Man and society interaction as a guaranty of civil society development

The analyze of the concept formation of civil society, effective interaction of an individual and society. The theoretical generalization of civil society in the developed countries of the West and the initial stages of the civil society in Ukraine.

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Man and society interaction as a guaranty of civil society development

Sydorenko Svetlana

The article analyzes the concept formation of civil society, effective interaction of an individual and society as a guaranty for the development of civil society, determines factors of its effectiveness: the formation of social capital, the person on the basis of dialogue, partnership and national consolidation; attempts are made to analyze theoretical generalization of civil society in the developed countries of the West and the initial stages of the civil society in Ukraine. It is noted that the state and civil society within the democratic system are interested in dialogue, partnership and efficiency of their interaction improvement.

Keywords: civil society, dialogue, partnership, national consolidation, culture of compromise, European integration.

В статті дається аналіз формування концепції громадянського суспільства, ефективної взаємодії людини і суспільства як запоруки розвитку громадянського суспільства, визначаються чинники його ефективності: формування соціального капіталу, особистості на засадах діалогу, партнерства і національної консолідації; зроблена спроба теоретичного узагальнення формування громадянського суспільства в розвинутих країнах Заходу і початкові етапи формування громадянського суспільства в Україні. Відмічається, що держава та громадянське суспільство в рамках демократичного устрою зацікавлені в діалозі та партнерстві, підвищенні ефективності взаємодії.

Ключові слова: громадянське суспільство, діалог, партнерство, національна консолідація, культура компромісу, євроінтеграція

В статье дается анализ формирования концепции гражданского общества, эффективного взаимодействия человека и общества как гарантии развития гражданского общества, определяются факторы его эффективности: формирование социального капитала, личности на основе диалога, партнерства и национальной консолидации; сделана попытка теоретического обобщения формирования гражданского общества в развитых странах Запада и начальные этапы формирования гражданского общества в Украине. Отмечается, что государство и гражданское общество в рамках демократического устройства заинтересованы в диалоге и партнерстве, повышении эффективности взаимодействия.

Ключевые слова: гражданское общество, диалог, партнерство, национальная консолидация, культура компромисса, евроинтеграция

Problem definition and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks

Relevance of the study is firstly due to: the aspirations of world powers to establish active and effective cooperation at the levels of "man and society" and "man and society and government" aimed at the democratization of public life; secondly, the importance of introduction and improving of regulatory reliable mechanism for global civil society that could respond flexibly to changes in the environment in the context of an unstable global society that requires the introduction of social adaptation models; thirdly, the turbulent post-crisis world, which led to the degradation of the most important public institutions in the country, which worsened the situation of the basic rights and freedoms ensuring; fourthly, the trajectory of a society development that has passed through the trials and transformation of Maidan in 2014; fifthly, the basic relations crisis in the political and legal, social and economic spheres, where the current model of country's development was built. As a result, the society attempted a radical renewal through the system break, hoping to be different - fair, modern, integrated and competitive. The presence of a developed civil society is the hallmark of any democratic state.

Analysis of recent researches and publications which the problem solution is based on

General interest in issues of civil society has increased since the beginning of the democratic reconstruction process of international community. There are three tendencies of historical and political development, which are the one way to civil society. They are globalization of politics, individual and community principles of citizenship. Eternal concepts of integrity, honesty and humanity affect the universality and fundamental foundations of civil society and a constitutional state. Associative life is developed freely in such society and government decentralization takes place due to the transfer of its substantial part to self-governance, there is a conflict-free solution of social and political problems. The concept of civil society must be understood as a system of views about governmental guarantees and mechanisms of state authorities, based on national legislation, democratic and political regime, social policy, which involves the implementation of both general and specific tasks.

The concept of civil society is aimed at creating certain social and legal conditions that allow meeting more fully the interests of both society, its individuals and their collective entities; forming a new socialized state structure that can solve a range of fundamental problems of general civil's construction. Works of Western philosophers, political scientists, sociologists, economists, who investigate the nature of civil society, the conditions of its origin, the correlation of civil society and the constitutional state are of significant interest. The first experience of scientific analysis regarding the nature of civil society can be found in works of ancient Greece and Rome philosophers, where one can discover the concept of civil society, which emerged in terms of polis democracy, Roman state of law and later, in the natural law ideas of J. Locke and T. Hobbes. Interesting views on the concept of civil society are presented in the works of N. Makiavelli, J.J. Rousseau, C. Montesquieu, I. Kant, G. Hegel, A. Hramshi.

