Poly-genres in ukrainian chamber-instrumental music:typological aspects
Analysis of quantitative and qualitative parameters of the genre structure of contemporary ensemble works of Ukrainian authors. Dynamic of the evolution of the structure of chamber-instrumental genres. Description of common types of genre interference.
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Poly-genres in ukrainian chamber-instrumental music:typological aspects
Relevance of the research topic. At the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21st centuries the typological system of ensemble genres is at a new evolutionary stage of its development. Historically established patterns of genre formation with the renewal of stylistic conditions and technical and compositional capabilities are gradually losing their classical stability, "transparency", and the development of numerous freely individualized genre decisions reveals irreversible changes in the typology of the chamber-instrumental ensemble. The formation of a new hierarchy of the ensemble genres system is directly related to the increase of the level of genre mobility and the processes of inter-genre dialogue, the analysis of the progress of which sharpens the research focus on the reflection of generic attributes of other genres in the chamber-instrumental ensemble and, in general, the problem of distinguishing and merging genre boundaries into "morphological system" (O. Sokolov) of music. Therefore, the study of poly-genre "mixes" in Ukrainian chamber-instrumental compositional practice at the turn of the 20th - 21st centuries is a topical task for art criticism.
Review of research and publications. Analysis of the latest musicological studies reveals a significant variety of research subject areas of generic and genre features of musical pieces, including the phenomenon of poly-genre music. In the theoretical aspect of the development of this problematics, we note the O. Sokolov's and M. D. Knopf's monographic studies, E. Mironenko's dissertation and the publications by G. Daunoraviciene, I. Grebneva, O. Lukashkova, V. Chernyak, where the author's reasoning about genre synthesis (based on the material of foreign Western and Eastern European music of the 20th and early 21st centuries) is presented. Due to the fragmented nature of the research of Ukrainian musical art from the standpoint of the poly-genre concept, we consider it timely to study the processes of combining genre features in the generic and intergeneric planes in contemporary chamber-instrumental music of Ukrainian composers.
The purpose of the article is to study the poly-genre music phenomenon through the prism of genre interference using the example of the chamber-instrumental music by Ukrainian composers at the turn of the 20th - 21st centuries. According to the objective to be achieved, a number of tasks are envisaged to be solved, among which there are following: to characterize the influence of genre interference on the process of formation of the aesthetic-semantic and structural integrity of poly-genres; systematize the types of genre interference in the chamber-instrumental music of contemporary Ukrainian composers; concretize the boundaries of the functioning of the poly-genre concept in Ukrainian chamber-instrumental art.
Statement of basic material
chamber instrumental genre
The process of genre and style evolution in the postmodern compositional practice indicates a significant typological renewal of the system of chamber-instrumental genres. In the music of contemporary composers, we observe the diversity of figurative content, aesthetic- style and semiological principles of form-building and synthesizing of musical language elements and attraction to free genre interpretation and inter-genre dialogue. This universalization of the musical lexicon and the modernization of technical and constructive methods of genre formation clearly demonstrate the rapidity of the transformation of cultural processes in the modern world and the cosmopolitanization of the inner world of creative personality, when "the cross-genre composer is an intentional musical migrant crossing boundaries as part of daily musicianship" [5, 17].
In the late 20th - early 21st centuries, the technique of the "mixed" genre (M. Lobanova), based on the compositional method of genre interference, is gaining wide creative conceptual development in the ensemble music of Ukrainian composers. The nature of genre interference is the combination of organological and aesthetic-semantic parameters of various related or unrelated genres. This transposition of genre features and functions stimulates the appearance of so-called "poly-genres" (G. Daunoraviciene) - intermediate genre models of the hybrid structure. Poly-genres enrich the system of ensemble genres and, at the same time, "shake" its historically formed typological stability, making changes in the "semiotic diad: "content plan - expression plan"" [3, 30]. Using the genre interference method, on the one hand, gives a significant transformational impulse to all organological genre indicators ("expression plan" as external structural, lexical parameters) - the ensemble composition, acoustic balance, instrumental group changes, which leads to the appearance of new ensemble types. On the other hand, it allows modifications of traditional semantic characteristics (the "content plan" as internal content) of the chamber-instrumental genres and their aesthetic-categorical specificity, that corrects the established semantic-role, aesthetically scenic, sociocultural, communicative and other compositional, functional and artistically-performing parameters of ensemble genres.
