Maintenance of ecological safety of livestock products
Urgency of control and creation of new directions of biological preparations providing high production and ecological characteristics of cattle breeding. Use of the most widely used antibiotics in soil and water. Transformation of drugs on food canals.
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Krasnoyarsk state agrarian university
MAINTENANCE OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS
In the article the urgency of control and creation of new directions of the biological preparations providing high industrial and ecological characteristics of cattle-breeding production are reflected.
Experience of cattle-breeding farms and complexes shows that the animal industries intensification often isn't accompanied by improvement of hygienic and veterinarno-sanitary conditions in cattle-breeding premises, has negative influence on health of animals, environment intensively becomes soiled. The big concentration of animals on the limited areas, not always the balanced feeding, action of various adverse factors reduces their natural resistance, efficiency and finally worsens quality of production. Quality of the cattle-breeding production received on a complex, on presence of microcells and other factors in 3-6 times more low in comparison with production received from pets, and at 5-12 time from wild animals.
Many scientists and production workers reflect on those negative consequences which are connected with intensive systems of conducting animal industries. So, at the stall maintenance infringement of reproductive function at cows that demands serious intervention of veterinary experts at any use of stimulators.
Very much an important point for manufacture of non-polluting production is the organization of quality assurance of production. If to speak about quality of foodstuff non-polluting production (plant growing) doesn't contain the rests of pesticides, contains much less nitrates.
At the decision of a question of production of agriculture it is necessary to be defined with terms: «Safe production», «Non-polluting production». Safe production should correspond to requirements and the indicators fixed in medical and biologic specifications, standards, specifications and not to pose hazard to life and health of people. In this production the maintenance of some harmful substances in maximum permissible concentration for the person is supposed.
Non-polluting production corresponding to requirements of the law, that is possessing the nutritional value, strengthening health and not rendering an adverse effect on a human body as a result of its consumption is considered. Legal status of non-polluting production is defined by corresponding sanitary both veterinary norms and rules. By manufacture of non-polluting production, except observance of strict requirements to quality of forages, controllable special conditions of the maintenance are provided.
The central department on preservation of the environment of Germany had been investigated application scale in the European Union countries (EU) and presence in soil and water of most widely applied antibiotics. It has appeared that confidently are in the lead in consumption of antibiotics poultry farming, other branches of animal industries in this list take minor places. The similar situation is registered and in territory of the Russian Federation. Most often applied preparations in struggle against infections of animals and birds are tetracycline. They possess a wide spectrum of action and are often appointed at infections of a skin, respiratory ways, a gastroenteric path and urinogenital system.
Laboratory researches of the hammered animals show that residual quantities of preparations are found out in kidneys, a liver, muscles, milk and eggs. Therefore being on feeding animals if it entered antibiotics, before slaughter should to be maintained certain time before full deducing of these preparations from an organism. ecological cattle antibiotic soil
As acknowledgement of transformation of antibiotics on food channels researchers from Minnesota in 2005 have made natural experiment. They have planted corn, a green onions and cabbage in the soil processed by manure from large-scale farm, medicine using modern achievement - including antibiotics. To learn, what ecological influence renders application of these preparations in animal industries, in six weeks of a plant have subjected to the analysis and have found out that in them there was a certain maintenance, a medicine widely applied to treatment of animals. In other experiment in the soil processed by liquid pork manure, delivered from large-scale farm after two-year endurance, have planted corn, a lettuce and a potato. It has appeared that plants began to absorb actively not decayed applied in an economy sulphamethoxine, and with increase in the maintenance of an antibiotic in soil concentration of this substance grew in plants.
Knowledge of scientists of the further distribution of these substances in environments are rather limited today. Today in these countries the set of attempts is undertaken to fill blanks in scientific knowledge of presence and behavior of antibiotics in environment and according to it to change the legislation.
Besides therapeutic and preventive application for struggle against infectious diseases antibiotics add in a forage for improvement of its comprehensibility and stimulation of growth of animals. Addition of antibiotics in a forage to pigs, calfs and a bird allows to raise efficiency feeding and it is more rational to use forages. Introduction of antibiotics by a pet leads to pollution of foodstuff of an animal origin (milk and dairy products, meat of pets and products of their processing, egg and egg products). These connections, arriving with foodstuff, influence microorganisms of thick intestines and promote development in the person of a dysbacteriosis, and also accustoming of pathogenic microorganisms to these antibiotics. One researcher notices that "resistance to microorganisms to means became the global problem substantially influencing public health services in developed and developing countries".
