Labor protection in company

Planning financing of labor protection. Distribution functions of the objectives of SUOP between structural units and services company. Kinds of electromagnetic radiation over a frequency spectrum. Effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

Рубрика Безопасность жизнедеятельности и охрана труда
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 18.10.2014
Размер файла 29,2 K

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1. Planning and Measures Financing of labor protection

2. Functions of SOUP

3. How electromagnetic radiation is classified over a frequency spectrum

4. References

1. Planning and Measures Financing of labor protection

Planning organizational and technical measures to protect labor is one of leading safety management functions. Before planning is required, it is determined by the actual state of safety and its prediction for the future.

Planning work on labor protection is promising (for a long period of time), current (per year) and operational (quarter, month, decade).

The long-term plans owned by a comprehensive plan to improve working conditions, sanitary and health measures, providing for the establishment, in accordance with regulations on health and safety, working conditions associated with long-term changes in the company. This layout is typically designed for a period of 2 to 5 years. Implementation of these plans is provided through annual plans nomenclature measures for safety, are made to the agreement, which is an integral part of the collective agreement.

Current plans include the implementation of measures to improve working conditions, creating better living and social conditions in the workplace. These plans must be funded for complying with estimates.

The issue of safety can reflected in other current plans that businesses and organizations can be on demand labor groups: social development plan team; scientific organization of labor; mechanization and heavy manual work; protection of women; preparation of the company work in autumn and winter; increasing cultural production and others.

Operational plans are to remedy identified in the national, departmental and public control deficiencies in state health and safety, as well as for disaster recovery or disaster.

Funding for health and safety carried out by the employer. Financing preventive measures for safety, implementation of national, sectorial and regional programs for improving safety, health and environment, other government programs aimed at the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases, foreseen by the state and local budgets allocated to individual line, pelvis from other sources specified by law.

For enterprises, regardless of ownership, or individuls who use hired labor, cost of labor protection is not less than 0.5% of sales.

For businesses that kept the budget, the cost of labor protection provided to state and local budgets and make up at least 0.2% of payroll.

Amount of expenses for safety, belonging to the gross cost of the legal or natural person who, in accordance with the laws of hired labor, defined according to the list of activities and facilities for safety, approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

2. Functions of SOUP

The main tasks of safety management - are:

* testing activities related to public policy on health and safety at regional and sectorial levels;

* preparation, adoption and implementation of measures to ensure safe working conditions, proper maintenance of equipment, facilities, utilities, organization and training of health work and of professional selection; accounting, analysis and assessment of safety conditions; obtain insurance of workers against accidents at work and occupational diseases from (Table. 1.1).

Table 2.1

Distribution functions of the objectives of SUOP between structural units and services company

SUOP functions

Structural subdivisions



Safety providence: during process

department chief technologist

head unit, the trade union committee, sanitary and industrial laboratories, metrological department head; division of labor, department chief engineer


Buildings and constructions

department chief engineer

department of capital construction

division of labor, technical control department, sanitary and industrial, head unit

division of labor, division of labor, sanitary and industrial laboratories, the trade union committee

Hygienic conditions

head unit

division of labor, division of labor, sanitary and industrial laboratories

Providence of ZIZ and other

department of logistics

* organizational guidance at the regional and sectoral levels;

* promoting the integration of safety management into a single system overall management of the organization of production;

* widespread adoption of positive experience in the field of labor.

Key features of SOUP:

planning activities; development, adoption and repeal regulations; staff recruitment; training on safety; regulation of the labor process; certification of workplaces on working conditions; certification facilities; registration and records; expertise; licensing and certification; security equipment, processes, buildings, structures and areas; provision of health and working conditions, health and community, health care and health services; coordination and permits; warning of dangerous situations; investigation and registration of accidents; investigation and accounting of chronic diseases; investigation and registration of accidents; funding for health and safety; stimulation of labor; propaganda and education of safe behavior; control and inspection; scientific support; international cooperation.

