Management of business conflicts in educational institutions
Presented of analysis of scientific views on the definition of the concept of "conflict" and "business conflict". Given structure of business conflicts and recommendations for improving the management of business conflicts in educational institutions.
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South-Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K.D. Ushynsky
Management of business conflicts in educational institutions
Oleg Dolzhenkov head of educational management and public administration Department, Doctor of political science, Docent
The article analyzes the problem of managing business conflicts in educational institutions. An analysis of scientific views on the definition of the concept of «conflict» and «business conflict» is presented. Specific features of inner conflicts in educational institutions are disclosed. The peculiarities of the structure of business conflicts, the dynamics of their development, and recommendations for improving the management of business conflicts in educational institutions are given.
Key words: educational institution, management in educational institution, sphere of education, conflict, conflict situation, business conflict, conflict dynamics, stages of conflict, management of business conflict.
Олег Долженков завідувач кафедри освітнього менеджменту та публічного управління Південноукраїнського національного педагогічного університету імені К.Д. Ушинського, д.політ.н., доцент
УПРАВЛІННЯ ДІЛОВИМИ КОНФЛІКТАМИ У ЗАКЛАДАХ ОСВІТИ
Сфера управління закладами освіти характеризується насиченістю людськими ресурсами, що часто призводить до суперечності інтересів як окремих людей, так великих і малих груп. Конфліктна ситуація - це взаємодія конфліктуючих сторін, викликаних інцидентом або приводом.
Зазначається, що діловий конфлікт, як і соціальний, складається і вирішується в конкретній ситуації у зв язку з виникненням проблеми, що вимагає вирішення; обидва конфлікти мають певні причини, своїх носіїв, володіють певними функціями, тривалістю і рівнем гостроти. Однак на відміну від соціального, діловий конфлікт виникає лише у випадку, коли зачіпають професійні інтереси. Структура конфлікту - це сукупність його стійких зв'язків, що забезпечують цілісність, тотожність самому собі, відмінність від інших явищ соціального життя. Без наявності цих зв'язків конфлікт не може існувати як динамічно взаємозалежна система і процес.
Можна виокремити наступні періоди і етапи в динаміці ділового конфлікту: виникнення об'єктивної проблемної ситуації; усвідомлення об'єктивної проблемної ситуації суб'єктами взаємодії; спроби сторін розв'язати об'єктивну проблемну ситуацію неконфліктними способами; виникнення передконфліктної ситуації; інцидент - перше зіткнення сторін; ескалація конфлікту; збалансована протидія; завершення конфлікту; часткова і повна нормалізація відносин опонентів.
Управління діловими конфліктами у сфері освіти передбачає три етапи роботи з діловим конфліктом: визнання реальних причин конфлікту сторонами / однією стороною; легітимізація конфлікту - досягнення згоди між учасниками конфлікту стосовно визнання встановлених правил конфліктної взаємодії; інституціоналізація конфлікту - створення відповідних органів щодо регулювання конфліктної взаємодії.
Можна виокремити такі поведінкові тактики менеджера освіти: розв'язання конфлікту на основі його сутності та змісту; розв'язання конфлікту з урахуванням його цілей; розв'язання конфлікту з урахуванням його функцій; розв'язання конфлікту з урахуванням емоційно-пізнавального стану учасників; розв'язання конфлікту з урахуванням властивостей його учасників; розв'язання конфлікту з урахуванням його можливих наслідків; розв'язання конфлікту з урахуванням етики стосунків конфліктуючих сторін.
Спираючись на вищепроведене дослідження, було розроблено систему методичних рекомендацій щодо управління діловими конфліктами у закладах освіти.
Ключові слова: освітній заклад, управління освітнім закладом, сфера освіти, конфлікт, конфліктна ситуація, діловий конфлікт, динаміка конфлікту, стадії конфлікту, управління діловим конфліктом.