The study of "hybrid" genres in the Ukrainian chamber-instrumental music of the late 20th - early 21st centuries reveals a wide spectrum of ensemble pieces, where the features of genre interference can be found both within the chamber genus and outside it, namely in intra-genre, generic and inter-generic levels.
In particular, the processes of genre structure modification are observed under the influence of intragenre interference, based on combination of the organology of two (and more in some cases) chamber- instrumental genres into a single composition. This leads to the formation of quantitatively "large" genre models from the quintet to the undecimet, a mixed instrumental group with a timbre-heterogeneous acoustic structure (strings and wind instruments with a piano). In this case, each of the genres exposed to interference, of course, loses its independence and individual aesthetic-semantic specificity. Because in accordance with the change in numerical models and the way of compositional modeling of musical material, the primary "aesthetic harmony" (V. Kholopova) is being destroyed and there is a redistribution of intraensemble functions, including communicative ones. Therefore, the balance of ensemble parts is corrected (the distribution of melodic and harmonic functions of instruments in the change of hierarchical subordination) and psychological role-based models of ensemble communication are differentiated, when the dialogical type can change to a poly-logical.
For example, the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Vitaly Godzatsky's nonet "Dreams about Childhood" (1997) demonstrates the "fusion" of the complete standard compositions of two classical, "constant" (I. Polskaya) genres - the wind quartet and piano quintet: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon + 2 violins, viola, cello, piano. We also see the orientation towards two clearly marked genre dominants - chamber-piano duo and string trio (clarinet, piano + violin, viola, cello) in the following example - the quintet "Epilogue" (1993) by Alexander Schetinsky.
Similar newly formed poly-genres of chamber-instrumental music have a significant degree of relativity and despite the considerable spread of intra-genre combinations, at the moment they have not acquired individualized organological schemes and, accordingly, stable aesthetic-semantic functions. However, it should be noted that these poly-genre structural models, on the whole, have the standard aesthetic and semantic specificity for chamber-instrumental ensembles, since they are within the limits of ordinary semantic functions. This concerns the orientation to ordinary timbre-acoustic, structural-numerical and space-scenic models and reliance on the basic principles of intra- and externally-ensemble (sociocultural) communicativeness.
Consequently, with the use of the technical-constructive method of intra-genre interference, we observe the continuation of the "life" of chamber-instrumental genres in modern postmodern conditions. When, in the presence of a poly-genre modification of organologic characteristics, but with the preservation of basic aesthetic-semantic genre indicators, composers manage to display the new content in several modified but recognizable forms.
Further analysis of Ukrainian chamber-instrumental music reveals a wide practical use of a different type of genre interference - generic, which stimulates the dynamic processes of genre transformations in the structural-semantic convergence of related genres within the chamber genus - chamber-instrumental, chamber-vocal and chamber-orchestral. The results of the system-genre analysis indicate that the direction of genre interference in the integration of chamber-instrumental and chamber-orchestral genres can be found mainly in ensemble works with the maximum quantitative parameters of their participants (nonets, decimets, undecimets, duodecimets) or in pieces with contrast comparison of solo instrument with other instruments of ensemble group.
Features of interference of this type are observed through the examples from the pieces by contemporary Ukrainian composers, in particular, in the octets and nonet by Lyudmila Samodayeva ("Konzertstuck" No. 1 and No. 2, 1995-1996; "On the ground and in the Heaven", 2013), decimet by Sergei Pilyutikov ("Ball", 2000), undecimet by Alla Zagajkevich ("Interlude", 1998), duodecimet by Julia Gomelskaya ("AtomAnatomy", 2007), etc. Through the examples of these musical pieces we see the tendency of the "growth" of the structure of the chamber-instrumental genres to the quantitative chamber-orchestral parameters and involvement of typically orchestral instruments that rarely or never been used in chamber- instrumental ensemble compositions (double bass, harp, percussion, extended group of brass winds, etc.).
