Ballad: origin and development
Genre sources and tradition of the ballad in the history of Europe. Influence of the Spanish romance on development its genre. The ballad in Renaissance and during Modern times. Development of a genre of the literary ballad, its role in art development.
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Министерство общего образования РФ
БАЛЛАДА: ВОЗНИКНОВЕНИЕ И РАЗВИТИЕ
1. CHAPTER Genre sources
2. CHAPTER Tradition of the ballad in the history of Europe
3. CHAPTER Influence of the Spanish romance on development of a genre of the ballad
4. CHAPTER The ballad in Renaissance and during Modern times
5. CHAPTER Development of a genre of the literary ballad
6. CHAPTER The ballad in the history of the Russian poetry
7. CHAPTER Ballad role in art development
The term paper is devoted to research of tradition of ancient folk Anglo-Scottish songs in works of English poets of an era of Romanticism. As language material for research ballads of poets (Wordsworth, Coleridge, Sauti) and V. Scott, and also ancient ballads of England and Scotland served.
Folk songs were created by anonymous storytellers, transferred orally and in the course of oral transfer strongly changed, became, thus, a fruit not of individual, but collective creativity. Christian legends, tales of chivalry, antique myths or works of the Greek and Roman authors in medieval retelling, so-called "eternal" or "vagrant" plots, and also the original historical events stylized on the basis of ready song schemes were sources of plots of ballads. The first editions of folk songs appeared in the XVIII century and were connected with revival of interest of writers, scientists-philologists and poets in the national past and national sources of literary creativity. It were: the collection of the Scottish songs and ballads "Conversations behind a Cup of Tea" (Tea-Table Miscellany, 1724-1732) Allan Ramzey (Allan Ramsay, 1686-1758), "Monuments to ancient English poetry" (Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 1765) Tomasa Percy (Thomas Percy, 1729-1811), the two-volume collection of ballads and songs about Robin Goode (1795) Joseph Ritson (Joseph Ritson, 1752-1803), well-known "Songs of border" (Minstrely of the Scottish Border, 1802-1803) Walter Scott and many others.
Substantially thanks to creativity of romantics the ballad turns from not initial, nonliterary genre into the high genre which gained recognition in fiction. Having changed in works of outstanding poets of the end of XVIII - the beginnings of the XIX centuries, plots of a folk song and its versions became the general property of English poetry. ballad romance literary art
But now the term "ballad" possesses an extreme vagueness and uncertainty as throughout several centuries various literary and folklore genres were designated by the word "ballad": ancient folk song, French, street, sentimental, Gothic, romantic. Therefore some centuries if any work was called the ballad later, it meant that it the size or stylistic receptions, figurative system or subject, the social function or the general tonality causes in the author or public of association with any of those types of ballads about which there was a speech above. The poem could resemble in general a little the ballad, but existence of one-two signs any of its various types granted to the author the right to call the poem the ballad.
In work the complex analysis and comparison of English folk songs and ballads of romantics was carried out.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE - to reveal and compare the main features of an art form of the Anglo-Scottish folk and literary songs of the beginning of the XIX century in creativity of English romantics. Thus to consider characteristic features of their metrics, language, style, figurative system. Due to the goal it was necessary to solve and some problems:
1. to address to history of emergence and evolution the ballad of genres
2. to consider basis cycles of the Anglo-Scottish ballads, and also their art features
3. to reveal what development the ballad genre in works of poets and V. Scott gains; and also to define art features of the literary ballad of the beginning of the XIX century.
VOLUME AND STRUCTURE of WORK. The term paper volume … pages of the typewritten text consists of introduction, two main heads and the conclusion. The bibliography from 81 names is attached to work (including 13 books of foreign authors).
CONTENT of WORK. In introduction the object of research is defined, its purpose and tasks are set. In chapter ancient folk songs of England and Scotland are considered, their main groups are allocated and means of art expressiveness, characteristic for this genre are investigated. Chapter 2 is devoted to the analysis of the literary ballad of an era of Romanticism. Thus the tradition of a folk song at formation and development of the ballad is traced romantic. In the conclusion the conclusions received as a result of research are given.
1. CHAPTER. Genre sources
The European ballad, having arisen as a literary genre on an outcome of the first millennium of our era, I passed a difficult way of development. Its origin can't be reduced to any one source, sources and genesis of this surprising genre can be found both in folklore, and in mythology, and in the medieval heroic epos, and in history.
So, medieval Provencal, Italian and Old French ballads find communication with spring rounds of the love contents. The Provencal word balada the dance tune means "a song" (from balar -- "to dance"), the Italian ballata -- the lyrical dancing song (from ballare -- "to dance"), the French ballade or ballette (literally -- "a dance tune the song") -- all go back to late Latin ballgre -- "to dance" (developed from Greek вбллйфмьs -- "dance"). In the Scandinavian ballads communication with dance remained also in the XX century, but this communication already and in the Middle Ages had no traces of primitive ceremonial action. Music, singing and dance from the very beginning acted in the ballad as independent arts, giving to this type of the ballad special art completeness. At the same time at many people of Europe the ballad already at early stages lost communications with dance or had even no them initially.