In the present context, there is a great diversity of approaches to civil society. Firstly, there is the model you need to create towards the free market (K.Hadzhyyev). It is a system of free and independent of state public institutions, organizations and associations that represent various private interests and needs of the people, and create conditions for their implementation. Secondly, the category of "civil society" includes all modifications of society that emerged from industrial and political revolutions of XIX- early twentieth century. Civil society is considered as a form of communication within industrial civilization, society is created from the social classes and strata that have their own independent of state sources of existing (V.Bibler). It should be noted that the emphasis on the freedom and independence of civil society is a characteristic of liberal democracy and traditions. In terms of liberal democracy, the importance of civil society is that it creates a set of protective structures that ensure freedom from interference in private lives of citizens. Social and democratic theories study some civil society institutions: it is a market that is able to resist and sometimes to show expansiveness and is damaging to other elements: the state should be involved in ensuring of civilized institutions functioning. I. Shapiro believes that democratic state institutions are not effective in the role of civil society instruments. Considering the relationship between the state and the society, most researchers believe that not the state is determined and grounded by content and direction of civil society, but rather civil society determines the content and direction of the state [4].

According to O.Lotyuk when studying the theme of civil society development in the European Union the fact that the EU has an extremely wide geography, culture and traditions should be taken into consideration. The author quotes M.Vitkovskaya, who investigating the civil society in terms of European integration, indicates that it can not be defined as a set of institutions and different types of voluntary organizations, unions and associations that are free from state intervention; it is an expression of citizens' needs and initiatives. Therefore, taking the research into account, it is necessary to expand the concept of civil society gradually. In terms of science globalization the concept of civil society becomes interdisciplinary. Civil society conditions of existence are reflected in EU legislation. O.Lotyuk identifies the following criteria for the existence of civil society: respect for human rights, the functioning of institutions that guarantee stability, rule of law, respect and protection of minorities [9, p. 72-78].

Unsolved aspects of the problem selection

These problems can be solved if to form fundamentally the theoretical foundation of civil society and offer the society conditions for its implementation. In modern scientific literature on civil society there is a shortage of methodological techniques and techniques of practical interaction of man and society as a guaranty for the development of civil society. The determination of the indicated problems requires systemic solutions and development of appropriate theoretical and conceptual approaches to this extremely important issue.

The research purpose is to identify trends, means of effective interaction of man and society as a guaranty for the development of civil society.

civil society individual

The purpose is realized in the following tasks

- to prove the nature and significance of the civil society theory in the context of foreign and domestic experience;

- to explain the concepts and categories of the civil society formation;

- to show the evolution of the civil society; tendencies of effective interaction of man and society as a guaranty for the development of civil society;

- to find the way out of the systemic crisis which is, possible due to the formation of an effective civil society.

Problem discussion

Civil society is a multi-dimensional, internally contradictory, not coherent, atomized society that still needs its reorganization. On the one hand, it includes socially active citizens and associations, and, on the other, it functions in parallel with the state and covers structures which openly interfere in politics and public life. The social basis of its origin and functioning is a social differentiation and stratification of society; its demographic, ethnic, religious and other diversity. Multidirectionality of group interests determines the necessity not only of cooperation but also rivalry, competition, confrontation between different structures of civil society. "Energy of social self-activity" will always be different from the state form of public selforganization. Civil society is a collection of non-political relations (economic, national, spiritual and moral, religious, etc.), it is a sphere of spontaneous interest self-expression of free individuals' will and their associations; it is a stable system of horizontally social relations, social and political orientations and norms of social behaviour that aroused directly from property relations, but is not limited to them. For theoretical and practical problem solution of cooperation and consensus of interests between the components of the political system and all sectors of civil society it is necessary to consider achievements of harmonious development of all three sides of the triangle "man - society - state". Without understanding the close correlation there will be no full development of any of these links. Only this way we will be able to create the necessary conditions for further development in the new democracies of full-fledged civil society. New national ideology or consolidating national ideas should be based on this foundation, their necessity has been spoken about for many years but national elites haven't managed to formulate it yet [8].