A clearly defined orientation to the orchestral concert style is also found in the chamber-instrumental ensembles, where one instrumental part is given an advantage as a soloing in the typically orchestral comparison of "solo - tutti" relative to the parts of other participants in the chamber-instrumental group. By the example of the work of Alexander Schetinsky, we see the revival and rethinking in the modern style of the baroque genre Sonata da Camera (for cello and chamber ensemble of 11 performers, 1998), which had an important historical significance as a transitional form of genre evolution from a chamber-instrumental sonata to a concert. A similar principle of constructing the genre structure and distribution of ensemble functions is also found in such compositions as "Vestigia" for viola and string quartet (Bogdana Froliak, 2000), "The Play of the Sounds", a musical match in 5 rounds between clarinetist and string quartet (Vladimir Runchak, 2001) or "Rossiniana", a concert for a bayan and four flutes (Vladimir Zubitsky, 1994). Here, the features of concert virtuosic aesthetics are clearly visible and even postulated by the authors themselves in the genre definitions, based on the semantic-role models of competitive dialogue between a soloist and an ensemble in a "group game" or "dramatic conflict" (I. Polskaya), which usually at the end turn to a well- coordinated "conversation" of all instrumental parties.
Further analysis of contemporary works with poly-genre marks reveals the penetration of the vocal origin into the genres of chamber-instrumental music, which functionally significantly expands the semiotic- aesthetic space of their existence. In the process of modern genre formation, the interference of chamber- instrumental and chamber-vocal genres with the tendency to explication in the form of a mini-performance as a mini-mono-opera is gaining popularity. Among such works are "Aum-Quintet" for saxophone-tenor, mezzo- soprano without words, piano, violin and cello by Carmella Tsepkolenko (1993), "Connected Time with Space" - over-opera after Velimir's works for two cellos by Vadim Larchikov (2012), and also "Strophes" on verses by Igor Pototsky (in Russian) for violin-reader and pianist-reader by Lyudmila Samodayeva (1997). Here composers use various intonational ways of verbalization, melodeclamation, vocalization, which requires from musicians the performing and interpreting plasticity and universalism. Because the introduction of even light relative components of non-instrumental nature influences not only a change in the timbre- acoustic balance, but can also add elements of theatricality. All this indicates both the modification of the organological features of the chamber-instrumental ensemble and the updating of traditional aesthetic-stage, communicative, role-playing, sociocultural and other compositional and functional genre characteristics, that also corrects the performance parameters of instrumental ensemble genres.
The study of innovative modernization of technical and constructive methods of genre formation deepens the understanding of the poly-genre music phenomenon in contemporary art, when the processes of genre interference take place not only intra-genre, generic, but also in the inter-generic plane. In contradistinction to genre interference within the chamber genus, inter-generic combination arise on the basis of the appeal of chamber-instrumental genres to non-related genres, contrasting on the morphological and functional hierarchy.
In this context, we propose to consider the musical pieces from the work by Vladimir Guba ("Quartet-Symphony No. 4 to the memory of Osip Mandelstam for 2 violins, viola and cello, in 5 movements, 1988), Eugene Stankovich ("Music for Celestial Musicians" - micro-symphonies for woodwind quintet, 1993) and Vladimir Runchak ("Time 'X' ... or 'Farewell' Non-symphony" for the quintet of flute, clarinet, piano, violin and cello, 1998), where we observe the appearance of author models of micro-symphony, quartet-symphony and non-symphony. At first glance, such contrasting combination causes generic and genre dissonance, because each genre has its own form and the more distant the genres in the morphological system, the less they have the possibility of organological interference in the process of modeling the structural and aesthetic integrity of the musical material. That is why the form of the symphony (including the chamber one) seems too large for its implementation by the resources of the chamber-instrumental ensemble (limited, in the first place, quantitatively). However, the aesthetic-semantic parameters of a symphony and chamber-instrumental ensemble may gravitate toward a harmonious inter-generic fusion, providing there is "an understanding the measure of aesthetic harmony of the chosen genre to the new function" [2, 200].