Work planning:

Planning is carried out at the national, sectoral, regional level and at the enterprise level. At the state level developed several programs aimed at improving the safety in Ukraine, including the following national and state programs:

* improving safety, health and environment;

* training and increased knowledge workers, the population of Ukraine on safety;

* release women from industries associated with hard work, hazardous conditions, and limitations the employment of women at night;

* creation and development of means for individual protection of workers and the proper scientific basis for such production.

Based on these programs developed industry, departmental, regional and targeted programs. In addition, at the state or regional program developed operational actions to reduce the negative consequences of emergencies arising from accidents at industrial facilities.

The enterprises planning work carried out at all levels of management from the perspectives of the enterprise, the analysis results accidents, occupational diseases and accidents, materials job evaluation, certification facilities and other parameters characterizing the state of health in the enterprise.

Comprehensive long-term plans to improve working conditions and working environment of enterprises include: the introduction of safer vehicles and technologies; effective use of engineering tools that achieve established standards of labor protection; reconstruction of sanitary facilities; measures to replace hazardous substances and materials or eliminating direct contact with their employees; organizational measures (improvement of education, the introduction of rational modes of work and rest, etc..).

Based on long-term plans are developed annual (quarterly) plans, which are part of the collective agreement.

In addition to comprehensive plans in enterprises may consist schedules: organizational prevention and control and auditing work; of job evaluation; inspections governed by regulations; surveys of structural units, facilities, inspections of knowledge on health; of commissions, etc.

3. How electromagnetic radiation is classified over a frequency spectrum

There are natural and man-made sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF). During the evolution of the biosphere is constantly under the influence of EMF natural origin (natural background): electric and magnetic field of the Earth, cosmic electromagnetic fields, especially those generated by the sun. In the period of scientific and technological progress mankind has created and are increasingly using artificial sources of EMF. Currently, anthropogenic EMF far exceed natural background and is the adverse factors whose effects on man from year to year. Sources that generate EMF anthropogenic, are television and radio broadcasting stations, installations for radar and navigation, high-voltage power lines, industrial plants of high-frequency heating devices, providing mobile and cellular telephone communications, antennas, transformers and so on. Others. In fact, sources of EMF can be any element of the circuit through which the high-frequency current. And EMF varies with the same frequency as the current that it creates.

Electromagnetic fields are characterized by a specific energy, which is released into space in the form of electromagnetic waves. The main parameters of electromagnetic waves is: A. wave length, m; oscillation frequency / Hz; radio propagation speed s, which is almost equal to the speed of light c = 3 o 108 m / s. These parameters are linked by the following relationship:

Depending on the oscillation frequency (wavelength) radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation is divided into a number of ranges (Table. 3.1).

Table 3.1

The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ranges of frequencies

Name of frequency range

Frequency range, Hz

Wave length range

Name of wave length range


Low frequencies





Middle frequencies





High frequencies





Very high frequencies



ultra short


Ultra-high frequencies





Extra-high frequencies





Over extra-high frequencies




Note: The range of frequencies and wavelengths include top setting and exclude lower. labor electromagnetic radiation protection

Effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields on the human body, the permissible exposure level.

The degree of exposure to EMF on the human body depends on the frequency range, intensity and duration, nature of radiation (continuous or modulated), mode of exposure, the size of the irradiated surface of the body, the individual characteristics of the organism.

EMF can cause biological and functional adverse effects in humans. Functional effects found in premature fatigue, frequent sore head, deterioration of sleep, disorders of the central nervous (CNS) and cardiovascular systems. In systematic irradiation EMF observed changes in blood pressure, slow heart rate, nervous and mental diseases, some trophic effects (hair loss, brittle nails, etc..). Recent studies indicate that radio-frequency radiation, affecting the central nervous system, is a significant stress factor.

Biological adverse effects of EMF are in thermal and non-thermal action. Now sufficiently studied can be considered only thermal effects of EMF, which causes fever and local selective heating of organs and tissues of the body as a result of conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat. This heat is especially dangerous for bodies with poor thermoregulation (brain, eye, kidney, stomach, intestine, testis). For example, radiation centimeter lead to the appearance of cataract is a gradual loss of vision.

Mechanism of action and characteristics of non-thermal EMF frequency range are not yet fully understood. Part of this effect explains a specific radio frequency radiation on some biophysical phenomena, bioelectric activity that may affect the steady flow of chemical and enzymatic reactions; vibration submicroscopic structures; excitation energy (often resonance) at the molecular level, especially on specific frequencies in the so-called transparent windows.