Point of view of a leading researcher T.Andriychuk deserves attention. She gives the analysis of the characteristics and factors in the formation of civil society in independent Ukraine, which leads to the following conclusions: 1) from 1991-1994 there was the decay of transformational social and political movement that contributed to the achievement of independence, the emergence of new «not political» associations and adapting to the new conditions of a number of «soviet» community; 2) from 1995-1999 there began the dependence strengthening of civil society institutions on political parties and international donors, spreading of close cooperation practice with "convenient" public associations. State leadership advances with community activists by creating favourable conditions for the formation of new types of civil society; 3) from 2000-2004 there was a public confrontation of the state and the group of civil society institutions that specialize in controlling public authorities activity, tendency to attract civic associations to political activity increased, the authority attempted to demonstrate its democracy by creating legal conditions for public participation in state-making decisions; 4) from 2005-2009 there was an absence of new political elite changes towards the real cooperation and a wide range of civil society institutions; institutional weakening of the majority of public "controlling" associations, attention reducing to civil society institutions from the political parties; 5) in 2010 there was an activation in terms of a centralized authority "control" of civil society institutions, opportunity demonstration by a number of the civil associations to resist strongly to the actions of the government, attempts of the state at least formally to show its interest in the development of civil society and cooperation with not only "comfortable" associations. According to T.Andriychuk, dependence of domestic civil society institutions development on the other political institutions, especially the state (the desire of many civil societies to be close to the government, to be able to get financial support, to present effectively their group interests, to increase their own credibility) is growing nowadays. The authorities are using collaboration with civil societies to reduce the level of their opposition, to improve their image. Among the disadvantages of civil development there is a real absence of assistance to citizens in solving urgent problems, which does not allow to show the public the importance of civil societies, to increase the credibility, to attract people to civic activities. The institutions of civil society in independent Ukraine tend to develop within the continental European model that is characterized by significant influence between civil institutions and the state [2, p.6768].

The radical political changes in February 2014 contributed to the development of society hopes to form effective social society to ensure national consolidation. These expectations create favourable conditions for civil society based on dialogue and tolerance. This policy is able to: 1) ensure the national consolidation, if different views and regional differences will be taken into account while its formation and implementation; 2) stop the destructive processes in society, not only using coercive measures, but the way to achieve understanding and harmony; 3) strengthen national identity on the bases of tolerance and spiritual development. But, according to V.Voronkova, the authorities faced challenges that require effective and rapid response: 1) the economic failure of the vast majority of territorial community to perform their delegated power and be responsible to their citizens; 2) lack of resources in the budgets for investment to the infrastructure of the city, village, district, region [5, p. 19].

The researcher A.Drozdova shared the views of R.Patnama, A.Kolodiy about the importance of social capital in the process of effective civil society development. R.Patnam characterizes civil society as an active, oriented on social goals positions of citizens, elite political relations based on trust; cooperation with public relations. The researcher notes that these elements taken together as a «social capital», due to participation in civil society organizations, individuals receive social capital and are able to use if for strengthening the democratic principles in the government management. A.Kolodiy represents civil society as a set of concept of trust, consolidation and tolerance. These principles are the basis of civil society and, at the same time are the "components of the concept of" social capital". Kolodiy names the social capital components. They are: horizontal links between equal individuals; norms of trust, collective activity of the individual, a sense of participation in public life and community, a sense of responsibility, all signs of belonging to civil society. Social capital is involved in the formation of the individual as a member of the community, and from the other side provides features belonging to civil society within the entire political community. According to A.Drozdova, civil society is autonomous independent system within which social capital is formed, and further social capital enters the sphere of politics through people's acquired values, norms of behaviour. The researcher understands social capital as the system of institutions, relations between them and norms that regulate their activities which determine the quality and intensity of social relations. Countries with high levels of social capital also have a high human development index. State social capital creates the basis for its human capital realization. Sufficient social capital level is a prerequisite for the development of society in a democratic direction. The current resource base of state and civil and political movements' cooperation in modern Ukraine is not perfect due to the lack of available tools and internal imbalances of its constituent components. According to the researcher, the existing structure cannot be considered as complete. This is a manifestation in resource supply imbalance when the excess of one type of resource supply of society development in other interacting parts cannot compensate quickly that deficit in the second interacting part. A.Drozdova provides necessary components of efficient man and society interaction as a guaranty of civil society's development: 1) revival of traditions, social consolidation; 2) further activation of process forming of civil activity networks that ensure collaboration between people and will promote a sense of confidence and security [6, p. 72-73].

