Activation plan for ‘mapo’ water retarding basin change from closed place to open space
The containment reservoir is where water accumulates during the flood season, one of the facilities that are absolutely essential for the proper functioning of every city. Use of this type of site as an open public space, regardless of water filling.
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Activation plan for `mapo' water retarding basin change from closed place to open space
HKNU, Anseong, Republic of Korea
The retarding basin is a place where water is stored at flood season and one of the facilities that are absolutely required for proper drainage of every city. Since water is flowing down naturally along the topography of the downtown area, and many lakes are built between the terrains. When the basin is closed to the public, Water reservoirs were not being connected with people. With the viewpoint of the design concept that the dark reservoir should be open space for people, we proposed to provide a cultural space for the public.
Keyword: public space, parking tower, water, media center, retarding basin.
Чун Соун, Чан Цзихюк, Чо Ёнхун
ГУХК, г. Ансон, Республика Корея
ПЛАН АКТИВАЦИИ ПРЕДОХРАНЯЮЩЕГО РЕЗЕРВУАРА "МАПО" ПЕРЕХОД ОТ ЗАКРЫТОГО ПОМЕЩЕНИЯ К ОТКРЫТОМУ ПРОСТРАНСТВУ
Предохраняющий резервуар - место, где в сезон наводнения скапливается вода, а также это один из объектов, которые абсолютно необходимы для надлежащего функционирования каждого города. Когда такие резервуары закрыты для общественности, то между водохранилищами и населением не происходит контакт. Мы же предлагаем использовать данный тип участка, как открытое публичное пространство, независимо от того наполнен он водой в определенный период времени или нет.
Ключевые слова: общественное пространство, стоянка, вода, медиа-центр, замедляющий бассейн. containment reservoir water
Many retarding basins were built in Seoul. However, the main functions of these basins are limited to contain water at flood season only and are not used for various purposes i.e. for citizen's water park at normal season. The water from the highlands flows into the `Han-gang' river and that water is not utilized for other functions. In this regard, the retarding basins are perceived only as an abomination and odor facility by people, therefore they occupy the basement in the center of the city, no one is interested in its function, the contained water does not flow along the city merrily, so it is limited only to places where the water is closed as a heavy water reservoir, and flowed into the big river as soon as possible without being used for city's pleasant lives. The purpose of this study is to Therefore, the researchers selected a public parking lot which contains a water retarding basin below at `Mapo ', the lowest point of Seoul and proposed this dark reservoir to be opened to public open space where many cultural activities took place and water flows merrily between these open cultural spaces with high-rise parking lot.
1) The public lands are not connected each other; Public lands are facilities that are aligned by surrounding infrastructures in the city center as Table 1, which are parks, plazas, roads, rivers, streets, lakes, etc.. But these facilities have been expanded quantitatively rather than quality and have been designed by management conveniences rather than by user centered viewpoint during rapid economic growth period in Korea. But, these days the welfare expansion time has come, the qualitative aspects of public space are becoming more important in everyday life, the reason of these phenomena lies at the point where people's meeting places are generally these public areas and main communications are happened at these public places also. Therefore, future urban architectures and facilities are expected to be improved qualitatively in overcoming the above problems of public spaces.
Table 1. Public areas classification of urban infrastructure
2) Inefficient use of water retarding basin area pointed by previous researches; As every other cities in Korea, it is quite difficult to secure a land of water retarding basins at central part of city because of high price of land. Therefore, it is also strongly recommended to use this land as multi functioning for business promotion by the combined use with other facilities, and this is the proper orientation of big city like Seoul which can be responded to various social demands within the limited and high priced land. As Table 2 shows, many water retarding basins still occupy large land areas and covered with public green park or public parking lots, not with complex development. So, we suggest that these kinds of inefficiency shall be avoided at future, and considering the high land prices in Seoul, there is a need to explore new uses for thinking differently.