The dynamics of development of educational sphere throughout last years shows some drastic alternations that take place. The sphere of management of educational institutions is characterized by a saturation with human resources, that often results in contradiction of interests between separate persons, as well as large and small groups. For quick and, at the same time, effective resolution of such problems a manager should posess theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the sphere of a complex decision of business conflicts.
Actuality of this issue is predefined проблеми by the fact that researches of business conflicts in the sphere of the management of educational institutions up to this time has had mainly situative character. According to this, research of theoretical aspects connected with the features of managing business conflicts is a necessity. business conflict educational
The aim of this article is an attempt to analyse the features of business conflicts in the field of the educational management, and also clarification of structure of business conflict in educational institutions
with their further systematization. The achievement of this aim envisages the decision of the following tasks :
• to analyse concepts of «conflict» and «business conflict», and also scientific approaches to the studying of business conflicts in the field of the management of educational institutions;
• to define the structure of business conflict;
• to systematize business conflicts in the field of the management of of educational institutions;
• to work out the system of methodical recommendations for the resolution of business conflicts in the field of the management of educational institutions.
Research methods. For realization of aim and tasks of research has been used the complex of interactive methods, namely: analysis and synthesis, that expose a meaning and basic features of concepts and categories which are used, and concept of «conflict» and «business conflict» in particular; the comparative method and comparison of different views of scientific schools was applied for the selection of features of business conflicts and determination of their structure. Application of methods of classification and systematization allowed to distinguish certain recommendations for resolution of business conflicts in the sphere of the management of educational institutions.
During the last years the sufficient amount of interesting and important researches is conducted in relation to the problems of business conflicts. There is a prooved increase of interest for the study of problem of conflict, however as yet a systematic research in separate directions is insufficient.
From the scientific point of view the problem of starting and development of business conflicts was researched by such scientists as: V. Andrianov, А. Bandurina, B. White, А. Dmitrieva, V. Druzhinina, Y Zaprudskiy, A. Kitov, H. Kornelius, N. Kroshus, V. Kudryavtseva, К. Levin, G. Lozhkin, D. Mayers, J. Piapoe, O. Sannikova, V. Semichenko, J. Scott, S. Fayre and others.
Before examining the features of business conflicts in educational institutions, it worth to mention that there are plenty of theories and wide range of approaches to concepts of «conflict» and «business conflict».
For the first time concept of «conflict» as multilevel social phenomenon was studied by Adam Smith in his famous work «Research about nature and reasons of riches of nations». A. Smith examined conflicts between opposing social classes as a source of development of society [12, p. 18].
Later W. Fisher determined a conflict a state of shock and disorganization in comparison with previous development that is the generator of new structures [14, p. 83].
Founder of independent direction in the study of conflicts in American sociology and conflictology W. Lincoln considered conflict from the position of pragmatism. In his opinion, a conflict is understanding, imagination or realizing by any single side the fact that other side or sides ignore or violate its interests [10, p. 105].
А. Antsupov determines a conflict through the selection of the stages of conflict: the base-line state, pre-conflict state, conflict state, transitional state, state of fixing of result of conflict [1, p. 56].
Kravchenko characterizes a conflict as situation in which the oppositely directed forces of approximately equal size influence on an individual simultaneously [8, p. 105].
D. Zelke worked out the theory of social conflict, according to which, a conflict is a fight around the values and solicitations caused by the deficit of status, power and tools, in which aims of opponents are being neutralized by their rivals [7, p. 111].
Thus, a conflict is the very difficult social and psychological phenomenon, successful study of which greatly depends on quality of methodological and theoretical pre-conditions and methods that is used.
Provided the general description of conflict, it seems necessary to precise such concepts as a «social conflict», «business conflict», «conflict situation».
In the sociological dictionary of YBabosov the completest determination of social conflict is given: a social conflict is a case of maximum intensication of social contradictions, that is expressed in the conflict of interests of different social associations, - classes, nations, states, different social groups, and institutes, caused by opposition or difference of their interests, aims, progress trends» .
