History of medicine

Medicine in Ancient Civilization. The medical school in Athens and in other cities. Hippocrates – "the father of Medicine". The study of anatomy for over a thousand years. Exploring the human body by artists such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci.

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Vitebsk State Medical University


“History of medicine”

Medical Faculty

first year student

group №29

Lizaveta Talstaya

Vitebsk 2016


1. Medicine in Ancient Civilization

2. Hippocrates - “the Father of Medicine”

3. Medicine in the Middle Ages

4. Discoveries


1. Medicine in Ancient Civilization

Early man was prone to sickness and death. His life was dangerous and difficult. Medicine developed slowly. Centuries passed before people began to study the anatomy of the animals they killed.

The ancient Egyptians were the earliest civilized people in the world. They studied the human body.

Primitive Indians in Mexico have used drugs to treat diseases.

In Peru and India was very well developed surgery. Amputations were common in these countries.

Medicine in China began about 2600 B.C. The Chinese often use acupuncture. The Chinese also discovered about two thousand drugs.

In the period from 5000 B C medical knowledge spread from Egypt to Greece, where they got even greater development. The Greeks knew how to stop the bleeding, can diagnose the disease. These great philosophers like Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were associated with the development of science and medicine in Greece.

Bowl of Aesculapius, the snake-entwined, is still the symbol of medicine.

2. Hippocrates - “the Father of Medicine”

Hippocrates was born in 460 BC on the island of Kos. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine. It is known that he has won the plague in Athens.

Hippocrates was known as an excellent doctor and a professor of medicine. He created a medical school in Athens and in other cities. Hippocrates was the author of hundreds or more books that describe their ideas, methods and medical procedures. Hippocrates taught his students that need to very carefully examine the patient to ensure his prompt assistance. He taught that each disease was a natural process, and it was natural causes. Hippocrates treatment of disease through exercise, massage, baths with salt water, diet.

He researched diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and malaria. Hippocrates added to the medical language such words as chronic, crisis, convalescence and relapse.

Hippocrates made medicine, art, science and profession.

Hippocrates is the most famous of all the doctors. It is often called the "father of medicine", and some of his ideas are still important.

Doctors in many countries take the Hippocratic oath. This is a collection of promises, written by Hippocrates, who are the backbone of the medical code of honor. The Hippocratic Oath contains many of its basic ideas and principles.

3. Medicine in the Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, people are trying to protect their health. For this purpose, they used some of the most important methods period. But an epidemic of diphtheria, typhoid fever, leprosy, influenza, bubonic plague and other diseases, "took away" millions of lives.

Leprosy has been expanded for hundreds of years. Lepers settle in special apart from other colonies. This was an important step forward in the field of public health at the time.

In 1348, the death of "Black Death", "attacked" in the UK: no one knew how to "fight" with the disease. Doctors advise people to "flee from the affected areas." Everyone thought that the plague - the punishment for "God" for the "sins" of man.

A very important event in the Middle Ages was the opening of hospitals. They appeared at the beginning of the fifth century in India, Italy, France, England, Spain and other European countries.

In addition, in the Middle Ages began to appear Medical University, where students are trained in the biological sciences, they studied the human body and certain diseases. Many of the great European universities were founded in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

4. Discoveries

medicine hippocrates anatomy body

Even in Roman times, people were afraid of dead bodies. Autopsy, ie cutting the body to learn more about the different parts and how they work, it was prohibited by law and religion. This delayed the study of anatomy for over a thousand years.

The first attempt to explore the human body was made by artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo carefully studied the shape of the bones and muscles. Furthermore, it dismembered body more than thirty bodies painted and many internal organs, veins and arteries.

Seventeenth century

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

In 1675 invented the microscope and observed bacteria and protozoa. These discoveries helped to understand and study the human body

Eighteenth century

sea surgeon James Lind

discovered ways to treat scurvy.

anatomist John Hunter

became known as the founder of scientific surgery.

doctor Laennec

the invention of the stethoscope, extended the development of physical diagnosis.

Edward Jenner

In 1776 he opened the vaccination against smallpox.

Sir Humphrey Davy

In 1779 discovered that nitrous oxide, or «laughing gas», helped to relieve pain when breathed into the lungs and could make people temporarily unconscious.

Nineteenth century

Surgeon John Warren

in 1846, he spent throat surgery patient using ether as an anesthetic.

In 1847, it was found that chloroform can ease the pain of childbirth.

French chemist, physicist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur

He discovered fermentation and developed the process of pasteurization.

Hermann von Helmholtz

in 1850 he invented the ophthalmoscope


In 1895 he discovered X-rays

Twentieth Century

Karl Landsteiner

In 1901 he opened his blood group.

Sir Frederick Banting

In 1922 found that insulin is very effective against diabetes mellitus

Dr. Alexander Fleming

Opened in 1928, Penicillin

During the two world wars, great strides have been made in the field of plastic surgery, when the skin, bone, or muscle taken from one part of the body and then transplanted into the damaged area of the other parts of the body

In 1935, a drug known as sulfanilamide.It was the first of the "miracle" drug (a miracle drug) was discovered, which gave immediate and amazing results in the treatment of many infectious diseases, including pneumonia.

Тwenty first century

Watson and Crick

In 1953 he described the structure of the cell DNA

In 1969, in the hybridization method in which the introduced labeled probe used for the detection and localization of specific DNA or RNA sequences "in situ".

In 1972 a method was developed recombinant DNA using restriction enzymes to cut DNA insert pieces.

Wilmut, a Scottish scientist

In 1997, successfully used the technique of transfer from a somatic cell to create a clone of a sheep; the cloned sheep was named Dolly.

In June 2000, the discovery of chemicals approximately 80,000 genes that make up the human body, its structure and location on the chromosomes (ie, mapping of the human genome) was successfully carried out.


So a great leap in scientific discoveries related to health was made. New discoveries have been made in the fields of physics, chemistry, anatomy, biology, physiology, bacteriology and other sciences.

Great progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial and viral infections. Unfortunately, some of the disease is not fully understood, but humanity has reached a lot and continues to make discoveries in the field of medicine.

In my work I have tried to formulate the basic discoveries of recent centuries. I hope that this list will be updated in the future.

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