string of events. Our main objective is that trainees need to think while they are reading. Using modeling (reading activities ^ reading-understanding/not understanding), coached practice (engaging all students and if necessary they must be provided with guidance) and reflection, they can work out strategies to think while they read and build up their text comprehension.
5. MAP THE BASIC CONCEPT AND ITS CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM IN THE ST. There are the following concepts in the ST and the TT: marketing «маркетинг», promotion «просування», market «ринок», consumer «споживач», company «компанія», strategy «стратегія», etc. We shall analyse the lexical meaning of the lexeme representing the conceptual system, e. g: marketing, n. 1) the act or process of buying and selling in a market;
2) the commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producer to consumer. It may include several components represented by the following lexemes: 2.1) business of buying and selling a specified commodity; 2.2) a market price; 2.3) geographic region considered as a place for sales; 2.4) a subdivision of a population considered as buyers; 2.5) the opportunity to buy or sell; extent of demandfor merchandise; 2.6) an exchange for buying and selling stocks or commodities; 2.7) the entire enterprise of buying and selling commodities and securities. The noun promotion can reveal such components in its lexical meaning: 1) the act of promoting or the fact of being promoted; 2) advancement inrank or responsibility. 3) encouragement of the progress, growth, or acceptance of something; furtherance; 4) advertising; publicity, any component mirrors the megaconcept of “economy”. Note: there are two lexemes ECONOMY (The system or range of economic activity in a country, region, or community (see: American Heritage) and ECONOMICS “the social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and with the theory and management of economies or economic systems, see: American Heritage, in English and one lexeme економіка Ukrainian which stands for the both concepts [10, p. 170-173]. Sometimes it is used in the first meaning and the other meaning may be specified as “economic theory”, likewise, cf.: English “promotion” and Ukrainian “akt- siya”. Therefore, one must be careful with term translation - the semantic value of “equivalents” may not coincide in SL and TT and verified in the context. A range of definitional, componen- tial, distributional and discourse analyses serves as instruments of selecting components for the translation.
6. COMPRESS THE SL TEXT. It will reveal the level of the trainees' text comprehension and their ability to retrieve the main information from the text. Here is a sample of the compressed text: There are two ways of promoting products to the marketplace, first, to pull the product to the market and to push the product on consumer. Note: the basic concepts of the ST must be further reflected in the tT.
7. TRANSFORM THE ST PREICIS INTO THE TT. Here is an example: *Існують два способи просування товарів на ринок: по-перше, представити продукт на ринку, по-друге, рекламувати продукт споживачам. We suggest Translation students, Ukrainian students, and Economy students working together. The latter can serve as stylistically correct-incorrect filters of the TT. In their collaboration they can effectively exchange their respective language skills. It will help Translation trainees can avoid such “gaffes” like “promotsiya tovaru”.
8. GROUP WORK: INSTRUCTOR READS THE TEXT (THE CNN HOSTPACE) ^ STUDENTS GIVE THEIR TRANSLATION IN CHORUS. This type of exercise can be offered to the students to overcome some psychological moments and a negative impact of the group assessment. For the beginners a word-for-word translation is preferable (see: Mundi, 2016).
9. CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING: SPEAKER (READER) ^ INTERPRETER. The exercise helps trainees to continue developing the translation memory volume: from a word/ phrase ^ sentence of different structures ^ a paragraph. During Consecutive interpreting the interpreter has to stop every 1-5 minutes after each paragraph. The pauses much depend on the paragraph length the interpreter can memorize. Accordingly s/he has to make notes in the SL while transferring into the SL. The recent translation technologies assume that translation is a phrase-replacement process. They separate the Translator from the Sender and the Receiver turning communication into databases, i.e. the translation process loses the human component which can reveal intentional meanings of communication.
10. CONFERENCE INTERPRETING: SPEAKER (READER) ^ INTERPRETER. It can be recommended on the intermediate stage or rather the final stage of training. This is the most complicated task, when language rules (forms, word order adequate synonyms and antonyms, stylistic features) and translation requirements are linked to transfer the ST into TT semantics. The trainee must translate the sentence into the TL and simultaneously listening to and comprehending the next sentence in the SL. And the simultaneous translator is either a booth and earphones, or together with the speaker surrounded by hearers.