Analysing scientific works related to origin and features of conflict situations, it could be generalized, that a conflict situation is interaction of the conflicting parties caused by an incident or occasion. A conflict situation is begun with an occasion. At the same time, an occasion is external, well realized reason of conflict. An occasion comes out in the form of claims.
N. Grishina points out that business conflict has a subject-object contradiction is the basis. Contradictions can exist for the long period and not to come out in a conflict. It is therefore necessary to consider that only incompatible contradictions, based on interests, necessities and values, could lie in basis conflict. Such contradictions, as a rule, are transformed in the open fight of parties, in the real opposing. Thus, a business conflict is the conflict based on contradictions directly in the sphere of professional activity [3, p. 305].
Therefore, a business conflict, as well as social, is unfolded and resolved in a certain situation connected with the origin of problem that requires a decision; both types of conflict have certain reasons, transmitters, own certain functions, duration and level of sharpness. However unlike social, a business conflict arises up only in the case when professional interests are at stake. At the same time, a conflict situation is only the fragment of conflict, episode of its development. However, sometimes the structure of conflict can be examined according to the structure of conflict situation.
Taking into account the above-mentioned, it is necessary to determine the structure of business conflict. With reference to scientific views of A. Dontsova, a structure of business conflict is the following:
1. Basic participants of conflict are those subjects of conflict, that directly act against each other. Opposite parties are a key link of conflict. When one of parties goes out of a conflict, then it ceases. It is also possible to mark a side that began a conflict - initiator, but in the protracted conflicts, doing it is more difficult. In a business conflict one distinguish important description of opponent - level. It is a level of possibilities of opponent from realization of the aims in a conflict, that is expressed in influentialness of his structure and connections, skill and ability, its social experience of conflict interaction.
2. Groups of support. Such participants, that is present in any conflict and can be represented by friends, colleagues and others like that.
3. Other participants of conflict are subjects that influence on course and results of conflict. Instigators and organizers could be mentioned here. Sometimes participants of conflict include mediators. The basic task of such third party is stopping the conflict.
4. The reason of conflict is existing problem that serves as basis of conflict, a reason for different parties for contradiction and entering into opposition.
5. The object of conflict can be a material, social or spiritual value, to possession or use of which both opponents aimed.
6. Micro- and macroenvironment of conflict are circumstances in which the participants of conflict operate. Taking into account surroundings of participants of conflict at micro- and macroenvironment level allows to understand their real aims, reasons of parties, and also their dependence on this environment [5, p. 211].
Furthermore, a structure of conflict is totality of its features that provide integrity, equality to the itself, difference from other phenomena of social life. Without the presence of these features a conflict can not exist as dinamically interdependent system and process.
In his turn, А. Drunie marks that an important aspect in a managing business conflicts resolution is their dynamics. It is necessary to point out that beginning of conflict can be fixed as the first acts of counteraction of parties. For starting of conflict three obligatory conditions taken together are needed: the first participant consciously acts against the second participant; the second participant realizes that that actions are directed against his interests; therefore he begins corresponding actions against the first participant. However, if the first side began aggressive actions, and second - remain in passive position, then a conflict will not take place .
Analysing scientific work of D. Johnson, it is possible to distinguish the following periods and stages in the dynamics of business conflict:
І.the Latent (pre-conflict) period includes such stages:
1. Origin of objective problem situation. Essence of such situation is in the origin of contradiction between subjects (by their aims, reasons, aspirations and other like that). Such situation is a problem in interaction but that contradiction is not yet realized and conflict actions are absent. A feature is that most problem situations exist for a long time, not coming out.
2. Realization of objective problem situation by the subjects of interaction. Essence of this stage is in that the subjects of conflict understand the necessity of resolution of contradiction. Subjective perception of problem situation is an obstacle for realization of interests by both parties of conflict. Mostly, exact social divergences of participants are the basis of subjectivity of perception of situation. To this category belong values, ideals and interests. On complication of situation speed of development and probability of distortion of events depend by opponents.
