Semantic structure changes of borrowed English terms in Ukrainian legal terminology

Borrowing words of foreign origin in legal terminology due to Ukraine's participation in the processes of globalization. Analysis of changes in the semantics of English-language terms when they are adapted to the lexical system of the recipient language.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид статья
Язык английский
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State Higher Educational Institution

Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University

Department of Document Science

Semantic structure changes of borrowed English terms in Ukrainian legal terminology

Molotkina Y.O., postgraduate student

Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi

Annotation

The article deals with the semantic structure changes of English loanwords in Ukrainian legal terminological system.

Intensive globalization processes has greatly influenced on Ukrainian language as it has been adopting many English lexical units for last few decades. Ukrainian language constantly enriches with new lexemes from English. Due to the several extralinguistic factors, Ukrainian legal terminology adopts a big amount of borrowed English terms. Borrowed words are adopted not just on phonetic, word formation and morphemic levels but also on lexical-semantic one. Herewith, semantic structure of borrowed terms often changes in order to adapt to the lexical-semantic system of the recipient language.

The aim of this research is to analyze the main types of semantic structure changes of borrowed English terms in Ukrainian legal terminology.

It is proved that the most common semantic structure changes of borrowed terms are semantic structure simplification and complication, meaning narrowing of loanword due to its specialization, meaning expansion of loanword caused by the generalization of corresponding concept and meaning change.

Key words: anglicisms, loanwords, English, modern Ukrainian language, legal terminology, .semantics, lexical-semantic system.

Молоткіна Ю.О. Зміни семантичної структури термінів англомовного походження в українській правничій термінології

У статті аналізуються зміни в семантичній структурі та значенні англомовних термінів у правничій термінології української мови.

У зв'язку з участю України у процесах глобалізації, запозичення іншомовних слів відбувається безперервно, збагачуючи словниковий склад мови новими поняттями та реаліями. Через низку екстралінгвальних чинників українська правнича термінологія активно збагачується термінами англомовного походження. Вони освоюються не лише на фонетичному, словотвірному та морфемному рівнях, а й на лексико-семантичному При цьому, семантика запозичених термінів часто зазнає змін у процесі їхньої адаптації до лексико-семантичної системи мови-реципієнта.

Метою цього дослідження є проаналізувати основні типи змін семантичної структури термінів англомовного походження в українській правничій термінології.

Доведено, що найпоширенішими типами змін семантичної структури англомовних термінів в українській правничій термінології є спрощення та ускладнення семантичної структури, звуження значення запозиченого слова, розширення значення та зміна значення запозиченого терміна.

Ключові слова: англіцизми, запозичення, англійська мова, сучасна українська мова, правнича термінологія, семантика, лексико-семантична система.

Молоткина Ю.А. Изменения семантической структуры терминов англоязычного происхождения в украинской юридической терминологии

В статье анализируются изменения семантической структуры и значения англоязычных терминов в юридической терминологии украинского языка.

В связи с участием Украины в процессах глобализации, заимствование слов иноязычного происхождения происходит беспрерывно, обогащая словарный состав языка новыми понятиями и реалиями. Из-за многих екстралингвальных факторов украинская юридическая терминология активно пополняется терминами англоязычного происхождения. Они осваиваются не только на фонетическом, словообразовательном и морфемном уровнях, но и на лексико-семантическому. При этом, семантика заимствованных терминов часто меняется в процессе их адаптации к лексико-семантической системе языка-реципиента.

Целью данного исследования является анализ основных типов изменений семантической структуры терминов англоязычного происхождения в украинской юридической терминологии.

Доказано, что самыми распространёнными типами изменений семантической структуры англоязычных терминов в украинской юридической терминологии являются упрощение и усложнения семантической структуры, сужение значения заимствованного слова, расширение значения, а также изменение значения заимствованного термина.

Ключевые слова: англицизмы, заимствования, английский язык, современный украинский язык, юридическая терминология, семантика, лексико-семантическая система.

