Activity-axiological approach as a phenomenon of formation and development of physical education
Formation and development of the sphere of physical culture from the era of Paleolithic to the period of the Ancient World. Occurrence of employment by military-applied kinds of sports as a leading orientation of physical preparation of young men.
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Новокузнецкий филиал-институт Федерального государственного образовательного учреждения высшего образования «Кемеровский государственный университет»
Activity-axiological approach as a phenomenon of formation and development of physical education
History of physical education and sports has gained a considerable amount of works, that showcase its formation and development from the simplest forms to modern forms of sports activity. Research of the historians such as L. Kuhn, V.V. Stolbov, N.I. Ponomarev, V. Olivova et al., are brought to us information about the characteristics of an area of physical culture and sports in every socio-political formation. In addition, in their works, it is possible to trace the effect on physical culture by various social factors and, on the contrary, the effect of physical training on various aspects of social life. We decided to continue the research in this area from the standpoint of teaching methodology and pedagogy of physical culture and sports.
The purpose of the research - to carry out the theoretical and methodological analysis of the stages of formation and development of physical culture and sports from the perspective of action-axiological approach.
Methods and organization of the research. The theoretical and methodological analysis of scientific and educational literature on the research topic is carried out. The historical parallels of the formation and development of the sphere of physical culture and sport since the Paleolithic Age to the period of the ancient world is described.
The results of the research and discussion. As known, the basis of all educational activities, including the pedagogy of physical culture and sports, should be based on a specific approach, which is, according to V.A. Slastenin, specific relatively independent principle of the specific research methodology of pedagogical science and appropriately served practice .
In modern pedagogy there is a quantity of different approaches: axiological, pragmatist (activity), comprehensive, person-centered, humanistic, systemic, and others. Many of the approaches found evidence of its effectiveness in practice .
In spite of this, we offer to review the history of genesis of physical culture and sports from a position of activity-axiological approach that will allow us to identify the substantive, procedural unity of activity-oriented and value component of the spheres of life of people at all stages of formation and development of mankind. However, this should be given special attention to all components of the contents of physical culture, which ultimately translate into a particular pedagogical theory, as well as designate main ideas and concepts of socio-economic reality, that will determine the direction of this theory.
Clarify the concept, the content and nature of the activity and axiological approaches in the context of further investigation, we consider it expedient to consider activity-axiological approach as a methodological principle, the implementation of which allows you to create value attitude to physical culture and sport, as a socially important spheres of life of people in the process of individual and group activities.
The first premise of indirect participation of the activity-axiological approach in the development of physical culture and sport can be traced back to the Paleolithic era, when the main source of human existence was hunting. For the purpose of survival and sustenance man - Neanderthal man begins to create weapons of stone, wood and a variety of other subjects. Under the influence of the cold and hunger, man gradually begins to form a value of the skills of hunting. During this process man possessed vital and necessary abilities and skills. This was achieved by means of repeated observations, copying and imitation of movements of animals.
In an era of Mesolithic and Neolithic human activity begins to expand and carries valuable reference to agriculture and live stock breeding. Physical education of that period was related to the training of the younger generation the skills of riding, weightlifting, dancing and some forms of “meditation”, which was based on the worship of pagan deities of fertility. Gradually, these, once harmless form of motor activity and life, begin to grow into violent competition between the parties, somewhat similar to modern competition. According to physical culture and sport historians [6, 10, 15], these fights and competitions have given rise to the ceremonial centers of events in Greece, Egypt, South England, Croatia and Sweden. It was connected with the intensification of the struggle for the best fertile land, which in turn gives impetus to the development of military and physical preparation of young men pointing thus to the transfer of values towards the applied military physical preparation.
During this period of transition from the primitive to a class society there is an aesthetic ideal of the invincible, legendary hero (Hercules, Achilles, Prometheus, etc.). The value orientation of physical education, as stated above, is beginning to focus on the employment of young men of applied military sports, such as archery, horse riding, javelin and disc, fight. These types of training were widely used in the original institutions - youth houses which, basically, were analogous to the modern educational institutions . The content of the training programs in these houses was aimed at organizing of various activities that contributed to the formation of values of labor, moral and physical readiness of the younger generation.
In the works of N.P. Novoselov, N.I. Ponomarev, M.D. Orobinsky it is judged that the physical exercises and games began to develop in the primitive communal society based on deep qualitative changes in the industrial and socio-economic sphere and in the thinking of people who, on the basis of axiological systems of each period of social development, were forced develop labor and hunting skills, improve their health during the game. In turn, the game is a view not meaningful productive activity, where the motive is not in its result, but the process itself.
Thus, based on the opinion of L. Kuhn, that the development of physical culture of primitive society two qualitative leaps are guilty, in the course of which, first, a new sphere of human activity contributes to the differentiation of the value of physical exercise, dance moves and game elements to strengthen the body, the development of labor and hunting skills. During the second leap, when the decomposition of primitive society begins, values are transferred to the need for development and the conquest of new lands, the time of institutional standards of physical fitness that have become the means of social subordination and give impetus to the development of the military component of the application sphere of physical culture and sports.
In manner, the above aspects can be seen in the Marxist-Leninist philosophy, in which the law of development of human knowledge lies in moving from appearance to essence, from the outside to the inside. “From living perception to abstract thought, and from this to practice, - wrote V.I. Lenin - this is the dialectical path of the knowledge of the truth, the knowledge of objective reality” [cit. ex 12]. physical culture sport preparation
Our research confirms the extended hypothesis that the sphere of physical culture and sports in its core contains patterns of personality development in the normal course of business, which is focused on the values and ideals of a certain period of life. We consider it appropriate to continue our research and review the historical aspects of the formation and development of physical culture and sports through the prism of activity-axiological approach to the modern period in the life of human society.