Some bacteria by nature are steady to separate antibiotics, but it is frequent this stability it is got. Bacteria become steady, when include "the stability factor" in the genes to neutralize action of antibiotics. This factor can quickly be transferred to other bacteria, being transferred on the small slices of a genetic material named plasmids. Sometimes steady genes also can be packed into the elements of DNA, that allows them to jump from one site of DNA on another.
Plural resistance - when bacteria are steady at once against several antibiotics - also can be transferred from one kind to another. Stability mechanisms can include: the changes occurring in a cage of a bacterium and influencing a susceptibility to an antibiotic; changes in a wall of a cage which complicate attack of antibiotics; the increase in speed from which the antibiotic gets into a cage or is deduced from it that reduces time of influence of an antibiotic and its effective concentration in a cage; or manufacture of enzyme which does an antibiotic inefficient. Though first steady bacteria met only in city hospitals, now they are found out everywhere. They can extend on next and even the remote countries: microorganisms don't recognize borders." Our bacteria belong any more only to us. It is possible to tell that we dump them, we allocate and in some other way we extend in environment where they become a lump part ". This fast distribution means that more and more people don't react to antibiotics which were before effective.
Scientists are assured that passive reception of antibiotics with food promoted sharp growth of cases of an allergy and an asthma at children within last 20 years. Supervision over 448 children from the moment of a birth to age of seven years, spent to Detroit in «Henry Ford's Hospital», have shown that the risk to face an asthma and an allergy at children accepting antibiotics in first six months of life, much above. Therefore in the European Union in 2006 application of antibiotics as food additives for acceleration of growth of animals was forbidden. Earlier by data «the Union of concerned scientists» for 2000 in EU and the USA in animal industries were used ten thousand tons of antibiotics a year (thus antibiotics were given to healthy animals).
The popular belief that in struggle against increasing resistance to antibiotics is in the unique way creation of new, more effective medicines. Race behind "the wonderful medicine", capable to win "supermicrobe" withdraws from a reality. The real decision consists in eliminating inadequate use. As authors of one research, "instead of trying to win or anticipate resistance appointment of one more medicine have concluded, a problem should consist in prevention of resistance by restriction of prescriptions of antibiotics"
The given measures are undertaken in the developed countries in connection with serious danger which is represented by many veterinary preparations for health of the person at their chronic receipt. For example, the rests of, getting to foodstuff of an animal origin and further, in a human body, oppress intestines microflora, provoke a dysbacteriosis, displays of allergic character, secondary fungoid infections, reduce resistibility of an organism, can provoke infringements of function of kidneys. There are data on haemotoxyni and cancerogenic properties of some sulphanilamids preparations.
In Russia the problem of passive reception of antibiotics hasn't received a due estimation neither in scientific, nor in political circles. Rather rare publications in scientific editions aren't capable to activate journalists and the public, not to mention power structures. «The brain shake-up» type of Chernobyl failure or any overseas bird's-pork epidemic is necessary to the Russian person to realize gravity of a problem.
Cattle-breeding complexes and integrated poultry farms are considerable sources of environmental contaminations. The problem of recycling of a waste of the similar enterprises is actual and consequently that for their storage a considerable quantity of arable lands is occupied, and an ability to live waste is a source of the unpleasant smells extending on the big distances. In Russia there is an experience of the decision of such problems. For example, in joint-stock company "Belorechensky integrated poultry farm", making in a year of 46 thousand tons of a chicken dung, on the accelerated recycling of a chicken dung by a method of biological processing by the Californian hearts works are spent to a biohumus and reception on its basis of high-quality organic fertilizers. Initial raw materials for reception of fertilizers were the fresh chicken dung, a waste of flour-grinding industrial complex and peat from a nearby deposit.
All over the world actively search for possibilities of reduction of use of antibiotics in animal industries and in traditional medicine. As refusal of these enough effective preparations at treatment of infectious diseases isn't possible today, it is necessary to find other variants. It is necessary to begin with the maintenance of animals in such conditions which reduce to a minimum occurrence possibility in economy of infectious diseases and by that initially exclude necessity of use of antimicrobic preparations for the therapeutic purposes.
As to use of antibiotics as growth factors conscious and responsible manufacturers farmers of all countries should try to use existing alternatives and to limit use of antibiotics even if corresponding legislative norms of it for the present don't forbid. Experience of the progressive enterprises, first of all, Holland and Germany shows that the thought over management and correctly balanced fodder diet added probiotics, organic acids, vegetative additives, can raise additional weights of animals isn't worse at all than antibiotics.
