# Ice-dammed lake outburst floods in the Altai mountains, siberia – a review with links for further readings

## Reconstruction of the size of the flood formed during the break of the ice-pond lake. Study of the data on the flow rates and velocities of the water corresponding to the time of passing the peak of the flood and the various stages of its downward phase.

 Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание Вид статья Язык английский Дата добавления 24.11.2018 Размер файла 587,3 K

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150 Jьrgen Herget

Размещено на http://www.allbest.ru/

УДК 574

University of Bonn (Bonn, Germany)

# where, (y + z) is the potential energy, y is the depth of flow, z is the elevation above datum, (vІ/2 g) is the kinetic energy, v is the velocity of flow, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

While total energy H, elevation above datum z and acceleration of gravity g remain constant, an abrupt decreased in the flow velocity leads to an increased depth of flow, hence, the water-level rises on the upstream side of an obstruction.

# Table 2 Discharges calculated by velocity heads for selected run-up sediment locations

Location valley-km

vh (assumed) : altitude of water-level flow velocity v cross-section area A discharge Q

vh (max) : altitude of water-level flow velocity v cross-section area A discharge Q

Kezek-Dzhala km 9,35

Q = 5,8Ч106 mі/s

Q = 4,7Ч106 mі/s

Anijakh km 9,65

Q = 4,5Ч106 mі/s

# 810 m v = 31 m/s A = 139 000 mІ

Q = 4,3Ч106 mі/s

Little Jaloman Village km 14,6

Q = 8,9Ч106 mі/s

# 850 m v = 42 m/s A = 215 000 mІ

Q = 9,0Ч106 mі/s

Giant bar between Inja and Little Jaloman Village km 20,65

# 949 m v = 32 m/s A = 384 000 mІ

Q = 12,3Ч106 mі/s

# 880 m v = 45 m/s A = 225 000 mІ

Q = 10,1Ч106 mі/s

Lower Chuja Valley km 35,7

# 1040 m v = 28 m/s A = 362 000 mІ

Q = 10,1Ч106 mі/s

# 989 m v = 39 m/s A = 256 000 mІ

Q = 10,0Ч106 mі/s

Lower Yalbak-Tash km 39

Q = 9,6Ч106 mі/s

# 990 m v = 45 m/s A = 186 000 mІ

Q = 8,4Ч106 mі/s

Upper Yalbak-Tash km 41,4

# 1077 m v = 31 m/s A = 342 000 mІ

Q = 10,6Ч106 mі/s

# 1015 m v = 43 m/s A = 240 000 mІ

Q = 10,3Ч106 mі/s

# Table 3 Large ice-dammed lake outburst floods in historic and pre-historic times

Location

Date

Lake volume, kmі

Peak discharge, mі/s

Reference

# Missoula,

Montana USA

Pleistocene

2,184

17 000 000

O'Connor and Baker (1992)

# Missoula,

Montana USA

Pleistocene

2,184

10 000 000

Baker and Costa (1987)

# Nedre Glеmsjш,

Norway

Pleistocene

99

170 000

Berthling and Sollid (1999)

# Lake Alsek,

Holocene

30

470 000

after Clarke from Clague and Evans (1994)

Kjцlur, Iceland

9500 BP

25

200 000

Tуmasson (2002)

1986

5,3

104 500

Mayo (1989)

# Lake Alsek,

ca. 1850

4,7

30 000

after Clarke from Clague and Evans (1994)

Pleistocene

4

20 000

Clague (1973)

1958

2,2

10 160

after US Geological Survey from Fahnestock and Bradley (1973)

1961

1,73

10 050

after US Geological Survey from Fahnestock and Bradley (1973)

Graenalon, Iceland

1935

1,5

5 800

Thorarinsson (1939)

Graenalon, Iceland

1939

1,5

5 000

Thorarinsson (1939)

# Lake Batal,

Himalaya

Pleistocene

1,496

24 000

Coxon et al. (1996)

1960

1,48

9 280

after US Geological Survey from Fahnestock and Bradley (1973)

1992

1,4

4 500

after Brabets from Walder and Costa (1996)

# Chong Kumdan

(Shyo), India

1929

1,35

22 650

after Gunn or Mason et al. From Hewitt (1982)

1959

1,11

6 310

after US Geological Survey from Fahnestock and Bradley (1973)

1965

1,11

6 680

after US Geological Survey from Fahnestock and Bradley (1973)

# 33. Jackson R.G. Sedimentological and fluid-dynamic implications of the turbulent bursting phenomenon in geophysical flows // Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1976. Vol. 77. P. 531-560. 34. Hoffmanns G.J.C.M., Verheij H.J. Scour manual. Rotterdam : Balkema, 1997. 205 p. Received November 13, 2011

Abstract

This review focuses on selected attempts to reconstruct the ice-dammed lake outburst flood in the valley-bottom of the Chuja River, the main tributary of the Katun River, which is the major source of discharge to the Ob River, while several previous publications present general reviews based on the state of knowledge available at the time of publication. Other studies focus on special aspects, for example, Parnachov and Carling et al. on the geology of giant bars, Carling on the gravel dunes, Reuter et al., on the age of the outburst floods, or Borodavko and Carling et al. on the ice-dammed lake itself. Recent investigations will provide more detailed information regarding the age of the floods. In the review papers mentioned above, the majority of dated floodrelated features indicate ages between 40 and ~17 ka. Some of the dates are based on luminescence methods, for which methodological problems make older applications doubtful (Carling, personal comm.).

# The different attempts to estimate flow conditions of the Pleistocene outburst floods in Altai Mountains result in data for flow velocity and discharge of the flood's peak and unspecified stages of the waning flood. Based on the conservative estimate of the peak discharge to be about 10 000 000 mіs-1 and assuming that the entire lake basin, with a volume of 607 kmі, drained during the outburst a hydrograph can be generated. The hydrograph indicates a flood that did not last for more than 2-3 days. The duration of the flood was determined by the integral curve based on the limitations of the drained volume (= integral) and the peak discharge. Advanced modelling of unsteady twodimensional flow confirms this magnitude. From a negligible baseflow, an abrupt rise of the hydrograph represents the outburst flood wave, which reached peak discharge values almost immediately. It should be noted that the hypothetical hydrograph does not consider ponding effects along the flood's pathway. Consequently, a tendency towards underestimation of the duration of the flood is inherent.

Compared with the earlier estimates of the peak discharge of the outburst flood the new calculations give a slightly higher discharge magnitude. Considering the fact that the present study is based on larger number of palaeostage indicators and also includes the calculation of the discharge downstream of the former ice-dam, the new estimations appear reliable and contain several elements of conservative assessment.

Key words: ice-dammed lake; outburst flood

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