3. Attempts of parties to resolve an objective problem situation using unconflict methods. Contradiction of conflict situation is not pre-condition of conflict interaction of parties. Sometimes the subjects of conflict try to apply unconflict methods: persuasion, elucidation, request, informing. On this stage an argumentation takes place, expressing own interests and fixing of the position.
4. The origin of pre-conflict situation is characterized as a presence of threat for one of parties of conflict. The actions of opponent must be regarded as an instant danger, that assist to development of situation toward a conflict.
II. An open period (period of conflict interaction) or actually conflict includes the next stages:
1. An incident is the first collision of parties.
2. Escalation of conflict. This stage is characterized by sharp intensification of struggle between opponents.
3. Balanced interaction. On this stage activity of parties to resolve the conflict conflict becomes less intensive. Parties see unefficiency of power methods for the achievement of consent.
4. Completion of conflict. The basic difference of this stage from other consists in a transition from conflict interaction to stopping of conflict. Completion of conflict shows up in such forms: decision, settlement, fading, removal, outgrowing in other conflict.
III. Postconflict period. This period consists of two stages: partial and complete normalization of relations between opponents [4, p. 55-56].
Above-mentioned periods and stages, that characterize the dynamics of business conflict help to understand that as well as other types of conflicts, a business conflict means the collision of sides. However a main difference is that opposition and cooperation of certain target group are taking place. The dynamics of business conflict in educational institutions represent the realized contradiction between the members of corresponding collective, that aspires to the emotional decision in a situation that was folded in interorganizational space.
It should be noticed that a business conflict is a conflict between subjects, that relate to educational institutions, and could be ordinary employee or leaders. Also the participants of business conflict can be separate subdivisions and organizations that connected with the sphere of education.
Therefore unlike other types of conflicts, namely business conflicts in educational institutions are bearing certain features. Firstly, there are differences of the functional systems of educational institutions. In comparing to society educational institutions is more local system. Exactly within the limits of such system there are rules, standards, well-regulated processes that come forward as mechanisms of coordinated behavior. Exactly this feature gives an opportunity for prognostication of conflict situations and reliable application of measures of preventive character. Secondly, important is a role- play structure of educational institutions and its workers. Everybody, in order to achieve certain goal in professional field, pulls out on the first plan professional qualities and inner position. In other words, the role of worker appears in organization, id est set of the expected behavioural stereotypes related to implementation of certain work. Thirdly, for a managing business conflicts in the field of education methods of management of personnel are important. The effective management of educational institutions requires precise application of methods, but development of organizational structure - general system of methods by means of which educational institution conducts distribution of labour process on separate tasks and arrives at co-ordination between these tasks. On the method of implementation of tasks in organization, it worth to mention the horizontal and vertical organizational structure of educational institutions. On the basis of horizontal differentiation is conducted the implementation of different tasks in relation to activity of or educational institution after distribution and grouping according to certain principles. The types of horizontal differentiation shows different tasks, for example implementation of work, promotion of educational services, choosing consumers of educational services, at the place of location of educational institution or its separate subdivision. Also educational institutions have vertical distribution. Vertical differentiation is determined by the number of levels of authority, division of administrative specialities. Exactly vertical differentiation influences on satisfaction of stuff of educational institutions.
It is also necessary to mark that managing business conflicts in the field of the management of educational institutions envisages three stages of work with a business conflict: confession of the real reasons of conflict parties / by one side; legitimization of conflict is an achievement of consent between the participants of conflict in relation to confession of the set rules of conflict interaction; institualization of conflict is creation of corresponding bodies in order to adjust conflict interaction. [13, p. 7].
It is worth to mention that namely the stage of institutialisation is one of basic, in fact on this very stage the mechanism of adjusting of conflict that will be based on clear principles and realized by means of the worked out technologies is being created. Institualisation of conflict for the managers of education can serve as the measure of preventive character. Because such conflicts are predictable, id est it is possible to look after development of that. The process of institutialisation of conflict interaction consists of next stages: structuting of groups (resolving question of accordance of behavior to the transmitters of opposite interests) and reduction of conflict (gradual lowering of conflict by its translation on another level) .