Table 2. Basic utilization Direction of Retarding Basin at Seoul
Basic Utilization Direction
Geumho, Jangan, Myeonmok
Oksu, Mapo, Mokdong, Gaebong2, Heukseok
With these viewpoints, this researcher selected the public parking lot which contains water retarding basin below at `Mapo', the lowest point of Seoul. A wide public parking lot that does not fit the urban structure of central part in the city needs to be changed with the enhancement and densification of the urban structure. Inefficient, the flat ground level and too large parking lots should be activated with introducing complex facilities which contains various utilities for citizens. The advantage of the present site is that citizens can approach `Hangang' river park easily through `Mapo' food street and `Mapo' forest park, and that citizens can enjoy a rolling walking office street when they walk down to `Mapo-daegyo' bridge from `Gyeongui- seon' railway line, but, this advantage of urban life and the pedestrian flow are broken by `Gangbook-gangbyeonro' city's outer vehicle circulation line which were only designed for the vehicle's convenience. Therefore, this plan intends to culturally connect the pedestrian flow that has been disconnected by the above reason with combining culture facilities into the basin.
Figure 1. Present condition of water flow at Retarding Basin
Figure 2. Site Analysis
Seoul `Mapo' Public Parking _ Current Status of Retarding Basin; As shown in Figure 2, the water coming from the highlands flows to `Hangang' river through this basin, but when the amount of rainfall increases, the basin door facing `Hangang' river is closed, and the water coming down from the highland will become high in the basin until the water level of `Hangang' river drops.
Suggestion of public water space - cultural approach to public lands; Currently `Mapo-gu' area in Seoul has the largest cultural exchange place with citizens. Therefore, this researcher suggests that a place of opportunity for marginalized cultural artists should be provided through public support system in this closed place like water retarding basin. These newly providing public facilities can be the beginning of society's early artists and if they are put together in an area where cultural activities are active at such as `Mapo-gu', this area can achieve a proper balance without further separation.
Figure 3. Activities of culture and art
Figure 4. Future of water retarding basin
At present, the basin is covered with concrete structure of parking lot. This concrete structure covered and closed basin should be opened and rebirth as a public place of culture and community through the high density utilization of land and the regeneration of mixed use, not being a place of abandonment of odor facilities to people and not being a concrete mass made by the poor need of the age when everything was insufficient just after Korean War of 1950. And the waterways in city, which were buried under the concrete cover in the urgency time of industrial development at 60-70s, should be opened and become a vital link again in the form of circulation with going more actively from city to city and from building to exterior, as we have already experienced in the `Cheong- gyecheon' streaming restoration project.
1) Plan; Rainwater is not dumped but flowed into the building and led to the outer space and flowed to the `Hangang' river finally. The flow of water can be seen inside at central part and exhibition space of the building as each water plant. The lower (1st ~ 3rd) floors are divided into communal spaces and communal spaces as indoor gardens and community rooms. The upper (4th ~ 6th) floors were designed as spaces for the activities of alienated cultural artists, the exhibition spaces are planned as vertical division not as horizontal division, and according to each exhibition situation the stairs can be prevented from going in and out. The inside of the exhibition hall was treated as a solid space, and each exterior was treated as a void space in order to give light to small space. The flow of rainwater inside the building is as shown in Fig. 7, and according to such a vertical form, the exhibition space as shown in Fig. 8 is formed. The reservoir basin of rainwater continues to be utilized and descends deeper into the basement and the original basin level is utilized as an underground space where visitors can experience and enjoy the water as each exhibition hall and rest area.
Figure 5. Floor plan 2nd-3rd, 4th
Figure 6. Floor plan of 5th and 6th
Figure 7. Utilization of water building
Figure 8. Form of vertical exhibition space
Figure 9. Water space at underground
2) Retarding basin and urban planning; The public land, which was occupied by abandoned open space and parking lots and was separated with the urban context, is newly connected with the existing media center and is connected to the big stream of `Hangang' river with water flow inside and outside of newly introduced complex building as cultural element of city. This newly created complex, which was changed from the minimum needing urban facility at poor time to the culturally fluent building at economically rich time as public green area, can be said to non-artificial building which is assimilated with nature and can be shared with public.
Figure 10. Final proposal of section
3) Limitation of this research; Each pumping station could not be utilized efficiently and it was very sorry that the pumping station could not be put into the building and that the digging down from the existing underground level was more expensive than constructing a new structure.
Figure 11. Master Plan
1. Seung-Kwan Baek and Young-Hoon Kim, Case study on the development of residential area using and water retarding basin, 2015, Auric
2. Sangmin Lee et.al. A Study on the Improvement of System for Integrated Planning of Urban Public Space, 2008, Auric
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