Important negative consequence of application of antibiotics in agriculture is the constant increase in their background values. This fact is connected with absence in the nature of the effective mechanism of decomposition of these substances alien to habitats. Occurrence of antibiotics has appeared so prompt in historical time scale that bacteria hadn't time to "learn" to use them as food in a little appreciable quantities. The person should accelerate this process by selection of "perspective" bacteria and making them commercially.
The veterinary preparations used in the therapeutic purposes (streptomycin, penicillin), should be applied under strict state supervision and under condition of obligatory endurance of animals before a face to a full conclusion of the rests of veterinary preparations from an organism of an animal.
For definition of the rests of veterinary preparations tool physical and chemical methods of the analysis, such as a liquid chromatography of a high pressure (LCHP) and hromato-mass spectrometry (GH-MS) are used. These methods, provide use of the expensive equipment needing highly skilled service. Recently to screening of the rests of veterinary preparations it is applied convenient and fast an analysis method (IFA, ELISA), being an official quality monitoring of products of the animal origin, accepted in the European Union countries (the Instruction 93/257/ЕЕС).
In the conclusion it would be desirable to tell that that new preparations were fixed in the domestic market, in this business it is necessary to involve large investors and according to it to change the legislation in the necessary party. For now we will stay idle, and together with food we will absorb uncontrollable quantity of antibiotics. Pathogenic microorganisms of our body "will get used" to them and at disease won't react in any way to medical introduction antimicrobic preparations.
Meanwhile, in the world alternative methods of antibacterial therapy actively develop, for example, with use of bacteriophages - the viruses destroying bacteria or preparations, not killing microbes, and blocking their pathogenic properties, interfering with that to infection development. Alternatively uses of antibiotics for preventive maintenance of diseases of animals can be offered absolutely harmless and effective enough way on the basis of sorbents, probiotics and prebiotics which are necessary for adapting for each region and an economic direction of manufacture.
Enterosorbents are capable to adsorb various organic and inorganic substances, including biogene amines and bilious acids and as to connect and deduce through a digestive path a way gases, bacterial cages and products of their ability to live, getting into a gastroenteric path, cholesterol, bilirubin, and as biologically active substances - products of corpulent cages.
Probiotics against sorbcion therapies carry out replaceable function, i.e. at the expense of high potential of growth and reproduction intensively colonizes released after evacuation of a sorbent from a gleam of intestines of a place and thus influences the general microbiocenosis of a digestive path of a bird that is mediated influences the basic physiological, immunological and technological indicators. This law is accurately traced in the results received by us.
1. Antonuk B.C. Scientific maintenance of food branch of the country. Materials of the International scientific and technical conference. ? Mn., 2002. ? With. 4-13.
2. Volosach T.A. accelerat recycling of a chicken dung and reception on its basis of high-quality fertilizers a method of biological processing. The collection of works. The international scientific conference IGPY on June, 17th, 2009, Irkutsk, 2009г.
3. Romanov V. I, Romanov R. L. Emissions of harmful substances and their danger to live organisms. М: Phys.math. the book, 2009г.
4. Coupons А, Kononenko G. M, Rubchenkov P. N. Ways of reception of ecologically safe livestock products and forages//Problems of veterinary sanitary, hygiene and ecology. ? М, ? 1999. ?С. 24-26.
5. Ecological safety on objects of agrarian and industrial complex. ? Mn.: Uradjae, 2008. ? 197 with.
6. Mastro, T.D., Ghafoor, A., et al, "Antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Pakistan", Lancet, 19 Jan 1991, Vol 337, No 8734, pp156-9.
7. Boulangcr, J.M., Ford-Jones, E.L. and Matlow, A.G., "Enterococcal bacteremia in a pediatric institution: a four-year review", Reviews of Infections Diseases, Vol 13, Sep-Oct 1991, pp847-56.
8. Marton, A., Gulyas, M., et al, "Extremely High Incidence of Antibiotic Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hungary", Journal of Infectious Diseases, 163, 3, Mar 1991, 542-8.
9. Fenoll, A., Bourgon, C.M., et al, "Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing systemic infections in Spain, 1979-1989", Reviews of Infectious Diseases, Vol 13, No 1, Jan-Feb 1991, 56-60.
10. Frieden and Mangi, op cit, pp1438-40; also reported in: Anon., "Overuse ofciprofloxacin in USА", Scrip, No 1558, 17 Oct 1990, p26.
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