Formulation of the problem

Due to the intensity of globalization process, Ukrainian language enriches with a huge amount of English loanwords. In recent years, this process has been reinforced by the development of Internet communications and social media. Borrowing of lexical units is a normal linguistic process for every language in the world as it is the result of cultural contact between two language communities. However, these days English lexemes borrowing is one of the biggest concern of the contemporary Ukrainian linguistics. The process of borrowing of anglicisms into Ukrainian language began in the 19 century but it was not so dynamic. Penetration of English loanwords intensified after the dissolution of the Soviet Union when the so-called «Iron Curtain» had fallen and Ukrainian community became more aware of the British and American culture. In the early 90s of 20 century, there were borrowed mostly English business lexemes, but by the end of 20 - beginning of 21 century Ukrainian lexicon had an enormous amount of English loanwords, especially from the American slang. According to Styshov's researches in 80-90s of the 20 century, 75-80% of lexical borrowings in the Ukrainian language were anglicisms [14].

Among many different aspects of loanwords research, the processes of their adoption in Ukrainian lexical semantics remain almost unsearched. That is why one should be aware of the problem of semantic structure development of borrowed lexemes. The loanwords dynamics includes not only their increasing amount but also their role in lexical-semantic processes [16, p. 96]. English lexical borrowings function in every functional style and terminological system of the Ukrainian language. Thus, the research of loanwords functioning in Ukrainian lexical system and their semantic structure changes is relevant to the modern Ukrainian linguistics.

Over the last decades, Ukrainian legal system experiences considerable reformations. Changes in social and economic life of the Ukrainian society led to the extension of right on areas of public relations, which previously were not regulated by law in Ukraine. By analyzing the contemporary development of legal terminology, we can assume that the intensive process of lexical units borrowing accompanies the process of conceptual apparatus expanding in different areas of law. This led to the appearance of terminological issues, particularly the functioning of English loanwords. Main legal terminology issues are related with the problem of semantic structure changes of anglicisms as many borrowed terms may be adopted either with only one meaning or vice versa their sematic structure can be expanded. Therefore, it is important to research the sematic structure development of English lexical borrowings.

Analysis of the recent researches and publications. Researches devoted to the reasons for borrowing and functioning of anglicisms play one of the leading roles in the modern Ukrainian linguistics.

Many linguists analyzed the reasons for penetration of loanwords into Ukrainian language. Such linguists like V. Symonok [17, p. 226], L. Arkhypenko [1, p. 55-62] and others researched this problem.

V. Simonok [16], T. Lukinova [8], N. Hudyma [7] and others researched the aspects of changes in semantic structure of loanwords in the Ukrainian language.

S. Fedorets [6], L. Malevych [10], M. Navalna [13, p. 5564] H. Serhieieva [15] and others studied functioning of borrowed lexemes in different terminological systems.

The purpose of the article. The aim of this article is to analyze the semantic structure changes that occur in the process of adoption of anglicisms in Ukrainian legal terminology.

Main text

Semantic adoption of borrowed words primarily involves the formation of its lexical meaning in the recipient language [2, p. 52]. Because of transition from terminological system of one language into another legal term should get some kind of specialization in the new system of law concepts. Terminology of every field of knowledge is characterized by internal connection between the terminological system and system of concepts. When a borrowed term appears in terminological system of the recipient language it has to set a bond with the concept (expression of which this borrowed term is intended to be) and adjust its lexical meaning and lexical-semantic connections with others terminological units of this system. Loanwords semantics very often does not coincide with the semantics of their prototypes in the source language. Within new terminological system, English terms can save their meaning or change it. The lexical meaning of the term is defined, on the one hand, by its place in a certain terminological system, its syntagmatic and paradigmatic bonds with other lexemes, and, on the other hand, its subject and conceptual correlation in the system of concepts of recipient language [15, p. 153].

L. Lysychenko defines three types of semantic structure development: semantic complication (increasing amount of word meanings), semantic simplification (decreasing amount of word meaning) and reintegration (change position of some lexical unit in the hierarchy of concepts) [9, p. 43].

H. Serhieieva defines the following types of semantic changes of a loanword [Serhieieva, p. 153-154]:

1) Semantic structure simplification (borrowing of a word with one or few meanings with its much wider polysemy in the source language).

2) Semantic structure complication (appearance of new meanings of borrowed lexeme on a basis of recipient language including those meanings that loanword did not have in the source language).

3) Meaning narrowing of loanword due to its specialization.

4) Meaning expansion of loanword caused by the generalization of corresponding concept.

5) Meaning change (borrowed term gains completely different meaning in the recipient language than in the source language).