Finding surprising, almost universal "pantophagy" in the sources, the folk song kept this "pantophagy" on all extent of the centuries-old development, having transferred then its literary point. N. I. Kravtsov who was attentively investigating genesis and features of a Slavic folk song emphasized importance of the historical principle in approach to a genre: "The main point consists that variety of plots: forms and types (versions) of ballads -- it developed not at once, and is result of long development of a genre which consisted in its enrichment in connection with the course of life of the people. The ballad existed not separately from other genres, and in incessant interaction with them that also formed a basis of emergence of its versions" [9, 197]. The most ancient layer of the European ballads has plot in many respects something in common with episodes of the mythological, animal or heroic epos. As the epos (for example, Celtic, Scandinavian, ancient German or South Slavic) informed to us line of archaic, prefeudal eras (military tribal community and even matriarchy), naturally, the same lines are reflected and in many ballads. Though in some regional researches superiority of the epos in relation to ballads is convincingly proved (on the example of the Spanish romances, the Norwegian ballads etc.), in a number of known cases of the ballad gave impulses to emergence of the epos.
Folk song, actively developing within many centuries, constantly I incorporated and I recycled the most diverse material, scooping it from oral legends and written sources or directly from life. The academician M. P. Alekseev trying to understand the huge sea of English and Scottish ballads came to the following conclusion: "Origin of plots of ballads very variously: others have the sources the book legend, Christian legends, works of medieval writing, tales of chivalry, even in separate and exceptional cases of work of antique authors, acquired through any medieval processing and retellings; others go back to the oral legend, represent variations of the "vagrant plots" using the international distribution. The third reproduce any historical event, altering, stylistic it according to the general conditions of song tradition". So motley picture is represented by plots of the German folk ballads.
From the point of view of a variety of plots and nature of their processing of the ballad it is possible to define as narrative songs (or poems) with drama development of a plot.
Up to the present classification by the plots grouped in the thematic principle continues to remain the most widespread principle of classification of ballads (both national, and literary). So, N. I. Kravtsov subdivided Slavic ballads on mythical, historical, social and family and household. D. M. Balashov, distinguishing from the Russian ballads family and household, historical and social, I proceeded from "prevalence of this or that nature of the conflict". In one of the newest editions of Slavic folklore it is about "four theme groups of ballads: historical, love, family and social", allocated "depending on nature of the tragic conflict". Approximately business and with classification of ballads in the West European literatures also is. Famous researcher of the English-language folk and literary song of G. M. Louz, based on the thematic principle, divides all ballads into eight classes: ballads about supernatural, about tragic situations, about love, about crimes and criminals, about the Scottish border, about war and adventures, ballads of the mixed character, comic ballads and parodies. Other large expert on English-speaking folk songs A. B. Friedman allocates fifteen theme groups. In one of the major generalizing works according to the German national song certain heads are devoted to the heroic ballad, the family ballad, the ballad based on a legend or on the legend, and, at last, the ballad-shvanku, i.e. the ballad based on comical incident. Already from the given examples of classification of ballads by the thematic principle it is visible that, facilitating systematization of all ballad fund, this principle is of no use for understanding of the main lines of the ballad, its differences from other epic or liriko-epic genres at the heart of which there can also be a tragic or drama conflict. Subjects and plots of ballads are so various that at desire it is possible with the big or smaller basis randomly to allocate any number the ballad of groups.
Artificiality of thematic approach forced scientists to look for other, more essential signs of the ballad. N. I. Kravtsov concerning Slavic ballads came to the following conclusion: "In all versions there is the general: family and personal plots and family and personal aspect of covering of events. It is peculiar to ballads of all times and all people and therefore can be the main, steady sign of the ballad as a genre". Really, a family as a public cell, changing, I kept many of the functions and within various public formations. And still N. I. Kravtsov's formulation suffers from an excessive categoriality. Plots European (including Slavic) folk songs far go beyond the family and personal conflicts. Literary ballads, finding indisputable continuity with national, in general similar classification isn't given in. Therefore, besides subject similarity (that is very important) it is necessary to look for also other signs characterizing the ballad as a genre.
From many methods of differentiation and definition of ballads by the most perspective known now the evolutionary approach developed in a number of researches Yu.I is. Smirnova. Without rejecting the historical principle formulated by Kravtsov it brings under it a new methodological basis. According to the scientist, first, each folklore work represents "some set of options and versions" between which there are certain interrelations needing disclosure and studying, and, secondly, each folklore text besides option and the version "possesses also the form signs allowing to carry it to a certain genre version". The offered approach gives the chance to consider at the same time a form, the contents and type of art fiction of each ballad text and by that the ballad layers allows researchers to be guided more or less freely in centuries-old, to distinguish late texts and their versions from the early. Evolutionary approach to ballads convincingly proves that from the point of view of plots and conflict situations only the most ancient layer of ballads reflecting "variety of the kinship and family relations and relations between good and girl" is absolutely really isolated. Smirnov calls this group of ballads "actually ballads". Time of emergence of these ballads in Europe can be defined very approximately in comparison to other genres of folklore. Thus it is important to remember that the oral national tradition in Europe never interrupted and its historically testified forms in some regions take away in the far millennia B.C.
