Peculiarities of education and upbringing in Japan

The main stages of the education system in Japan, starting with preschool formation and ending with postgraduate education. The system of moral generation in the Japanese school. Features of the upbringing of children in educational institutions.

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Язык английский
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УДК 37(520)

PECULIARITIES OF EDUCATION AND UPBRINGING IN JAPAN

G.A. Antonova

T.G. Solopova

Problem statement in general view and its connection with important scientific and practical problems. Education in Japan is very specific like everything in this country. It works on the principal «Qualitative study is a basis and guarantee of getting a good job in the future». Almost 98% of the country's habitants study or graduated colleges, about 40% boys and 20% girls enter universities.

In connection with the transition of the Ukrainian school to a 12-year secondary education, the experience of Japan, where the 12-year-old school has existed for more than half a century, is of great interest to us. In conditions of education system reform in our country learning and analysis of the abroad education system are becoming increasingly important.

Analysis of the last researches and publications in which the decision of the problem has begun and on which the author grounds his research. The system of education is an integral part of Japanese culture and attracts many researchers' attention. Tremendous quantity of books, articles has been devoted to the different aspects of Japanese education both n the country and abroad. For instance, in the thesis of M. L. Rodionov «Reform of the Japanese school» the process of educational policy till 1965 has been characterized. In the work the process of reforming school education in postwar period has been investigated, the results of the transition to a new educational system have been analyzed.

In the thesis of V. T. Nanivskaya «The system of moral upbringing in Japanese school» the author emphasizes that the system of moral education in the Japanese school brings up a natural vital necessity orientation to strict observance of the norms and laws established in the society.

A. I. Sokolov in his work «Japan. Economy and Education» has analyzed the experience of the impact of education on the economic development of the country.

Such researcher as K. I. Salimova in the work «Secondary school of Japan in XXI century» noted that modern reform in Japan aims at individualization and differentiation in the education of the younger generation, the transition from hard administration to flexibility in this area, the transfer of some administrative functions to local authorities at the prefectural level (Salimova, 2006, p. 90).

Setting of the unsolved parts of the shared problem to which the article is devoted. Despite of the above, the reform of education in Japan of XXI century as a holistic phenomenon has not received systematic analysis in the pedagogical literature. It has not been paid enough attention to considering peculiarities of education in Japan in the whole.

Aim of the article is studying peculiarities of modern system of education in Japan, analysis of some trends of further development of it.

Statement of the basic research material with full substantiation of the received scientific results. Traditionally, since ancient times Japanese society has been built on the basis of interrelated and mutually conditioned production relations. Therefore, problems such as the fulfillment by each of the debts to colleges, the recognition of their place and role in the system of established social relations and, accordingly, the ways of educating these qualities attracted the attention of philosophers earlier than questions of the spread of literacy. Universal interdependence and harmony were the basic principle of building a Japanese society, and the ability to act in harmony with other people is the main task of education (Erkovich, 1997, p. 28).

The modem condition of the system of education and upbringing youth in Japan is a national pride with a traditional approaches and high level of erudition.

School system of Japan consists of:

• 6 years of elementary school;

• 3 years of junior high school;

• 3 years of senior high school;

• 4 years of University.

All schools of the country operate on a three-term system. School year starts on the 1st of April. An average day at school lasts for 6 hours and it is one of the longest school day in the world. Moreover, after classes pupils still have grills and other homework to keep them busy. Holidays are 6 weeks long in summer and 2 weeks long during both in winter and spring breaks. There is always homework during the holidays.

Every class has its own classroom for taking all courses, except for practical trainings and laboratory work. During elementary education one person teaches all of the subjects in each class. The number of pupils in one class is usually under 40. But it is not much as compared with the past when, because of the rapid population growth, the number of pupils was more than 50 persons per class.

Let's consider all stages of Japanese education in details.

Kindergarten is not a mandatory level of education. Children come here at the request of parents from the age of 4. All kindergartens in the country are private.