Alternating EMF is a combination of magnetic and electric fields and extends through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. The main parameter characterizing the magnetic and electric field intensity is: H - magnetic field, A / m; E - the electric field, V / m.

The space around EMF sources conventionally divided into the near zone (zone induction) and the far zone (zone radiation). To assess the electromagnetic fields in these areas using different approaches. Near zone covers the area around the sources of EMF that has a radius which is approximately equal to 6.1 wavelength. In this zone, the electromagnetic wave is not formed because the intensity EMF is measured separately the magnetic and electric field components (adverse effect of EMF in this area mainly due to the electrical component). In the near zone usually found jobs with sources of electromagnetic radiation LF, MF, HF, VHF. Jobs from sources of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of less than 1 m (UHF, SHF, NZVCH) are almost always in the far field, in which electromagnetic waves are formed. In this zone, the EMF is measured by the amount of energy (power) that is transferred wave in the direction of its propagation. To quantify the characteristics of the energy used value of surface energy flux density, measured in W / m 2.

Permissible levels of intensity EMF frequency range in accordance with GOST 12.1.006-84 shown in Table. 2.20.

Table 3.2

Permissible levels of electromagnetic field frequency range

Frequency range, Hz

According to electric component, V/m

According to magnetic component, A/m

Allowable density of energy flow Wt/m3

60 kHz-3MHz




3 MHz-30 MHz




30 MHz-50 MHz




50 MHz-300 MHz




300 MHz-300GHz




Note: The unit of measurement frequencies: kHz - kilohertz (1 kHz = 103 Hz); MHz - megahertz (1 MHz = 10 "Hz) GHz - gigahertz (1 GHz 10" Hz).

Compliance with the permitted values EMF control by measuring the strengths I and Ј workplace and places of possible personnel stay, which is a source of EMF. Monitoring should be done periodically, but not less than once a year, as well as the introduction of new or upgraded units with sources of EMF, after repairs, changeovers, and the organization of new jobs. Protection against electromagnetic radiation frequency range.

Means and measures of protection against electromagnetic radiation frequency range divided into individual and collective. The latter can be divided into organizational, technical and health care.

Organizational Collective protection include:

- Placing objects that emit electromagnetic fields so as to minimize possible human exposure;

- "Protection time" - hotel staff in the area of EMF limited to the minimum necessary for work time;

- "Protection of distance" - the distance of jobs at the maximum distance from sources of EMF;

- "Protection number" - power radiation sources should be the minimum necessary;

- The allocation of EMF radiation areas relevant safety signs;

- Conducting dosimetric control. Technical means of collective protection include:

- EMF shielding of radiation sources;

- Screening jobs;

- Remote control units, which include sources of EMF;

- The use of warning systems.

One of the most effective technical means of protection against electromagnetic radiation frequency range that is widely used in the industry, with shielding. For screens used mainly material with high electrical conductivity (copper, brass, aluminum and its alloys, steel). The screens are made of sheet metal or foil in the form of closed chambers, cabinets or housings that are connected to the grounding system. The principle of operation of protective screens based on the absorption of radiation energy material with subsequent removal of the land and its reflection on the screen.

The main characteristic of the screen is its shielding effectiveness of Ј, ie the degree of weakening EMF. Screen thickness b of the continuous sheet that provides the necessary relaxation intensity EMF can be determined by the formula

where E - set value weakening intensity EMF, which is determined by dividing the actual field intensity at the maximum allowable; {- EMF frequency, Hz; c - magnetic permeability material screen H / m; p - conductivity material screen ohms / m.

Protecting facilities from external electromagnetic fields can be achieved by glue wall metallized wall and arrangement of metal mesh on the windows.

As a means of personal protection against electromagnetic radiation used gowns, coveralls, goggles, etc.. Material for coats and overalls serves special radio engineering tissue structure in which thin metal filaments form a net. To protect the eye using special glasses radioprotective ARD-5 (ZP5-90) that bear on glass thin film transparent semiconductor tin.






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