Therefore and "actually ballads", such what they could be at the moment of the initial emergence, didn't reach us because records however early they were, reflect already much later stages of development of a genre, having borne traces of the latest stratifications. Transformation of primary forms of the ballad consisted in strengthening of the lyrical beginning, expansion of a circle of plots, in complication and differentiation of forms. Speaking about art specifics of a folk song on the basis of the texts of the XIII--XVI centuries which reached us, it is possible to state such features of the ballad as dramatic nature of development of a plot, intermittence of the narration concentrating attention on culmination points, dialogue use as a syuzhetoobrazuyushchy factor, application of various forms of the repetition strengthening dramatic nature of a situation, and also the innuendo giving to ballads mystery or even mysteriousness. These features aren't surely shown at the same time, along with them there can be also others, ballads peculiar to these or those national forms.
Genesis of the European ballad at earlier stages is calculated allegedly -- not so much on the basis of texts (which remained only incidentally and fragmentary), how many by means of historical certificates. We will address to some of them.
2. CHAPTER. Tradition of the ballad in the history of Europe
One of early certificates of a continuity of national song tradition in the history of Europe are served by work of the Roman historian Cornelius Thucydides "About an origin of Germans and location of Germany" (98 AD), recorded mythological, heroic and military songs at continental Germans. In the XIX century. Julien Tierso in basic research "History of a national song in France" (1889) brings numerous data on an existing into the Middle Ages (since VII century) on the French earth "three childbirth of narrative songs: the epic songs which were based mainly on legends of the German conquerors; the religious chants composed by priests in imitation the first, and, at last, songs legends, created by directly national talents". Executed, and quite often and composed these songs jugglers -- vagrant singers-poets (at continental Germans friendly singers were called as skopa, vagrant singers - poets -- shpilmana). Speaking about development of a genre of the French ballad from narrative songs, Zh. Tyerso does very remarkable supervision: "In the majority of our provinces legendary or romantic legends of the past times -- small poems, touching and naive, passed by word of mouth in centuries and sometimes exciting listeners even during our satiated era meet. For this new group of narrative songs the name -- the complaint (complainte) seems to us the only thing suitable, despite of Latin etymology and specific value in which this name was used. We reject the name "ballad" which came to France through Provence, belonging to a sort of a dancing song (the Italian ballata). Later it served for designation of a poetic form, very remarkable, but having nothing in common with national... The name "ballad", in its today's value, became known in France only at the beginning of the XIX century, brought into fashion by Walter Scott's novels. It was impossible to call differently the group of songs existing at us since the most remote times".
Zh. Tyerso raises an important question of a ratio of two types of ballads here: the type corresponding to the etymological word meaning "ballad" anyway connected with dance with a spring ceremonial round and other its type, it is much bigger corresponding to modern definition of the ballad. But absolutely to divide these two types of the ballad (as it does to Zh. Tyerso), in our opinion, illegally because in Scandinavia, as we know, both of them quite organically united: the drama narrative song was sung in round dance. Distinctions of the called types of ballads carry, therefore, not general, but private, regional character, and further searches of the mediating links are probably necessary.
At restoration of a picture of development of lyrical kinds of the ballad it must be kept in mind all richest context of medieval national and court poetry. K.A. Ivanov who drew in the book "Troubadours, Trouveres and Minnezinger" (1901) wide panoramas of development and interaction of lyric and epic genres of medieval literatures of Western Europe tracked an execution art transfer continuity (and then and compositions) poetic works from antique mimes and gistrion to jugglers and minstrels, and from them -- to trouveres (whom he calls "jugglers writers") and to troubadours. In Provencal and Old French poetry of the ballad consisted of three or four stanzas including till eight, ten or twelve lines with a short refrain. In the XIII--XV centuries. in France poems from three (or four) rhymed stanzas (3 stanzas on identical rhymes -- ababbcbc for 8-syllabic, ababbccdcd for a 10-syllabic verse) with a refrain and the final semi-stanza -- "parcel" turned to the addressee were called as ballads. The French version of the medieval ballad gained the world fame thanks to Francois Villon (apprx. 1431 -- after 1463); considerably later the type of the literary ballad was developed special, "viyonovsky". Italian "balata" also developed in the Middle Ages mainly as a lyric genre. The Viyonovsky type of the literary ballad not only revived subsequently in skillful stylizations and imitations (V. Ya. Bryusov, M. A. Kuzmin, etc.), but also gained development as an independent form of the modern literary ballad (B. Brecht, V. Vysotsky).
