Semantics and formal-structural parameters of football vocabulary in the Ukrainian literary language at the beginning of the XXI century

Content of the term "football vocabulary". Taxonomy of football nominations in a special purpose language. System organization of the vocabulary segment through the implementation of paradigmatic relationships. Terminologized commonly used lexical units.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 12.07.2018
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Semantics and formal-structural parameters of football vocabulary in the Ukrainian literary language at the beginning of the XXI century

Yuriy Struhanets

At the beginning of the XXI century football vocabulary is actively functioning in Ukrainian literary language that is related to football as a multifaceted socio-cultural phenomenon: sport, business and means of political influence, game and mass spectacle.

The interest of linguists in sports communication, including the language of football, has increased in recent decades due to study of various areas of language activity of society. Despite researchers' attention to the theoretical and practical issues of sports terminology, in Ukrainian linguistics there is still not system analysis of football vocabulary. The relevance of the research leds to the following factors: a) the growing popularity of football as a sport; b) increasing the number of participants in football communication, deterministic operation of sports channels on TV, regular broadcasting of football matches, the opening of sports (including football) portals, discussion about the problems of football in chat rooms and forums on the Internet; c) necessity for a comprehensive description of the football lexicon, representing the segment of Ukrainian language picture of the world; d) requirements of regimentation and codification of football vocabulary; e) the development of electronic glossaries, creation of electronic thesauri, development of corpus linguistics; f) necessity of preparing materials for systematic improvement of language culture of journalists who broadcast football programs or matches.

The fundamental in studying semantic-structural and functional parameters of the football vocabulary of Ukrainian literary language of XXI century are studios of Ukrainian and foreign linguists in which determined sports language (M.N. Panochko, B.O. Zilbert, O.V. Borowska, M.R. Martyniuk, T.A. Yeshchenko, L.A. Karpets, I.M. Sushynska, Y L. Vokalchuk, O.G. Malysheva); the peculiarities of football vocabulary are clarified (P.I. Melnyk, O.S. Rylov, S.S. Bohuslavskyy, M.B. Dubyak, R.S. Koval, I.R. Protsyk, O.M. Lavrynenko, V.V. Maxymchuk).

The goal of our study is to determine the semantic and formal structural parameters of football nominations in Ukrainian literary language of the XXI century.

Professional dictionaries, general language dictionaries (explanatory, spelling, dictionary of foreign words, thesaurus, etc.), sports newspapers and magazines (printed and online editions), professional, popular science and reference books at football issues, TV programs on football theme, football matches, football online communication (blogs, chat rooms, forums, social networks), football oral communication (communication with coaches, referees, players, fans) are serving for the source base of our study. Contemporary fiction also involved to analyze, representing the non-special contexts of functioning of football nominations.

In recent decades, linguists have increased their interest to football communication in different languages (Bohuslavs'kyy; Rylov). Some researches of Ukrainian linguists are regarding to language culture of football reports (Vokalchuk), the specific of jargon of football fans (Lavrynenko; Protsyk). Football vocabulary undergoes permanent changes that caused laying of dictionaries on football terminology and its translation into other languages (Kvaratsheliya; Levkiv, Himyak, Levkiv; Svertnyev).

The peculiarity of the football language is that it aims to narrow the scope of specialists communication of this sphere and the range of participants of football communications - journalists and fans. Football vocabulary is a nomination of objects and concepts from the field of football operating in professional and unprofessional language. The concept of «Language for Special Purposes», as dominant in English literature, used to indicate the professional sphere. K. Y. Averbukh said that this special purpose «more than any other area of communication aimed at effective and adequate transfer of information» (Averbuh 50). Football vocabulary which functioning in language for special purpose unites the terms of football field, extrabranch terminological units, terminologizated common lexical units, nomenclature, professional words, professional jargon. In unprofessional language (media, fiction, spoken language) football terms undergoing determinologization acquiring new meanings.

In linguistic practice the meanings «football vocabulary» and «football terminology» is not differentiated often. The criterion for assigning words to the lexicon of football is its use in usual football communication. Founded that football vocabulary combines features of term and common word. For football vocabulary, as well as for any terms inherent systematic, correlation with a particular concept, monosemy of significant number of lexical units. Football and general vocabulary are connected by the following features: accessibility (clarity), determination of nonlinguistic factors, emotionality of many nominations, possibility of synonyms, antonymy, advanced lexical compatibility.