In this context, the role of the individual in civil society forming should be considered. Personality and society complement each other; in civil society the active, initiative, creative side of a man as a subject is represented and the internal aspect of freedom is implemented. Inner freedom is a revival of oneself as a person, personality; it is a projecting and transformation of creative meanings, spiritual, moral self-development, «self-construction» of oneself in the global world. "Selfconstruction" of oneself as a person leads to expanding and strengthening of all civil society's heuristic potential. Personality in terms of a civil society has a higher level of freedom and responsibility, interaction and tolerance. The person discovers himself in different spheres. Man creates himself as a free, creative, self actualized personality. People as citizens feel and support solidarity, trust, mutual assistance in this society [1, p. 128-139].

Formed civil society should ensure conditions for full realization of the creative possibilities of each individual, his interests, goals and aspirations. The basis of the civil society is a full individual personality with its inalienable rights of a man and a citizen. The state exercising the power subdues its activity to serving this community; it provides equal opportunities for all people and in all spheres of their life; it does not interfere in the personal life of a man and a citizen on the basis of social justice, humanism and mercy, it regulates social relations within the existing constitutional laws and other legal acts. The analysis of primary sources affirms that reforming of globalization leads to the birth of a new civil society type. It does not opposite itself to the state, but also it is global according its scope and organization. It finds its embodiment in strong global non-governmental organizations such as "Oxfam", "Greenpeace", "Third World Network" or "Rainforest Action Network," as well as in less strong coalition of hundreds of organizations. Seattle Coalition is an example of a new type of political movement characteristic of our information age. Global civil society is a new concept that is connected with the processes of globalization taking place in the modern world and interpreted in its paradigmatic basis. Civil society and especially the global civil society does not exist by itself. There is a historical and cultural, social, political and economic context.

One can call the concept of "global civil society" as a sort of "an ideal type" according to M.Weber that is the intellectual construction describing the situation of affairs in this construct and defines the power line and the reality bench marks in the process of its formation. Global civil society is still an abstraction, which is a project of Western society existence without the national state that is the content without form. This society is exclusively conceived as such, that is created on an individual identity, on the other side on all forms of collective identity - ethnic, folk, religious and even national. Even Immanuel Kant formulated the theory of civil society in the spirit of pacifism and anthropological optimism, believing that to have the confrontation between each other and to defend countries is unwise, to collaborate is more useful and profitable. Then a civil society based on intelligence and morality is implemented. Civil society is thus conceived as one that goes beyond national states and is opposed to them as a form of organization that should be annulated. The form of national identity should submit the place to exclusively individual identity and then we will get a society of individuals where there will be no forms of collective identity. If to put the concept of civil society in a particular historical context, we can find out that society cannot be global, over national, post state, but eventually it will become global. Therefore, we consider the global civil society as the highest forum of the civil society, its optimum [10].

Current approaches towards the study of complex civil society interaction processes with different society levels and the role of civil society in the system of global society provide the model, within which the differences between the state, political society and civil society can be distinguished.

Such poorly structured complex objects are studied by modern science as a system that is in the elements interaction of their system. The main objective of the systematic methodology is the orientation of case studies on integral perception of complex objects; detection of connections and relations diversity in the midst of this object and its interaction with the environment; the mechanism study of its change. In the context of a systematic object description of the study the elements of interconnected generalizing characteristics are defined in its forming and they are available to empirical observation and evaluation. In terms of instrumental systematic approach it organically results in the creation of system models, representing civil society in operationalizational form that is an object of empirical observation and research.

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