3. CHAPTER. Influence of the Spanish romance on development of a genre of the ballad
Considerable impact on the European poetry of modern times, including and the genre of the literary ballad formed then, rendered the Spanish romance since the end of the XVIII century. Already the bishop Percy in the preface to the well-known meeting "Relic of ancient English poetry" (1765) compared ballads to romances and itself translated two romances as a sample; after it in England romances were translated by Walter Scott, Byron and other poets. In Russia the first transfer of the Spanish romance "Count Gvarinos" was made by N. M. Karamzin in 1789; in the XIX century addressed to "Romances about Cyd" P. A. Katenin and VA. Zhukovsky. But, apparently, experience of development of the Spanish romances in the German poetry was especially fruitful. I. G. Herder who translated on the Spanish and French sources the whole set of romances about Cyd  was the first who paid to them attention. About the Spanish romances Goethe, F. Shlegel, A. Shlegel, Ya. Grimm, G. V. F wrote. Hegel; many romantics not only translated the Spanish romances, but also wrote ballads in the form of romances (L. Uland, K. Brentano, G. Heine). At a boundary of the XVIII--XIX centuries of the concept Ballade and Romanze of Germany practically didn't differ and only in the second quarter of the XIX century Hegel makes an attempt to differentiate them theoretically, and Heine -- is art.
What represented these Spanish romances which played so noticeable role in registration of one of important genre kinds of the European literary ballad? The outstanding Spanish philologist R. Menendes Pidal calling the homeland "the country of romances" sought to understand specifics of the Spanish romances in comparison with songs of ballad character at other European people; he came to the following conclusion: "The romance -- is the liro-epic song possessing the most heroic and knightly contents from all songs such; only the Danish and Swedish Wieser can be compared to him. But though Wieser too makes an exception of the general rule, romances not only more widely represent national life and history, but also by stronger roots are connected with heroic poetry, that poetry which was a source of development of new literatures and from which romances apprehended heroes, subjects, features of the poetic form and even the verses. The romances which spread by all seas and lands on which the Spanish empire was stretched -- it is the liro-epic songs charming imagination of other people in the southern and northern hemispheres. It is the song which reached the greatest art heights and became a worthy source for important areas of literary creativity as in classical, and in present period... At last, romances on the traditional character, on coverage of the historical events represented in them, on a set of the epic and moral strokes lighting certain moments of history represent quintessence of characteristics of the Spanish life". R. Menendes Pidal showed communication of the Spanish romances with the ancient Spanish epos, with a Carlovingian cycle of epic legends, established various references of romances, first of all a novelistic of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. In his opinion, plots and forms of the Spanish romances are similar to plots and forms of national lyrical poetry. The scientist in detail considered "process of absorption of lyrical forms the forms peculiar to the ancient epos". If to consider that in other extensive work "The Arab poetry and poetry European" on the example of development Arab andaluzsk a genre Zadzhal R. Menendes Pidal convincingly proved that "in the concept of courteous love Arab andaluzsk the poetry was the predecessor of lyrics of Provence and other Romance countries and served them as a sample concerning a specific form with what coincidence of all seven kinds of a stanza to a unison reprise in the Arab andaluzsk and Romance poetry is connected", becomes clear that the Spanish romance played a role of a peculiar bridge on which I got into it not only the Spanish subject and the Spanish poetic originality, but also the exotic poetic world of the Arab East in the European ballad poetry.
4. CHAPTER. The ballad in Renaissance and during Modern times
The European folk song endured the highest blossoming in the XIII--XVI centuries though in the different countries and different regions the specified temporary borders could be displaced in this or that party or extend on extent. Of the XV--XVI centuries the extensive quantity hand-written (and then and printing) collections of songs (for example, in Germany, France, Spain) where also many texts of ballad character contained remained. During this era of the ballad occurred and were sung in the widest layers of urban and country people. In the brochure published in 1509 in Mainz "Christian manual for just life", for example, was told: "When two or three will gather, they have to sing, and all of them sing in operating time, houses and in the field, during a prayer and just affairs, in pleasure and a grief, in grief and on a feast". The largest researcher of the German national songs Ion Mayer emphasized: "The knowledge of texts and melodies was widespread in all layers of the people to such an extent that we hardly in forces to imagine today it". In a number of countries of Western Europe it was the era of decline of feudal knightly culture and raising of culture city, early bourgeois, burgher. It was Renaissance which in Germany, France, Spain, to Italy and England was expressed in wide interest of a people at large in richness of spiritual culture including to the song. In ballads of the South Slavic people very rich and various according to the contents, after a victory of Turks over Serbians on Kosovo a field (1389) motives of fight against overseas aggressors began to take an important place.