For business conflicts in the sphere of education destructive consequences are inherent, that is why it is necessary for an effective management to be able to diagnose the dynamics of conflict development, work out strategy of actions and provide it by means of certain technological receptions, such as: comprehension of conflict; working out a conflict management; creating a mechanism of inhibition; creation of technologies of managing a conflict.
Analysing the above-mentioned, we underline certain basic principles of managing business conflicts exactly in ithe sphere of education :
• determination of reasons and pre-conditions of origin of conflict situation;
• strategically shaping an approach to management and resolution of business conflict;
• analysis of existing tools for resolution of conflict and choosing the most effective ones;
• structurisation of subjects of conflict for an objective management and prevention of destructive consequences of the conflict.
An important role in resolution of business conflicts in educational institutions is played by a leader. It is related to the fact that difficulties of management in educational institutions in a crisis situation has double character. Firstly, constant implementation of new educational technologies; secondly, periodical intensifying of the problems related to interpersonal communication inside of pedagogical collective.
For overcoming of business conflicts that arise up on such soil, a manager of educational institution must be the neutral organizer of problem decision and adjusting dialogue. It is necessary to mark that the managers of educational institutions can make errors and most of them are ignoring conflicts that arise up in a collective, or applicating erroneous actions (superfluously critical estimation of events, permanent ignoring of interests of workers, producing of enormous amount of claims, and others like that). Such errors take place in that case, when a manager applies incongruous instruments for the settlement of conflict.
If manager of educational institution has the goal to influence effectively the resolution of conflicts in a collective, then it is necessary to memorize that strategic interference in the process of management should be carried out according to the following postulates: gaining authority at parties; determination of mutual relations between parties; support of equilibrium of parties; creation of «optimal» level of intensivity of conflict; differentiation of necessity of interference in the conflict; working out in detail of conflict; confrontation; synthesis; determination of procedures of achievement of compromise for both sides, assistance to permanent progress.
For the effective resolution of business conflicts in the sphere of education, it is necessary for the manager or head of an educational institution to apply the extended arsenal of methods of management conflicts. According to tools of conflict resolution we can differ the structural and interpersonal groups of methods. To the structural methods of conflict resolution we can attribute elucidation of requirements to work, using of co-ordinating and integration mechanisms, setting of common aims and use of the system of rewards. Interpersonal methods of conflict resolution in the sphere of educational management are the following: rejection, smoothing, compulsion, compromise, decision of problem [9, p. 39-40].
There are five existing basic styles of conflict resolution, based on the method of Thomas-Killmen. The system allows to work out individual style of conflict resolution. Such possibility exists because basic styles of behavior during a conflict are related to the general source - divergence of interests of two or more parties. Style of behavior of one of parties of conflict will be determined by measures that individual aims to satisfy his own interests and interests of opposite side (parties). The method of Thomas-Killmen envisages the next styles of conflict resolution:
1. Style of competition. Such style is effective only in case when one of the parties of conflict knows that its decision is correct. And in that case it has the opportunity to insist on it.
2. Style of avoidance is being used in case when for one of the parties of conflict the meaning of a problem is not important and it has no desire to spend resources on its decision.
3. Style of adaptation will be useful if a business result is extraordinarily important for one of the parties of conflict.
4. Style of collaboration one of the hardest because requires a true collaboration. Both sides must be able to expound the necessities, hear each other and only then to lay down the alternative options of problem resolution. Such approach immediately becomes uneffective as soon as there is absent any of these elements [11, p. 56].
Analysing different approaches, principles, methods, postulates that are used for the resolution of business conflicts in educational institutions, it is impossible to find the only perfect way of conflict resolution. More promising apptoach is to investigate technologies of managing conflicts.