So called elite kindergartens occupy a special place among them, as they are under the tutelage of prestigious universities and if a child enters a such kindergarten, he at the certain age will move to a university school and then enter the University without examinations. It is extremely important for parents as there is a keen competition in the sphere of education in Japan: university diploma is a guarantee of getting prestigious, well paid job. And this, in turn, is a guarantee of career growth and material prosperity. Therefore parents pay huge amounts of money for the child's admission, and he himself must undergo a rather complicated test to be accepted.

Upbringing children in Japan not always fosters the development of man's creative abilities, but educates a physically and mentally healthy person who knows how to work in a team, clearly following the instruction and not disturbing others.

Primary and secondary schools in Japan are compulsory for all and are free. Senior schools not compulsory, but about 95% of students continue to study at the end of secondary school, 48% of those who graduated from high school go to college (training for 2 years) or to the university (training for 4 years).

Education in high school and the university is always paid, but in public institutions it is cheaper. There are also paid private primary and secondary schools. In all paid institutions you can study free or get a big discount if you win a scholarship competition.

In addition to the actual school, most students attend paid preparatory courses (dzyuku), in which they are helped to prepare for passing school examinations. Classes in dzyuku usually take place in the evening, two or three times a week. «Dzyuku» in translation - «school of skill,» but it would be more correct to say - «tutoring school.» There specially hired teachers once again explain to the children what has already been said at school in the afternoon, adding to this knowledge new ones that can be flashed on the exam.

In secondary and senior schools pupils take examinations at the end of each trimester and the middle of the first and second trimesters. These examinations take place in the form of written tests. Estimates for the exams are based on the percentage system. The highest score is 100 points.

Transition from high school to senior is carried out by results of examinations. Student on the basis of his academic performance receives a list of senior schools, in which he has a chance to enter. After passing the transition exam and on the basis of his results and previous progress, the question of which high school the student will enter will be decided.

The system of higher education includes the following four main types of institutions: education preschool moral upbringing

• Full-cycle universities (4 years) and accelerated cycle (2 years);

• Professional colleges;

• Special education schools ( technological institutes);

• Postgraduate education (magistracy) schools.

Technological colleges are training medium-technical personnel on the basis of an obligatory nine-year school and in many respects correspond to our technical schools.

In fact, the only full-fledged universities, whose graduates are not discriminated and quoted in the labor market, are full-cycle universities.

Master's and postgraduate courses in Japan are integrated into postgraduate schools, located at universities and having a relative autonomy. The main scientific resources in Japan were involved specifically for teaching in public magistracy, where the level of teaching in the bachelor's degree remained relatively low.

The Japanese baccalaureate is focused on preparing qualified specialists needed to maintain the system, and the master's program is for initiative analysts capable of designing its development.

Conclusion and prospects of the further investigations in the given direction. As can be seen from the information given, increased attention is paid to the education and upbringing of youth in Japan. The most notable is the system of educating youth as the future patriot of their country, their enterprise, a good family man.

A positive factor in the development of education in Japan is the prestige of education. The Japanese, synthesizing all the latest achievements of pedagogical science with the peculiarities of building a Japanese society, were able to provide their country with not only impressive economic growth rates, but also a fairly high standard of living. They realized earlier than others that an effective education system in a country with a high level of automation was not only mandatory, it was vital. Therefore, we can state with confidence that the tremendous share of the economic and social development of this country is the result of a competently constructed education system.

References

1. Bojarchuk, Ju. V. (2006). Vysokoobrazovannoe obshhestvo: opyt Japonii v XXI veke [Highly educated society: the experience of Japan in the XXI century]. Pedagogika, #8, 88-96 (rus).

2. Dronishinec, N. P. (1999). Gosudarstvennaja politika razvitija doshkol'nogo i shkol'nogo obrazovanija v Japonii [State policy of development of preschool and school education in Japan]. Ekaterinburg: Litur.

3. Erkovich, S. I. (1997). Obrazovanie v Japonii ot perioda segunata do nashih dnej. [ Education in Japan from the period of the shogunate to the present day]. Narodnoe obrazovanie, #4, 26 - 34(rus).

4. Nanivskaja, V. T. (1989). Sistema moral'nogo vospitanija v japonskoj shkole. [The system of moral education in the Japanese school]. Japonija: ideologija, kul'tura, literatura, #7, 69-76 (rus).