In XVII and in the first half of the XVIII century interest in ballads in the literate of the population dies away a little. Villages and city suburbs where a peculiar genre of a ballad viewing city street song which in Germany was called "бэнкельзанг" gradually develops become keepers of songs of ballad type; performance of similar songs usually was followed by music (a harmonica, a street organ) and display of the "flying leaves" printed in printing house -- texts with the pictures illustrating the executed plot -- which right there at the similar price were on sale everyone. In the city street ballad both ancient and medieval plots were in own way processed. But in it there was a new operational genre which received the name "newspaper song", "newspaper ballad". Street singers, using popular forms and motives of a folk song, told "about events in the world" to listeners who often and weren't able to read. Street city ballads are very numerous, different genre and are very various on the art advantages. On a thematic sign from them, perhaps, especially it is worth allocating extensive group of songs about terrible murders, about kind and angry robbers; the important group in this type of ballads was made by songs responses on the current historical events -- in Germany, for example, it is songs of an era of Great peasant war and Thirty years' war, in Russia -- songs about Stenke Razin and Yemelyan Pugachev, and also about Ivan the Terrible. Among all these numerous songs the texts very close to ballads meet. "Flying leaves" with texts of ballad character were printed in the XVI--XVII centuries in Germany approximately on 100000 copies annually. Founders and performers of "flying leaves", as a rule, preferred to an ancient folk song more topical plots and looked for for them the form capable to satisfy to tastes of diverse exhibition crowd. But at the same time traditions of "benkelzang" didn't die, and in the XX century this genre as if would revive in sharp social ballads and "zongakh" Frank Vedekind, Bertolt Brecht, Curt Tukholsky and Erich Weinert.
Wide public interest in the national song, and, perhaps, first of all to the ballad, a little decayed as it was already told, in the XVII century, started over again to wake up at educated public in the second half of the XVIII century against the wakening interest in history, in the national past, to russoistsk to treated "nature". The first success fell to lot of the ingenious fakes of the ancient Celtic epos James McPherson published in 1760 -- 1773 and which gained the world fame under the name of "Ossian's Poems". According to the latest researches, many episodes of "Ossian's Poems" -- that other, as free transposition of the ancient Scottish ballads at different times heard and which are written down by McPherson. "Ossian's poems" were met with huge enthusiasm first of all in Germany where until the end of the XVIII century four of their are published the full translation and 34 partial; Ossian carried away Herder, Goethe, Lenz, the Burgher and some other writers. With big delight slightly they were accepted later and in Russia where there were their full and partial translations, and also many works in imitation "Ossian's Poems" or for their motives were created. Against so impressive success of McPherson (and not only in Germany and Russia) a little the remarkable work of the bishop Percy of "A relic of ancient English poetry" (1765) containing many original Scottish ballads remained in the shadow. It was followed also by other collections of ballads from which it is important to mention "The Minstrelsies of Scottish Border" (1802 -- 1803) which are written down and published by young Walter Scott here.
The new civil consciousness which arose during the Education era in the second half of the XVIII century included also understanding of identity of a historical way, language, culture, ethnographic signs of each people. In libraries, in monasteries -- ancient manuscripts, until then unknown, nobody read were found everywhere. In 1757 Swiss I. Ya. Bodmer found the manuscript "Song about nibelungs", become in the XIX century a perennial spring of plots for playwrights and poets (F. Hebbel, R. Wagner etc.) . In Germany Herder acts as the passionate propagandist of national poetry and in 1778 -- 1779 publishes the collection "National Songs" which included the German, English, Spanish, Greek, Scottish, Scandinavian, Lithuanian, Estonian songs -- the edition keeping enduring value up to our days: not incidentally later the collection received other name -- "Voices of the people in songs".
After Herder Clemence Brentano's romantics and Akhim von Arnim collect and publish the German national songs "Magic Horn of the Boy" (t. 1--3, 1805--1808). In 1817 in Vienna it was found and then it is published medieval mythologically - the fantastic epos "Kudruna", in 1837 in Paris "The song about Roland", been a source of numerous literary ballads in the different countries was for the first time published. In a year of death of Byron (1824) who was actively participating in fight for freedom of Greece in France there were "National songs of Greece". For ten years the Serbo-Croatian songs of Vuk Karadzic with delight met by poets and specialists in folklore of all Europe were published earlier. In Finland at the end of the XVIII century begins record of separate runes of the "Kalevala" which gained then the world fame in E. Lyonrot's processing. In Russia the "Collection of different songs" (p.1 -- 4, 1770-- 1774) M. D. Chulkova containing along with literary texts and originally national including ballad songs testified to serious interest in folklore. In 1804 in Moscow "Ancient Russian poems" were published. This collection better known according to the name of the second edition "The Ancient Russian Poems Collected by Kirsheyu Danilov", showed really inexhaustible richness of the Russian songs: epic and mythological and historical, love, satirical, comic. This wealth was noticed also by Karamzin writing "History of the state Russian", and Zhukovsky which not only excellent translated "Tale of Igor's Campaign", but also constantly worked itself on creation of the national Russian epos, and Pushkin who was attentively reading this collection and many other Russian poets, writers, scientists: from A.X. Vostokov and V. K. Kьchelbecker to I.S. Turgenev, L.N. Tolstoy and M. Gorky. V. G. Belinsky wrote about "the Collection Danilov's Kirsches": "It is the book a precious, true treasury of the greatest richness of national poetry which has to be shortly familiar to any Russian person if the poetry isn't alien to his soul and if all related to the Russian spirit forces to fight his heart more strongly".
