Bauyrzhan Momyshuly's role in forming the military-heroic literature
The study of the formation of military heroic literature Momyshuli, who was able to assess the behavior, common sense, feats of warriors for the good of the people. The truthfulness of painting by the author in his writings of the courage of the soldiers.
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Bauyrzhan Momyshuly's role in forming the military-heroic literature
У статті йдеться про роль становлення військово-героїчної літератури Б. Момишули. Мудрий командувач був спроможний оцінювати поведінку, здоровий глузд, подвиги воїнів заради блага народу. Він закликав та надихав солдат на їхні героїчні перемоги. Автор також акентує увагу на тому, як правдиво письменник у своїх творах зумів змалювати мужність воїнів.
Ключові слова: патріотичних дух, військово-героїчна література, герой, державні інтереси, війна, правда, письменник, проза.
The article discusses the role of the formation of BMomyshuly's military heroic literature. The wise commander was able to appreciate the behavior, the sanity, and the feats of the warriors, accomplished for the benefit of the nation. He called and encouraged them to heroic victories. The article also considers how he could truly describe the courage of warriors in his works.
Keywords: patriotic spirit, military-heroic literature, hero, state interests, war, truth, writer, prose.
military heroic momyshuli literature
During the cruel war Bauyrzhan Momyshuly (=Momysh's son), who went against German fascists saying “Go into fire for the sake of the Motherland, and you will not burn”, “Care for your country, it will show your heroism” (proverbs have been translated literally), was an exemplary head for his warriors due to his courage, inventiveness, heroism, power of will, and winged ideas. Thanks to such wonderful personal traits he was able to become the division commander. After the war Bauyrzhan Momyshuly showed flair for literature, and performed a feat in this creative field. Bauyrzhan Momyshuly, the Hero of the Soviet Union, writer, famous warrior of the Second World War, military commander, strategist and tactician, took part in the Great Patriotic War in the famous division headed by the major-general I.V.Panfilov beginning from September 1941. He participated in the battle for Moscow 207 times, and saved his regiment from the foemen's surrounding 5 times. These feats have made him a legend.
As a writer Bauyrzhan Momyshuly was able to create literary works from his memories of the war, and great feats of his warriors. The popular book “Battle for Moscow” is evidence for that. This literary work is a big chronicle about the Great Patriotic War; it conveys the valiant spirit of the nation. One can see the powerful body of the warriors, energy and strength, unity and relativity of our nation, stamina of old and young commanders in Bauyrzhan Momyshuly's literature. There are various spiritual expressions of Bauyrzhan Momyshuly about the combat performers. The famous military commander could appreciate the behavior, discretion of the warriors, and their life-sacrificing feats. Due to this he could inspire them to accomplish great feats. Bauyrzhan Momyshuly was not only a strict military commander, but also a wise leader, attentive and expert, judicious and kind mentor for his warriors.
We all know that the famous Russian writer A. Bek in his narrative “The battle” (“Volokolamsk high road”) (the name has been literally translated) wrote about great feats of Bauyrzhan Momyshuly. “I have been in military field since I was 22. I spent 4 or 5 years of my life in the war. I wasn't a soviet officer. I was always at the front position both in the line and in the war. I always tried to socialize with my soldiers, and spend more time with them. I began my job as a combat performer and became a division commander for 15 thousand people.
My teachers were my colleagues at war, friends, and soldiers. They enriched my mind and understanding of the world.
In 1941 a journalist asked:
What kind of Academy did you graduate from?
I graduated from the folk academy.
Is there this kind of an academy?
My regiment is my academy. First I learn from it, and then teach it.
The journalist laughed, and expressed his understanding.
The people made me a human”, the Hero says, conferring the origin of his great personal traits to the people in his book “Untold truth” [2:16].
The literary works of Bauyrzhan Momyshuly such as “Officer's diary” (in Russian, Kalinin, 1952), “Panfilov General” (1963), “Warrior's personality” (1959), “A story of one night” (Kalinin, 1954), “Battle for Moscow” (1959) are wonderful works, which tell that you must first defeat yourself before you defeat the foemen. The heritage in the novel “A nest to fly from” is different to understand. These works written with flamy heart are eternal heritage. These creations of the hero will represent the historical evidence.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly graduated from the Higher Military Academy of the Main Headquarters of the Soviet Army after the Great Patriotic War (1950). He was engaged in military-pedagogical work, and was a teacher at the military academy of the Soviet Army. In 1955 the books “Cuba impressions” about his travel to Cuba, “Tolegen Toktarov”, etc. were published. The storybook “Zhonarka” was published in 1956.
During the war Bauyrzhan Momyshuly exchanged letters and ideas with significant public figures, and scientists. In his letters to the Kazakh scientists like Kanysh Satbayev, Mukhtar Auezov he expressed not only concern for the literature, but also for the nation's future.