Term serves as a basic unit of language for special purpose. In the interpretation of V. M. Leichyk, term is a word or combination of words denoting the concept of special areas of communication in science, industry, technology, art or in a particular area of expertise and human activity that is a unit of language for special purpose (Leichyk). Among the terminological units of football thematic by their degree of specialization of their meaning related common sports terms (змагання, перемога, поразка), interbranch sports terms (гра, м 'яч, ворота) and properly football terms (вінгер, латераль, офсайд).

Formation of extrabranch terminology is associated with appeal to different fields: military (атака, дивізіон, захист); production (стандарт, техніка, штанга), economic (бюджет, менеджмент, трансфер), social and political (арбітр, протест, суддя), drama (амплуа, дебют, дублер) and others.

Terminologiezed common lexical units are commonly used tokens which are used to describe terminological concepts: газон - футбольний газон, лінія - лінія футбольного стадіону, поле - футбольне поле.

Nomenclature is intermediary link between the terms and proper names. Football nomenclature mainly consists of nomina of football clubs (FC) and the names of players that belong to these associations. The following models is determined: «the name of FC ^ oykonim» (FC «Ternopil»), «the name of FC ^ hydronim» (FC «Vorskla», FC «Desna»), «the name of FC ^ oronim» (FC «Karpaty», FC «Hoverla»),» the name of FC ^ horonim» (FC «Bukovyna», FC «Volyn»), «the name of FC ^ ergonim» (FC «Zorya», FC «Obolon-Brovar») and others.

Professional words and professional slang are an organic component of the nominative system of Ukrainian language. Football professional words often have official status (normative character) because they are used by commentators and journalists during football matches. Professional words are used for the language economy: основа «основний склад команди», дев 'ятка «верхній кут воріт, внутрішня частина воріт між стійкою і поперечкою».

According to our observations, in modern football communication professional jargons (slangs) are more used than professional words. The largest group - the nicknames of Ukrainian and foreign players of FC, formed on the basis of metaphorical transfer according to standard lexical-semantic models: 1) «name of players by color ^ colour of sport uniform of FC» (біло-сині ^ FC «Dynamo» (Kyiv, Ukraine), білі ^ FC «Real» (Madrid, Spain), 2) «name of players ^ emblem of FC» (леви ^ FC «Karpary» (Lviv, Ukraine), ластівки ^ FC «Brescia» (Brescia, Italy); 3) «name of players ^ characteristic features of location of FC» (каштанчики ^ FC «Arsenal» (Kyiv, Ukraine), фармацевти ^ FC «Bayern», because a lot of pharmaceutical corporations located in this city Leverkusen, Germany).

Belonging of lexical unit to the football lexicon defines its conceptual content, and semantic stratification of football vocabulary considers paradigmatic connections of hyper-hiponimy, synonyms, antonymy.

Hyper-hiponimy causes hierarchical nature of the internal structure of the football vocabulary. Two types of hyper-hiponimy groups are revealed: 1) in the form of a «tree» where each next component consistently branching their relations by mutual sema; 2) in the form of a «Christmas tree» when the genus-species relationship formed simultaneously on several grounds.

Branched synonymous relationship is noticed in football vocabulary. We consider such types of synonyms: one- word doublets terms (голкіпер - воротар, рефері - суддя, пенальті - одинадцятиметровий), terms-syntactic synonyms (захисна тактика - тактика гри від захисту, кутовий удар - удар з кута поля, передача верхом - верховий пас), definitional synonyms (навіс - довга верхова передача, яка направлена до воріт суперника; «свічка» - сильний удар вгору; «сухий лист» - гол обвідним ударом, переважно з кутової позначки), stylistic synonyms (пропустити м 'яч поміж ніг - пропустити «щура», удар внутрішньою стороною стопи - удар «щічкою», удар у верхній кут - удар у «дев 'ятку»).

Absolute synonyms (completely identical in semantics, emotional coloring, compatibility) are not frequent. Partial synonyms are dominated over other types of synonyms. Synonymous palette of Ukrainian football vocabulary tends to metaphorized tokens: перемагати - знищувати, сильний удар - гарматний постріл, точний удар - більярдний удар.