In all enormous flow of publications of ancient texts of the epic and balladno-song contents (here we were limited only to separate examples) ballads took nearly at once a special place, having played in many European literatures a role of a peculiar catalyst in searches of new expressive opportunities of the poetic diction. Though initial impulses in this direction came from Spain and England, the first European significant results in creation and judgment of the genre of the literary ballad were reached in Germany. The huge role here already in the period of "A storm and an impact" was played by I. G. Herder, I. V. Goethe and G. A. Byurger.
Johann Gottfried Herder (1744 -- 1803) who began under the influence of McPherson and Percy to translate from the end of the 1760th years at first the Scottish and Scandinavian ballads, and then and songs of other people, handled an appeal to collect and write down as well the German national songs. The first the young Goethe who wrote down in the summer of 1771 in Alsace 12 folk songs together with melodies responded to this appeal. Thus he carefully considered structure of the small meeting lying at the sources of modern folklore studies in Germany. To Goethe, all life, like Herder who was engaged in studying, collecting and transfer of song creativity of various people, the early address to folklore allowed to avoid pretentious style of poetry of rococo and already in the cycle "Zezengeymsky Songs" at the beginning of the 1770th years to create original poetic masterpieces. From all folklore genres of Goethe with special attention I treated the ballad, calling it that "a live germ", "prasemeny" all poetry, an art prototype, its primary national form. In 1821, already having an extensive experience of own ballad creativity behind shoulders, Goethe generalized the thoughts about this unique genre in special article about the ballad. He saw specifics of irresistible art influence of the ballad in connection of epos elements in it, dramas and lyric poets. In early ballads of Goethe ("Fisherman", "The forest tsar", "the Fulsky king") synthesis of lyrical and drama elements, in late ballads ("The Corinthian bride" prevails, "God and a bayader", "Ballad") a lyrical element is considerably forced out by the epic.
For development of the theory of the ballad I. G. Herder's supervision in the 1770th years connected with his work on the collection "National Songs" have enduring value. Don't lose the value for modern folklore studies and Herder's idea about importance for a national song of "tune", "harmony". "A being of a song -- in a tune, but not in a picture -- Herder in 1779 wrote -- its perfection is defined by the melodic movement of passion or feeling which it would be possible to designate the choice ancient word a harmony. If the song is deprived it if it doesn't possess the tonality, poetic modulation, doesn't maintain process of this modulation -- that how many pictures, what combination of pleasant paints it would comprise, it any more not the song". Thus it is important to understand that Herder, speaking about "harmony", "tonality" and "modulation", speaks not only (and in this case, probably, and not so much) about a melody motive, but also "about a melody as immanent property of poetic fabric of a song, internally to it the inherent melodiousness doing the text to "melodious". Herder aspiring and first of all to transfer tone, melodic intonation of foreign language in the translations of songs of the different people, in the concept of the ballad (which he called "the ancient song") I was guided, first of all, by the Scottish ballads from Percy's collection, I emphasized that "the lyrical, mythological, drama and epic elements making national difference of English poetry arose from this ancient heritage of ancient singers and poets". Including in "ancient heritage of ancient singers and poets" Chaucer, Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton and other English writers, Herder not only destroyed a barrier between the folk and literary song, but also raised very vital issue of a national originality as necessary and integral quality of originally national poetry: "On language, on tone and the contents these ancient songs represent original thinking of the tribe, or as if the trunk, a nation core. Who a little or absolutely sees nothing in them, shows thereby that has with it nothing in common. Who neglects them and doesn't feel them that show that he so wallowed in empty imitation to all foreign, so got confused in weightless tinsel of a foreign masquerade that forgot to appreciate and feel everything that makes a nation body". Herder's anger was directed, first of all, against dominating then in the German literature of the anakreontichesky poetry and poetry of rococo focused on the French samples and neglecting the appeal to national sources of own national poetry.
The angry word of Herder fell to a fertile field. It was heard by young Goethe, the whole group of poets of "A storm and an impact", among which in formation of a genre of the literary ballad the outstanding place belongs to Gottfried to Augustus Byurger (1747 -- 1794) who created "Lenora" (1773) worthy sample of the literary ballad, many threads of the folk song connected with century traditions with folklore motives and national beliefs, widespread not only in Germany, but also in all Europe. The widest, it is possible to tell, the pan-European resonance of "Lenora" of Byurger proceeding over 50 years speaks as high art advantages of this ballad, and by that its motive taken in a basis about return of the dead (or about the groom dead person) found compliances in songs, fairy tales, legends, beliefs practically of all European people (roots of these beliefs go to Ancient Greece and the Ancient East) and could be easily recreated on any national soil. In parallel with transfers of "Lenora" there were also, national versions of the ballad, as, for example, (1808 -- 1812) V. A. Zhukovskogo' "Svetlana" or some Polish processing of "Lenora".