1. Anisimov V. V. Obshchie osnovy pedagogiki: ucheb. dlia vuzov [General principles of pedagogy: college textbook] / V.V. Anisimov, O.G. Grokholski, N.D. Nikandrov. - M .: Prosveshchenie, 2007. - 575 p. [in Russian]
2. Artem'ev A.A. Istoricheskie paralleli razvitiya fizicheskoy kul'tury i predstavleniy o zdorov'e [Historical parallels of the development of physical culture and ideas about health] / A.A.Artem'ev, I.L.Levina, V.M.Krasilov // Valeologiya, №1, 2009. - P. 36-41 [in Russian]
3. Artem'ev A.A. Stanovlenie i razvitie fizkul'turno-ozdorovitel'noy deyatel'nosti v obrazovanii [Formation and development of sports and recreational activities in education] / A.A.Artem'ev, I.L.Levina // Filosofiya obrazovaniya, №5(62), 2015. - P. 131-140 [in Russian]
4. Artem'ev A.A. Teoreticheskie i psikhologo-fiziologicheskie osnovy organizatsii fizkul'turno-ozdorovitel'noi deiatel'nosti obrazovatel'nogo uchrezhdeniia: monografiia [Theoretical and psycho-physiological basis for the organization of sports and recreational activities of the educational institution] - Novokuznetsk: RIO KuzGPA, 2012. - 195 p. [in Russian]
5. Bal'sevich V.K., Nepreryvnoe fizkul'turnoe obrazovanie [Continuous physical education] / V.K. Bal'sevich, T.I. Popov, N.I. Sannikova // Teoriya i praktika fiz. kul'tury - 2004. - №12. - P. 10-13. [in Russian]
6. Gik E. Ia. Populiarnaia istoriia sporta [Popular history of sport] - M.: Akademiia, 2007. - 448 p. [in Russian]
7. Dzhurinskii A.N. Istoriia pedagogiki drevnego i srednevekovogo mira: uchebnoe posobie dlia vysshei shkoly [History of education of ancient and medieval world: study letter for high school] - M.: Izdatel'stvo «Sovershenstvo», 1999. - 224 p., ill. [in Russian]
8. Kolbanov, V. V. Valeologiia: osnovnye poniatiia, terminy i opredeleniia [Valeology: basic concepts, terms and definitions] - St. Petersburg.: Dean, 1998. - 231 p. [in Russian]
9. Kraevskii V. V. Metodologiia pedagogicheskogo issledovaniia: posobie dlia pedagoga-issledovatelia [Methodology of pedagogical research: study letter for the pedagogue-researcher] - Samara. : Izd-vo SamGPI, 1994. - 165 p. [in Russian]
10. Kun L. Vseobshchaia istoriia fizicheskoi kul'tury i sporta: uchebnik dlia studentov vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii, spetsializiruiushchikhsia po uchebnoi distsipline «Fizicheskaia kul'tura» [General history of physical culture and sports: study letter for students of higher educational institutions specializing in educational discipline “Physical culture”] - M.: Raduga, 1982. - 400 p. [in Russian]
11. Slastenin V. A., Isaev I. F., Shiianov E. N. Obshchaia pedagogika : ucheb. posobie dlia stud. vyssh. ucheb. zavedenii [General pedagogy: study letter for students of higher educational institutions] - M.: VLADOS, 2003. - 256 p. [in Russian]
12. Stolbov V. V. Istoriia fizicheskoi kul'tury i sporta. [History of physical culture and sports] - M.: Prosveshchenie, 1989. - 288 p. [in Russian]
The article presents the results of theoretical and methodological research of the author, devoted to the formation and development of the sphere of physical culture from the Paleolithic Age to the period of the Ancient World. In the process of historical analysis, it has been identified preconditions indirect participation of activity-axiological approach in the formation and further development of physical culture. In particular, in the Paleolithic era, under the influence of cold and hunger, man gradually begins to form a value of the skills of hunting. During this process man possessed vital and necessary skills. In an era of Mesolithic and Neolithic human activity begins to expand and carries valuable reference to agriculture and live stock breeding. During the transition from the primitive to a class society there is an aesthetic ideal of invincible, legendary hero (Hercules, Achilles, Prometheus, etc.). Leading orientation of the physical preparation of young men are applied military sports. Finally it concluded that the sphere of physical culture and sports at the root contains patterns of personality development in the normal course of business, which is focused on the values and ideals of a certain period of life.
Keywords: history of physical culture, values and ideals, action-axiological approach.
В статье представлены результаты теоретико-методологического исследования автора, посвященные становлению и развитию сферы физической культуры с эпохи Палеолита до периода Древнего Мира. В процессе исторического анализа, были выявлены предпосылки косвенного участия деятельностно-аксиологического подхода в становлении и дальнейшем развитии физической культуры. В частности, в эпоху Палеолита, под воздействием голода и холода, человек постепенно начинает формировать в себе ценность навыков ведения охоты. Именно в процессе ее человек овладевает жизненно важными и необходимыми умениями. В эпоху мезолита и неолита деятельность человека начинает расширяться и переносит ценностные ориентиры на земледелие и животноводство. В период перехода от первобытнообщинного к классовому обществу возникает эстетический идеал непобедимого, легендарного героя (Геракл, Ахиллес, Прометей и др.). Ведущей направленностью физической подготовки юношей становятся занятия военно-прикладными видами спорта. В заключении сделан вывод о том, что сфера физической культуры и спорта в своей основе содержит закономерности развития личности в процессе деятельности, которая ориентирована на ценности и идеалы определенного периода жизни человека.
Ключевые слова: история физической культуры, ценности и идеалы, деятельностно-аксиологический подход.
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