Semantic characteristics changes of borrowed lexemes mostly reveal in international words (another name is lexical parallels). The matter of the fact is that international words occur in several languages with the same or at least similar meaning and etymology. However, such ideal forms of international words quite rarely occur. In fact, international words very often experience changes of their meaning. Semantic structure differences of the same lexical units in different languages can be caused by the fact that «speakers of different recipient languages pay attention to different semantic features of any borrowed term» [5, p. 121].

The character of semantic changes of anglicisms in the system of the recipient language can be seen during the comparison of semantic structure of English loanword with its prototype in the source language. Semantic changes often occur at the initial phase of borrowed word adoption in the recipient language. Researchers claim that polysemantic word is rarely adopted with all its notions and most of anglicisms experience semantic structure simplification [3, p. 255; 12, p. 4]. semantic english ukraine legal terminology

Semantic instability of borrowed terms lies in difficulty of their fixation in dictionaries. One borrowed term quite often has different definitions in different dictionaries; also, one term can be used in various areas of law with one definition although the notions represented by this term have some differences. Such terminological phenomenon is caused by extralinguistic factors, particularly by insufficient adoption of scientific notion that also has to go through the process of scientific and theoretical understanding of lawyers and receive a proper legal definition [15, p. 155].

Most of the loanwords in Ukrainian legal terminology got semantic structure simplification [15, p. 155]. For example, prototype of anglicism білль (derived from bill) is a polysemantic word. It has several meanings in the English language:

1) a request for payment of money owed, or the piece of paper on which it is written;

2) a formal statement of a planned new law that is discussed before being voted on;

3) a piece of paper money;

4) a paper sign giving information about something, especially an event or performance [4].

Ukrainian language adopted only one meaning of this word that is still on the periphery of the legal terminology of the Ukrainian language, as it is not denoting realities of Ukrainian legal system. Legal dictionaries define білль as a notion inherent in English legal system «in the countries of the Anglo-Saxon legal system: a formal statement of a planned new law introduced by the government or parliament member to the legislature; also the name of some constitutional acts (Bill of Rights»)) [18].

Meaning narrowing and expansion of borrowed terms quite often occur in Ukrainian legal terminology. For instance, meaning of term роялті (derived from royalty) has been narrowed. In English, this word means «a payment made to writers, people who have invented things, owners of property, etc. every time their books, devices, land etc. are bought or used by others» [4]. In Ukrainian legal terminology this word has a specialized meaning and stands only for «payment made to authors (or their successors) for the usage of their scientific researches, works of literature and art» thus, this term deals only with the area of copyright [15, p. 158].

Semantic expansion of borrowed terms also quite often take place in Ukrainian legal terminology. For example, anglicism парламент (derived from parliament) was borrowed as name of legislature of Great Britain. Nowadays this term has such meanings:

1) elected (partially or completely) legislature;

2) in figurative sense - the name of the highest representative establishment of any country (even if they have their own names, like Verkhovna Rada in Ukraine) [15, p. 167].

Semantic structure complication of borrowed terms includes the appearance of new meanings of these terms that they did not have in the source language. Metaphorical transfer of name from one phenomenon to another causes such complication. This process normally based on the association by similarity and metonymic transfer as well. For instance, borrowed term адмоніція, (derived from admonition) obtained new meaning in Ukrainian legal terminology. In the English language, this word stands for «a piece of advice that is also a warning to someone about their behavior» [4].

As we can see in the source language this word is used in broad sense while in Ukrainian it is a legal term and means: 1) giving to the debtor a debenture; 2) disciplinary reprimand, manager's warning given to his employee about disciplinary violations [11].

Another borrowed term also made changes in its semantic structure - ваучер (derived from voucher). In English this term means «a piece of paper that can be used to pay for particular goods or services or that allows you to pay less than the usual price for them» [4]. This term was borrowed by Ukrainian legal terminological system with this meaning, but also it got another definition that its English prototype does not have - «a valuable paper that confirms the right of its owner to have a share in state property; privatization check» [15, p. 169].