5. CHAPTER. Development of a genre of the literary ballad
Genre of the literary ballad, having restored to life for some decades prior to the beginning of the XIX century, I reached the blossoming and the highest popularity during a romanticism era when it for some time took nearly the leading place in poetry. Popularity and timeliness of this genre during a romantic era are explained first of all by its multifunctionality, ability to serve most different (and at times and multidirectional) to the public and literary purposes. The popular ballad (knightly, heroic, historical) could satisfy the interest in the national past, in the Middle Ages which wakened at wide circles of readers, in general to old times. The mythological or wonderful element, natural to the ballad, quite corresponded to aspiration of romantics to all unusual, mysterious, mysterious, and often and to mystical or otherworldly. Inclination, primordial for the ballad, to synthesis of epic, lyrical and drama elements was well combined with attempts of romantics to create "universal poetry", "to mix artificial poetry and natural poetry" (F. Shlegel), to update it, to transfer experiences of the person, drama heat of feelings.
The ballad gave great opportunities for searches of new means of expression of poetic diction to what at least "Lyrical ballads" (1798) U. Wordsworth and S. T. Coleridge brightly testify. To the second edition of this joint poetic collection U. Wordsworth lists the main objectives which both authors sought to resolve in the course of work on "Lyrical ballads" in the preface. The most important creative installation of U. Wordsworth consisted in that, "choosing events and situations from the most everyday life of simple people, to show or describe them whenever possible language to what these people speak actually; but at the same time by means of imagination to give it coloring thanks to which ordinary things will appear in unusual lighting...". A simple and bright example of that Wordsworth practically wanted to reach, the ballad "Us Seven", for which short-sighted critics also in the XX century is. fell upon the poet. Using the richest opportunities of the genre of the ballad and inexhaustible layers of a living spoken language, Wordsworth sought to move apart a framework of traditional poetry, to give it new psychological depth, to update an arsenal of its art means. "Lyrical ballads" played a huge role in development of English poetry of the XIX century.
6. CHAPTER. The ballad in the history of the Russian poetry
Not less important place was taken by a genre of the ballad and in development of the Russian poetry, especially in the first third of the XIX century. Communications of the Russian literature of XVIII -- the beginning of the XIX century with folklore are studied worse today, than interrelations of the Russian and the West European literatures. Therefore formation of a genre of the literary ballad in Russia -- if it is also affected in researches -- considered only as transferring on the Russian soil West European the ballad is exemplary. And after all tens and tens collections of the Russian national songs (or the mixed songbooks) published in the XVIII century were made not only M. Chulkov and N. Novikov, but also such poets, as well as. Dmitriyev, M. Popov and N. Lvov. As a rule, also the long way of development passed by the Russian literary ballad from (1791) N. M. Karamzin's "Raisa" to "Lyudmila" (1808) VA is underestimated. Zhukovsky.
The most important line of searches of a ballad genre in N. M. Karamzin, I.I. Dmitriyev, G. P. Kamenev, N. F. Ostolopov, N. F. Grammatik, M. V. Milonov's creativity consists that they sought for creation of the Russian national literary ballad, practically passing a stage of preliminary development of the European ballad experience already rich by then. However along with works of these writers ballads of VA were published. Zhukovsky and I.I. Kozlov considerably leaning on the West European samples; still keep the value of the ballad of K.F. Ryleyev and A.X. Vostokov trying to master more deeply the all-Slavic ballad; P. A. Katenin and late G.R. Derzhavin who are most enriched language of the ballads with spoken national language. At the accounting of all various context of development of the Russian literary ballad it becomes clear, why in A.S. Pushkin, M. Yu. Lermontov, K.K. Pavlova, A.K. Tolstoy, N. A creativity. Nekrasov and other poets of the XIX century the literary ballad becomes an organic and integral part of history of the Russian poetry.
Studying of history of formation and functioning of the Russian literary ballad shows that its place at all not on the periphery of literary development and that she had to play quite noticeable role in historic - literary process. Unlike traditional poetic forms (the ode, the message) the appeal to a ballad genre quite often in itself already declared new tendencies in development of literature, the literary language and reflected new moods in the society. What by means of ballads -- willows the first stage of ballads of Zhukovsky -- in the Russian literature was approved such direction as romanticism is especially indicative. The world of subjective experiences of the human person for the first time so deeply and poetically opened to the Russian reader in ballads of Zhukovsky. One of participants of literary society "Arzamas" F. F. Vigel noted in the memoirs subsequently that Zhukovsky the ballads "created to us new feelings, new pleasures. Here and the beginning of romanticism at us".
In the conditions of keen interest of the Russian readers of the beginning of the XIX century in the ballad, naturally, there was a question, what ideological and esthetic reference points it in herself bore. We will stop in this regard at least on one very indicative episode -- polemic round the translations and interpretation of "Lenora" of the Burgher. "The Russian ballad" of Zhukovsky "Lyudmila" written according to author's a dung as "Byurgerova Lenore's imitation" was published in 1808 in the Bulletin of Europe magazine. The enthusiastic reception of "Lyudmila" at the Russian readers who saw outstanding work in the ballad was precisely explained subsequently with V. G. Belinsky in "Article second" (1843) about "Alexander Pushkin's Compositions": "Society of that time unconsciously felt new spirit of creativity, the new world of poetry in this ballad -- and society wasn't mistaken".