11. PRESENTATION OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSLATIONS AND THINK-ALOUD PROTOCOLS. Every participant demonstrates his/ her variant of translation for a further discussion and perfecting it into a final product. The instructor or the trainer must take care that every point of view is counted and no leader's opinion can prevail [11, p. 128]. In addition, the atmosphere of the experiment should be stress-free, friendly and respectful. The trainees should not have the feeling that they are being criticized for [5, p. 179] their translations and assessed [54, p. 56; 3]. Such atmosphere must pave the way to TAP aimed at explaining their choices. It is a method employed in psychology, reading, writing, translation research, decision-making and process tracing to gather data in usability testing in product design and development. TAPs have been used in researching translation between two written languages and applying this method to the interpretation requires its adaptation, which is nearly impossible in the case of consecutive and simultaneous [11, p. 128]. We fully agree with Amanda Smith's opinion that the interpreters cannot analyze their own interpreting process. According to our observation the trainees can manage it together with theirteam members after completing the task, specifying decision-making process, facts conditioned translation choices in the moment, and monitoring and correction strategies. Because we put forward the point for discussion: how to make a final translation better. When comparing the TT and the ST or when looking at errors, one could speculate in retrospect about what had happened in the mind of the translator (“the black box”) during the translation process [2, p. 111-127]. And to encourage the beginners in translation we offer them to proofread, edit and evaluate a CAT of the ST in the TT: *Власники бізнесу мають два основні варіанти щодо маркетингу продуктів. По-перше, вони можуть створювати продукти, а потім шукати способи, щоб генерувати попит у споживача. Наприклад, компанія може сприяти попиту на новий продукт, у якому немає очевидної необхідності, створюючи споживчий попит низкою переконливих реклам. Другий варіант полягає в тому, щоб визначити споживчі потреби, а потім створювати продукти, які відповідають цим потребам. Останній підхід називається “market pull''-модель, оскільки вона спирається на споживчий попит і виводить продукт на ринок, а не підштовхує до нього споживачів. After the critical review the students can be reminded on recording their next translation and Think-Aloud Protocol. Their analysis must follow the next model: the word level ^ phrase level ^ sentence level ^ discourse level to miss neither linguistic nor translation features. On the latter level the trainees are asked to specify some cultural differences which still exist in the economic relations of the English-speaking countries with the consumer needs in focus and Ukraine with the product sale in focus. The foci revealed can influence the semantic and formal structure of the TT. The anticipated outcome is that these verbalizations will give a better understanding of “the levels, steps, units of processing, the role of the interaction of SL and TL, and the amount of “procedur- alization” [2, p. 115].
translation personal linguistic competence
Conclusion and perspectives
Different fields of research may relate to translation technology and correlating they can enrich each other. The algorithm suggested in the paper is based on uses (identifying students' locus of attention), challenges (practicing, verbalizing must follow the concept), issues for discussion (solutions to challenges) and it may be overhauled, re-modeled in translation practice, but it has been already verified and therefore it has the right to its existence in training translators' kit.
CAT assists translators in their work but does not do it for them and therefore it does not eliminate the human translator from the process. TAP is one of the effective tools of cognition to reveal the translators' background knowledge for retrieving additional information from the ST to make the TT more appropriate to the ST. The TAP can also reveal some difficulties in teaching future translators. Therefore, the results of the analyses can then form a basis for training translation methodology. The graduate studies in interpreting must include the implications of technological developments for different interpreting modes as well as interpreting remote, media, telephone, videoconference, and website) aided by technical mediation.
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6. Kussmal P Think-Aloud Protocol Analysis in Translation Studies / PKussmaul, S. Tirkkonen-Condit // TTR. - 1995. - P 177-199.
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9. Mykhaylenko V.On the Way to Professional Discourse / V. Mykhaylenko // Proceedings: IV International Conference “Cognitive-Pragmatic Study of Professional Discourses”. - Kharkiv : Vasyl Karazin National University, 2014 - P 56-59.
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