5. Rodionov, M. L. (1972). Reforma japonskoj shkoly [Reform of the Japanese school]. Sovetskaja pedagogika, #3, 128-136 (rus).

6. Salimova, K. I. (2006). Obshheobrazovatel'naja shkola Japonii v XXI veke. [Comprehensive school in Japan in XXI century]. Pedagogika, #8, 88- 96 (rus).

7. Sokolov, A. I. (1982). Japonija. Jekonomika i obrazovanie. [Japan. Economy and education]. Moscow: Nauka.

Annotation

The article analyzes the current state of education in Japan. The aim of the paper is studying peculiarities of modern system of education in the country, analysis of some trends offurther development of it. All stages of the country's educational system have been considered, beginning with preschool and ending with postgraduate education. It has been revealed that the system of moral education in the Japanese school brings up a natural vital necessity orientation to strict observance of the norms and laws established in the society. Universal interdependence and harmony were the basic principle of building a Japanese society, and the ability to act in harmony with other people is the main task of education (Nanivskaja, 1989, p. 71). Specific features of upbringing children in educational institutions, the stages of the formation of characteristic Japanese features - diligence, ability to work in a team, adherence to the hierarchy have been shown in the paper. It has been proved there is a keen competition in the sphere of education in Japan: university diploma is a guarantee of getting prestigious, well paid job. It is a guarantee of career growth and material prosperity. Therefore almost 98% of the country's habitants study or graduated colleges, about 40% boys and 20% girls enter universities. The Japanese realized earlier than others that an effective education system in a country with a high level of automation was not only mandatory, it was vital. The tremendous share of the economic and social development of this country is the result of a competently constructed education system.

Keywords: Education, education system, upbringing, Japan, education in Japan.

У статті аналізується сучасний стан освіти в Японії. Розглянуто всі етапи системи освіти країни, починаючи з дошкільного та закінчуючи післядипломною освітою. Виявлено, що система морального виховання в японській школі спричиняє природну життєву необхідність орієнтації на суворе дотримання норм і законів, встановлених у суспільстві. Універсальна взаємозалежність та гармонія були основним принципом побудови японського суспільства, а головне завдання освіти - здатність діяти в гармонії з іншими людьми. Показані особливості виховання дітей у навчальних закладах, етапи формування характерних японських рис - працьовитість, вміння працювати в команді, дотримання ієрархії.

Доведено, що в Японії є гострий конкурс у сфері освіти: диплом університету є гарантією отримання престижної, добре оплачуваної роботи. Це гарантія кар'єрного росту та матеріального процвітання. Тому майже 98% жителів країни навчаються або закінчують коледжі, близько 40% хлопчиків та 20% дівчат вступають до університетів. Раніше, чім інші японці усвідомлювали, що ефективна система освіти в країні з високим рівнем автоматизації є не тільки обов'язковою, вона є життєво важливою. Величезна частка економічного та соціального розвитку цієї країни є результатом грамотно побудованої системи освіти.

Ключові слова: освіта, система освіти, виховання, Японія, освіта в Японії.

В статье анализируется текущее состояние образования в Японии. Цель статьи - изучение особенностей современной системы образования в стране, анализ некоторых тенденций ее дальнейшего развития. Рассматриваются все этапы системы образования страны, начиная с дошкольного образования и заканчивая последипломным образованием. Выявлено, что система нравственного воспитания в японской школе порождает естественную жизненную необходимость, направленную на строгое соблюдение норм и законов, установленных в обществе. Универсальная взаимозависимость и гармония являются основным принципом построения японского общества, и способность действовать в гармонии с другими людьми является основной задачей образования. Показаны особенности воспитания детей в учебных заведениях, этапы формирования характерных японских особенностей - трудолюбие, умение работать в команде, соблюдение иерархии.

Было доказано, что в Японии существует острая конкуренция в сфере образования: университетский диплом является гарантией получения престижной, хорошо оплачиваемой работы. Японцы поняли раньше других, что эффективная система образования в стране с высоким уровнем автоматизации была не только обязательной, но и жизненно важной. Огромная доля экономического и социального развития этой страны является результатом грамотно построенной системы образования.

Ключевые слова: образование, система образования, воспитание, Япония, образование в Японии.

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