But VA. Zhukovsky, Russifying the ballad of the Burgher, considerably I weakened colloquial color of the German original, I softened rough expressions and I strengthened a verse harmony. In Germany conscious Installation. A. Byurgera on a nationality in the 1790th years was treated as a connivance of roughness and a pro-hundred-nationality, and F. Schiller flayed poems of the Burgher in 1791. In Russia -- chronologically one quarter of the century later -- there was other situation: in the polemic developed in 1816 after publication of the ballad of P. A. Katenin "Olga" (it was Russified, as well as "Lyudmila", but on spirit, as well as "Lenora" of the Burgher, is turned to national popular speech), the public opinion developed in favor of more democratic treatment of language and a plot. In the conditions of public rise in Russia in the first half of the 1820th years in literature and the literary critic there was a strong opposition of poetry and VA poetics. Zhukovsky, reflected first of all in articles and A.A. Bestuzhev, V. K. Kьchelbecker and K.F. Ryleyev's letters. So polemic about the ballad at a certain stage of historical development in Russia moved forward in the center of ideological and esthetic fight and from the especially literary turned into the public.
Development of the Russian literary ballad only good that within this genre poets very various ideological and esthetic orientations successfully competed: A.A. Fet and N. A. Nekrasov, A.K. Tolstoy and I.S. Turgenev, K.K. Sluchevsky and A.A. Blok, I. Severyanin and M. Gorky. What inexhaustible well of poetic masterpieces! The publication of a complete collection only of the Russian literary ballad XIX--XX of centuries would demand many voluminous volumes.
7. CHAPTER. Ballad role in art development
Literary ballads of Europe are very bright example of what ways and how the world literature the thesis about which was put forward still by I.V. Goethe develops. Here play the mutual translations creating the general cultural base huge role: we will remind only of the translations of the Spanish romances, of a role of the transfers of "Lenora" of the Burgher for formation of a genre of the literary ballad in the different countries or of literally triumphal procession Serbian "Hasanaginitsa" across all Europe. The translations, in turn, are an important push for original creativity: we will remember "Svetlana" of VA. Zhukovsky or the poem "Branch of Palestine" of M. Yu. Lermontov cast by "The old knight" of L. Uland in translation of VA. Zhukovsky. Heine at all not incidentally called the poetic collection "Romansero" (1851) into Spanish of manners -- in this collection consisting generally of ballads, it summed up tradition of development of the Spanish romance in Germany, having created at the same time and national, German, Romansero option -- one of tops of the German poetry of the XIX century. So foreign-language, international poetic form becomes an integral part of national culture, enriches it (in other genre so bright synthesis represents "West east sofa" of Goethe).
The appeal to experience of world poetry helps the poet innovator to find itself, it is better to realize that new that he is urged to bring in the literature and in the native language. So, young B. Brecht looked for a literary form and rebellious pathos of the well-known ballads -- "zong" as in national poetic tradition (the folk street song, its literary reconsideration by F. Vedekind), and in world "ballad" literature (first of all in F. Villon and R. Kipling's ballads). The ballad viewing songs V. Vysotsky addressed to B. Brecht's experience and besides to Villon in the.
The European ballad already during a romantic era found almost unique ability to synthesis of national and foreign traditions, to a free exchange of plots, subjects, motives and forms. The ballad was a genre really international, constantly enriched from the most various national sources: legends, fairy tales, bylinas, historical and predatory songs, important public events and private incidents, local beliefs, superstitions and customs. The ballad arose for love of the poet to mysterious and wonderful (K. Pavlova's "Fire" or "Dragon" and A. Fet's "Secret"), or from the public and moral motives turned as much to the mythologized history, how many and to the present ("Ilya Muromets" of A.K. Tolstoy, "Svyatogor and Ilya" of I.A. Bunin), or even as the most topical political satire (N. A. Nekrasov's "Secret", "Croquet in Windsor" of I.S. Turgenev or "The ballad about the countess Ellen de Coursi" M. Gorky).
Having become one of the most productive poetic genres of an era of romanticism, the ballad didn't disappear and with arrival of realism; she easily joined symbolist, neo-romantic and expressionistic poetics, managed to take a noticeable place and in poetry of socialist realism ("The ballad about twenty six" S. Yesenina, "The ballad about nails" and "The ballad about a blue package" of N. Tikhonov). The ballad was able to reflect the most difficult collisions and the atmosphere of an imperialistic era (R. Kipling, B. Brecht), as well as dialectics of development of socialist society (V. Vysotsky).
In present period with changed and in grand style branched mass media continue to live and enjoy love of readers not only literary, but also folk songs. However, their functioning significantly changed: as a rule, they are orally executed very seldom now and from generation to generation are handed down not, and as printing literary texts.
The highest and the art influence of a folk song which still didn't lose the force is concluded in the primary accuracy of word usage, in primitive simplicity of provisions and situations from which grow insoluble, mostly tragic, the conflicts. In the majority these conflicts carry not casual, but social, social being and public consciousness the caused character. Moreover, tracing the roots back to patrimonial customs and beliefs, the folk song is gold fund of traditional feelings and thoughts of the people....
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