During the war Bauyrzhan Momyshuly wrote letters to Kazakhstan saying that it is necessary to organize aytys (a song competition held between two aqyns), save national costumes, respect the older, care for the mothers, honor the fathers, etc. In his opinion, these inspire the nation. In March 1943 in his letter to N.Ondasynov, the Chairman of the Kazakh SSR Council of People's Commissars, Bauyrzhan Momyshuly said that he wanted to discuss the plan of the chapter in his manuscript “Kazakh traditions educating the fellows to become a warrior”. Having said these ideas Bauyrzhan Momyshuly in his book “The war does not forgive mistakes” says:
“However, out task has not completed. Giving the younger generation military and patriotic education is on top of the agenda. They must be aware of the hard past life of their grandparents and parents, respect their feats accomplished during the work and war. They must understand that their predecessors fought for the present peaceful and wealthy life, and that they must be always ready to protect it. The main task of the current literature is to educate the younger generation this way”, and pays a lot of attention to the military and patriotic education [3:260-261].
“We haven't written our books to praise the war during the war, now and in the future, but to convey the national feat to the younger generation, to develop the soviet patriotic tradition left by our predecessors, to educate the younger generation to be responsible everywhere, in any case for the Motherland, for the country, and we shall continue writing. We propagate peace and friendship in our books as it is possible”, B. Momyshuly says [3:289-290].
Not contented with the military literature works in Kazakhstan B. Momyshuly wrote “The book written with blood”. At the end of December 1943, having returned from the front, he held a discussion lecture based on the above mentioned book, which lasted for six days. He published the held discussion lecture in two volumes, gave one copy to K. Satbayev, and took the second to the front. In 1975 he gave the manuscript to M. Myrzakhmetuly, and the stenograph original of the discussion lecture was taken from the writer's archive (M. Auezov), and was first published as a book “War psychology” based on true war stories.
The book “War psychology” based on true war stories is the evidence that B. Momyshuly is a founder of the Kazakh military literature. Being the military commander he questioned himself what the peculiarities of a military literature work are, what kind of work can inspire the warriors, and tried to answer these questions. He gave recommendations to the writers, who wanted to write military literature works:
“I am saying again that it is very difficult to write on the war topic. The main strength and wealth of the army is the soldiers. That's why one should pay attention to teaching art, being a soldier, the survival in the war. Our soldiers are shown as too plain in the Kazakh press.
Neglecting the soldier or the person will not lead to something good. One should always respond to the soldier's requests. As writers deliver the spiritual weapons to the front, they must be responsible for the content of their work. The death of the soldier means that we have lost our wealth. That's why, protecting this wealth is the most important task.
In my “Letter to the writers” I wanted to say that the soldier is first of all a human being, and all the human features are characteristic to the soldier. The most dangerous weapon in the war is human soul, and the ordnance it need is spiritual inspiration. Understanding the soul system of this person needs complete understanding of its structure. Using and maintaining this weapon need the awareness of all its details; and the armory is fiery speech” [4:32].
B. Momyshuly showed directions to the writers, who wanted to create works on the topic of military and heroism, and strictly noted that one mustn't lie while writing works on the topic of the war. For example, “There are some works, that show the German as horrible beasts, but that's a lie, that's untrue. Second, in some works the German are shown as weak and coward, who escape as soon as our single warrior starts attacking. I haven't seen such German in two years. It is not good to show the enemy as a miserable creature and to conceal his martial spirit and fighting capability. One must tell the truth about the enemy. Only the true stories of the war can teach courage and revenge on the enemies” [4:43].
Alexander Bek started the heroic story of Bauyrzhan Momyshuly. The tradition continued with the works such as “Battle for Moscow”, “General Panfilov”, “A story of one night”, “Cuba troops”, “War psychology”, “The book written with blood” and Azilkhan Nurshaiykov's dialogic novel “Truth and Legend” [6:105].
What is the war? What happens during the war? How easy is it to get out of the trench, and attack the foemen? Can anybody be a hero? Alexander Bek's book “The battle” answers all these questions and describes Bauyrzhan Momyshuly's behaviour very well. The book is written in the form of the hero's stories told to the writer.
Alexander Bek's book conveys the details of the real war as deeply as possible. There is everything: cowardice, friendship, meanness, heroism, helplessness, hopes, doubts, and put it in a nutshell, all feelings that appear in the soul of the person in a desperate situation not on the screen, but in a real war - everything has been skillfully written. Telling the stories to Bek and looking at himself from the outside makes this truth deeper. Bek's one of the best works is “Volokolamsk high road” (1944). It narrates the hardest period of the Great Patriotic War and the heroism of Moscow protectors in 1941. The main antagonist of the work is Bauyrzhan Momyshuly, the famous son of the Kazakh nation, the battalion commander at that time, senior lieutenant. His national behavior and heroic activities have been deeply and finely described in the work. The work was published in Kazakh with the name “The Battle” (1948, 1959, 1977). It was translated into English, French, German, Arabic, Italian, Spanish, Jewish, Greek, Portuguese, Finnish (Suomi), and it is famous all over the world.