Conclusions. Ukrainian legal terminological system actively adopts new borrowed English lexical units. The reason for that are the intensive globalization processes and reformation of Ukrainian legal system. Ukrainian language adopts not just phonetic and morphemic form of the borrowed word but also its semantic structure. However, loanwords very often change their semantic structure in the process of linguistic adaptation to the recipient language. Such semantic changes of terms occur in legal terminology as well. Borrowed legal terms can simplify or complicate their meaning, narrow or expanse their semantic structure or even obtain brand new definitions that they did not have in the source language. Such processes prove that English loanwords are widely recognized not only in spoken language but also in specialized terminological systems. Hence, the problem of loanwords usage and their semantic structure changes in Ukrainian legal terminological system need further review.

References

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2. Beliaeva S.A. Anhlyiskye slova v russkom yazyke XVI-XX vv. - Vladyvostok: Yzd-vo Dalnevostochnoho un-ta, 1984. - 108 s.

3. Byrzhakova E.Э, Voinova L.A., Kutyna L.A. Ocherky po ystoryy leksykolohyy russkoho yazyka XVIII v. Yazykovye kontakty y zaymstvovanyia. - L.: Nauka, 1972. - 430 s.

4. Cambridge dictionary [Elektronnyi resurs]

5. D'iakov A.S., Kyiak T.R., Kudelko Z.B. Osnovy terminotvorennia: Semantychnyi ta sotsiolinhvistychnyi aspekty. - K.: Vyd. Dim «KM Academia», 2000. - 218 c.

6. Fedorets S.A. Anhliiski zapozychennia v movi suchasnoi ukrainskoi reklamy: avtoref. dys. na zdobuttia nauk. stupenia kand. filol. nauk : spets. 10.02.01 «Ukrainska mova» / S.A. Fedorets. - Kharkiv, 2005. - 18 s.

7. Hudyma N.V Semantychna adaptatsiia zapozychenykh leksem u suchasnii ukrainskii literaturnii movi / N.V Hudyma // Naukovi pratsi Kamianets-Podilskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Ohiienka. Filolohichni nauky. - 2013. - Vyp. 32 (1) - S. 27-31

8. Lukinova T.B. Ukrainska leksyka: semantychni zminy v zapozychenykh slovakh / T.B. Lukinova // Movoznavstvo. - 2013. - №2-3. - S. 18-38.

9. Lysychenko L.A. Leksyko-semantychna systema ukrainskoi movy / L.A. Lysychenko. - Kh.: KhDPU, 1997. - 137 s.

10. Malevych L.D. Movna i pozamovna determinovanist protsesiv terminolohichnoho zapozychannia [Elektronnyi resurs] / L.D. Malevych // Naukovi zapysky Natsionalnoho universytetu «Ostrozka akademiia». Ser.: Filolohichna. - 2010. - Vyp. 14. - S. 411-415.

11. Martin Elizabeth A.A Dictionary of Law. - 3rd ed. - Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. - 1994. - 433 p.

12. Martynek V.Iu. Leksyko-semantycheskaia assymyliatsyia anhlyiskykh zaymstvovanyi v russkom lyteraturnom yazbike sovetskoi эpokhy: avtoref. dys... kand. fylol. nauk. - Dnepropetrovsk, 1972. - 25 s.

13. Navalna M.I. Dynamika ukrainskoho leksykonu ukrainskoi periodyky pochatku KhKhI st.: [monohrafiia] / M.I. Navalna Nats. akad. nauk Ukrainy, In-t ukr. movy. - K.: Vyd. dim Dmytra Buraho, 2011. - 328 s.

14. Panasiuk I.M. Anhlitsyzmy navkolo nas: anomaliia chy norma? [Elektronnyi resurs] / I.M. Panasiuk.

15. Serhieieva H.A. Anhlomovni zapozychennia v ukrainskii pravnychii terminolohii: dys. ...kandydata filol. nauk: 10.02.01 / Serhieieva Halyna Anatoliivna. - Kh., 2002. - 250 c.Simonok V.P. Rozshyrennia semantychnoi struktury zapozychenykh sliv / V.P. Simonok // Naukovyi visnyk DDPU imeni I. Franka. Seriia «Filolohichni nauky». - 2016. - T. 2, №5. - S. 96-99.

16. Simonok V.P. Semantyko-funktsionalnyi analiz inshomovnoi leksyky v suchasnii ukrainskii movnii kartyni svitu / V.P. Simonok. - Kh.: Osnova, 2000. - 332 s.

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