A successful management of conflict situations in the sphere of education is possible by developing relevant tactics, that will take into account the features of conflict. An important aspect is a search of general tangencies in interests of opponents. In fact this process is bilateral and turns out to be impossible in case of unwillingness (refuses) of opponents. It is important to discuss a problem objectively, finding out the essence of business conflict. In fact the successful search of method of resolution of problem in majoritymostly depends on ability of both sides to see the main and think structurally. For a leader it is important to choose optimal strategy of resolution of conflict situation that meets these circumstances.
For the foresight of development and management of a conflict, it is needed to thoroughly conduct the analytical stage - to investigate the object of conflict, opponents, reasons and direct occasion, that caused a conflict, social environment, secondary reflection. Only after the objective analysis of situation it is necessary to speculate on the options and ways of conflict resolution and to define necessary steps. It is also necessary to understand clearly the development of events as a result of choice of certain strategy and choose the latter according to the most favorable expected result.
Giving prognosis on the development of events after the choice of strategy is possible using criteria of resolution of business conflict. Here one could refer to: legal forms, moral principles, opinion of authoritative persons, precedents of decision of analogical problems in the past. Realization of selected strategy takes place according to the select method.
Analysing all abovementioned about the resolution of business conflicts in the sphere of the management of educational institution, it is possible to outline possible tactics of manager of education : resolution of conflict on the basis of its essence; a resolution of conflict on the basis of its aims; resolution of conflict on the basis of its functions; resolution of conflict on the basis of emotionally- cognitive state of participants; resolution of conflict on the basis of properties of its participants; resolution of conflict on the basis of its possible consequences; resolution of conflict on the basis of ethics of relations between rival parties.
Leaning on that research, the system of methodical recommendations was worked out regarding management of business conflicts in educational instiyutions: to do public statements that one of parties of conflict wants to stop escalation of conflict; to conduct elucidation, according to the pre-arranged steps for normalization of relations between parties of conflict; to induce opponents to the exchange acts that will assist the resolution of situation; to conduct preventive events with explanation, that business conflicts are uneffective for all their participants, to specify on reliable consequences; to offer strategies of decision and ways of stopping of business conflicts.
As a result of analysis, we came to the next conclusions: firstly, a concept «business» is investigated enough in socio-humanitarian sciences, also modern scientific literature holds in a spotlight the different aspects of business conflicts. The analysis of approaches to resolution of conflict showed that a business conflict is the conflict based on contradictions directly in the field of professional activity. Furhthermore, a business conflict is being unfolded and resolved in a certain professional situation in touch with the origin of professional problem and has certain reasons, transmitters, owns certain functions, duration and measure of sharpness. The analysis of features of business conflicts in the field of the management of educational institutions gives an opportunity to understand that the difference of business conflicts from other types of conflict is determined by three basic moments : by the differences of the functional systems of educational institution; by the role-play structure of educational institution and by methods of management a personnel.
Taking into account realities of public life, it was certain that a process of management a business conflict is a purposeful influence on the dynamics of conflict. An administrative process includes the certain types of activity, such as a prophylaxis and prevention of origin of business conflicts, diagnostics and adjusting of conflict, prognostication of development of conflicts and estimation their functional orientation and possible consequences, process of resolution of conflict. There is plenty of methods and technologies of a managing and resolving business conflicts. It is crucial for leaders in the sphere of education to master on general rules, principles and recommendations for effective application in case conflict situation evolved. Professionalism in making a decision in conflict situations will give possibility to the managers of educational sphere to regulate structurally conflict interaction and to use principles of effective interpersonal business communication.
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Six principles of business etiquette survival or success in the business world. Punctuality, privacy, courtesy, friendliness and affability, attention to people, appearance, literacy speaking and writing as the major commandments of business man.
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M.A. Rothschild is a German banker and the founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty, business leader, which is believed to have become the wealthiest family in human history. A brief sketch of his life and career. Main stages of empire building.
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