Azilkhan Nurshaiykov's “Truth and legend” is also an incomparable work. “First, I got to know the name of Bauyrzhan Momyshuly in Alexander Bek's narrative about Bauyrzhan's regiment, which was published in the editions 5 and 6 of the magazine “Znamya” of 1943. I spent my days and nights reading this book. The creation got me interested in the Hero; I respected and admired this person”, the author says. This way he describes how he began to admire the Hero and write the novel. Azilkhan Nurshaiykov's dialogic novel “Truth and legend” describes Bauyrzhan Momyshuly's, the famous hero, commander and writer's life story, which had been told by him, beginning from his childhood and ending with the death of general Panfilov, managing the division, and winning in the war. Azilkhan Nurshaiykov was awarded Abay State Award for this novel in 1980.
Bauyrzhan's proverbs and sayings are worth mentioning as well. They have been separately published in the press. For instance, the articles like “The hero's heritage”, “Bauyrzhan's winged sayings”, “Word diamonds”, etc. were published in the Kazakh language in several newspapers. The sayings in the Russian language had been collected by F.Orazbekova and A.Shaukhanova, and were published as a book “A deep trace of tulpar. Bauyrzhan Momyshuly: individual, warrior, wise man” in Almaty in 2006 [7-10].
Winged sayings do not appear in the air, and they cannot be said by anybody in this world. One has to be a wise man, deep thinker, big philosopher, poet with strong personality to have his words become winged. Bauyrzhan is such a person. His sayings are in different topics: war and peace, good behavior and upbringing, honor and duty, language and literature, customs and traditions, etc. Most of the sayings are connected with his own destiny. For example, “I am a reserved colonel, but I am not retired, I will serve my nation until I pass away”, Bauyrzhan said to us. That was his life's main credo; he has done so many advantageous deeds.
“Go into fire for the sake of the Motherland, and you will not burn”, “It's better to die standing straight than to be alive bending the knees” are some of the proverbs of Bauyrzhan Momyshuly, which became the credo of his life. The facts that he went to 207 battles, got injured and survived for several times, bowed his head to nobody but to his honour, cared for his nation and its future, understood the gravity of life, and his responsibility to the society - all these had been the source of all his proverbs. “I have always bowed my head to responsibility and honor”, B. Momyshuly said about his life. He gave more than thirty definitions of the word “honour”, and included them into the list of winged phrases. Not only the situations, that happened to him, but also the knowledge he gained during his life, his ideas about the future of his society, his feelings were reflected in his proverbs and sayings. Collecting those ideas, appointing them the level of proverbs, and leaving them as heritage for the future generation are due to the talent of such a person as Bauyrzhan Momyshuly. “The Kazakh language is a rich and beautiful language. That's why the soul of the Kazakh warrior fancies beautiful similes, winged phrases. A non-inspiring word is not heard. An inspiring word is used to motivate the warriors, and strengthen their honor”, the writer said, implying that the word is the writer's weapon, and it has to motivate. Only the motivating speech can inspire, strengthen the warriors.
Hero B. Momyshuly founded the Kazakh military-heroic literature by means of recommendations to the writers and truthful works.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly's literary works educating courage, love for the Motherland, feats will become a spiritual treasure for development of patriotism in future warriors and soldiers.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly “B.M.” / Бауыржан Момышулы «Б. М.» Алматы «Жазушы» 1968 ж. Алгы сез.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly “Untold truth” / Бауыржан Момышулы «Айтылмаган акикат» 2-кітап, Алматы «внер» 2009ж. Офицердщ майдан дзптерінен.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly “The war does not forgive mistakes” / Б. Момышулы «Согыс кателікті кешірмейді» Алматы «внер» 2009 ж.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly “The book written with blood” / Б. Момышулы «^анмен жазылган кітап» Алматы «^азакстан» 1991 ж. «Согыс психологиясы»
Azilkhan Nurshaiykov “Bozdaktar” / Эзшхан Нуршайыков «Боздактар» Алматы «Санат» 2005 ж.
“Meeting Bauyrzhan” / «Бауыржанмен білісу»
Azilkhan Nurshaiykov “Truth and legend” / Нуршайыков Э. «Акикат пен ацыз» Алматы «Жазушы» 2009ж.
F. Orazbekova, A. Shaukhanov “A deep trace of tulpar. Bauyrzhan Momyshuly: individual, warrior, wise man”. / Оразбекова Ф., Шауханов А. «Глубокий след тулпара. Бауыржан Момышулы: личность,воин,мудрец» Алматыда кітап., 2006 ж.
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