Antonymy helps to nominate opposite concepts of semantic content in football lexicon which gives possibility to deduce associative connections of terminological unit. Antonyms in the football lexicon represent the spirit of opposition in the sport: атакувати - захищатися, забити - пропустити. In the analyzed vocabulary corpus there is semantic opposition based on different types of relationships:

a) semantic - gradual antonyms (виграна гра / гра на нічию / програна гра; мінімальний рахунок / нічийний рахунок / розгромний рахунок), complementary antonyms (вирішальний гол / невирішальний гол, забитий гол / незабитий гол, вища ліга / нижча ліга), vector antonyms (атака / захист, віддавати передачу / отримувати передачу, удар по воротах /удар від воріт), coordinate antonyms (верхній кут / нижній кут, правий фланг /лівий фланг, перша хвилина /остання хвилина);

formal structure - antonyms with different roots (активний офсайд / пасивний офсайд, ближня стійка / дальня стійка, підхопити м 'яч / втратити м 'яч) and antonyms with the same root (футбол / антифутбол, виграти /програти, заблокований удар /незаблокований удар);

stylistic - general language antonyms (атакувати / захищатися, вигравати / програвати, влучати / промахуватися) and contextual one (грати персонально / грати зонально, грати чисто / грати грубо, комбінаційний гол /спонтанний гол).

Multicomponent model of football vocabulary created at the result of analysed lingual facts and presenting hierarchical football as a polycomponent social phenomenon. Basic thematic groups are selected: «organization of the game», «providing of the game», «the participants of the game», «process of the game». The content model combines 4 thematic groups, 16 lexical-semantic groups, 37 semantic subgroups and 2 semantic microgroups. In semantic sets football vocabulary is distributed by structural and semantic principle.

Three types of formal and structural football nominations available in the football vocabulary: words created by typical Ukrainian language word building models, analytical terms and foreign-language borrowings. Semantic derivation and suffixes are the most productive ways of creating singular football terms, nomenclature, professionalism, professional jargon; to less common ways is classified word building, word formation, prefixal, suffixal ways; abbreviations, morphological and syntactic ways are unproductive.

Analytical derivation is the dominant way to replenish the football vocabulary. Terms-phrases dominates (more than 75%) on one-word terms, are represented by specifying additional characteristics, motivated by concepts. Binomial and trinomial constructions of different models are frequent, for example: атакувальний футбол, капітан команди, гол головою, пресингувати суперника, бити «парашутом»; ближня стійка воріт, нереалізований гольовий момент, тактична схема гри, упасти в карному майданчику, віддавати передачу верхом. Long- established terms are dominated, but syntagmatic football vocabulary related to the beginning of ХХІ century constantly expands with new keywords related to the football field, such as: футбольний сайт, футбольний симулятор, футбольний фристайлер, футбольний чіп.

The structure of foreign borrowings is common sport terms and proper football nomination, originating in the following languages: English (бутси, голкіпер, пенальті), French (дублер, ліга, чемпіонат), German (бомбардир, дискваліфікація, штанга), Italian (катеначо, ліберо, фінт), Greek (стадіон, тактика, техніка) and others.

Anglicisms are the most frequent.

Foreign football vocabulary is entering Ukrainian literary language through in such ways: a) transcoding: offside - офсайд, playmaker - плеймейкер, provocation - провокація; b) tracing: central forward - центрфорвард, football league - футбольна ліга, quarterfinal - чвертьфінал; c) transmitting a descriptive value: equalizer - гол, який зрівнює рахунок; substitute - гравець, який виходить на заміну.

There are new loans like: вінгер (Eng. winger), латераль (Eng. lateral). Due to the widespread use of Anglicisms in the language of football cultural language problem are associated with necessity to find their Ukrainian counterparts.

The system names of objects and concepts of football as a popular sport are formed and constantly changing under the new conditions of communication in a globalized world. Football vocabulary as linguistic dynamic segment of society needs the attention of researchers on permanent systematization, normalization, codification of lexical items, unification and standardization of football terms are inherent for the football terminology. This will help remove excess variability, reduce functional on load borrowing (especially Anglicisms), intensify the use of specific linguistic units with football semantics, effectively use the word building potential of Ukrainian language. The prospect of new investigations is opening in view football as the linguistic and cognitive discourse.


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