In this case, it is necessary to distinguish the processes of inter-generic interference, such as the interaction of non-generic aesthetic and semantic features in the structural and functional system of chamber-instrumental genres, and inter-genre extrapolation of program concepts or intonational vocabulary of certain musical pieces. For example, the analysis of the structural and semantic parameters of the chamber-instrumental work of Vladimir Runchak "Time 'X' ... or 'Farewell' Non-symphony" reveals the absence of genre elements inherent to the symphony (specific organological parameters, multi-movements, sonata cyclic form, the principle of contrast of the thematic material with a common ideological unity, etc.), as well as of any signs of interference between the symphony and chamber ensemble genres, which is accordingly emphasized by the composer in a non-genre name. The formation of the artistic and aesthetic integrity of the composition takes place on the basis of mosaic-montage techniques for the development of textual material and a certain semantic inter-genre play in a connotative connection with J. Haydn's "Farewell Symphony". By analogy with the program content of this work, where the musicians one after another stop playing their parts and go backstage, the musicians of the quintet by Vladimir Runchak freeze with the instruments, trying to leave the stage. Therefore, in this case there is no interference of any non-related genre features, but the composer models the artistic and aesthetic integrity of the work with the help of a typical postmodern methodology, when "the chosen meaning is projected onto a given text and the possibility and efficiency of their correspondence is metaphorically "justified"" [4, 160].
In contrast to the "Farewell non-symphony", where a rather simple but effective associative method is used to extrapolate the program concept of a well-known symphony into the semantic field of the quintet, Vladimir Guba and Yevgeny Stankovich choose a different path - genre interference, namely "transferring" the generic attributes of a particular genre to an aesthetic and semantic context of another genre from a non- related group. Here, thanks to the orchestral symphonic thinking of these authors, such laws of compositional logic of the symphonic genre, as a conglomeration of personalized images, themes and intonations, the creation of conceptual and structural dramaturgy, a rise in the finale to a higher level of semantic load, etc., begin to "work" within the framework of the organology of the constant quartet and quintet genres - microforms, comparatively to a such large-scale genre as a symphony (even its chamber variety). It is like a reflection of the symphonic "I" in chamber-instrumental music, when on the basis of the principle of contrast and unity there is a certain aesthetic-semantic (not organological in this case) interference of chamber and symphony genres. In this process, the unifying link is the ability of both genres to philosophical generalizations in "thesis" musical statements - on the one hand, of chamber-intimate, personal, and on the other - of universal significance.
As can be seen from previous examples, it is this contrasting poly-genre "alloy" of unrelated genre characteristics acquires a significant heuristic potential in the work of Ukrainian composers. This brings the genres of chamber-instrumental music to a new level in the morphological system of musical art, when "together with the growth of structures (according to their hierarchy or type of derivation), the volume of values also grows, reaching the limiting magnitudes <...>. Thus, the cognition of the spiritual layer of music, managed and guided by the hierarchy of text structures, is a process of recoding some values into the others - of a higher order" [1,317].
Scientific novelty of this study is formulated in the following positions: at the first time the poly-genre music phenomenon was examined through the example of the Ukrainian chamber pieces of the late ХХ - early ХХІ centuries; the influence of the genre interference on the process of formation of a poly-genre aesthetic-semantic and structural integrity of musical compositions was characterized; the types of genre interference in the chamber pieces by contemporary Ukrainian composers were systematized; the boundaries of the functioning of the poly-genre concept in the postmodern Ukrainian chamber art were specified.
chamber instrumental genre
The analysis of quantitative and qualitative parameters of the genre structure of modern ensemble works of Ukrainian authors indicates to the dynamic processes of transformation of the organological structure of chamber-instrumental genres. The appearance of numerous free-individual genre solutions testifies to the conceptualization of the author's position about the impossibility to embodying the new content in the "old" cultural-symbolic forms. In turn, this leads to active genre formation and, often, deliberate denial of generic genre features or underlining their uncertainty on the background of the application of modern semiotic innovations, technical and constructive methods of composition, including genre interference.
Interference as a phenomenon of inter-genre dialogue and synthesis opens the way for the formation of poly-genres in chamber-instrumental music, when organological and aesthetic-semantic convergence of genres takes place both within the chamber genus and outside it. Some of poly-genres neo-novations are difficult to typify and have a limited ability to form a stable invariant, and therefore remain only a situational creative experiment, while others - take root and become neo-traditions. In the course of the study of Ukrainian chamber-instrumental music at the turn of the 20th - 21st centuries, several types of genre interference were identified with an orientation toward a synergistic combination of adjacent or contrast genre features and functions in the following planes:
- intra-genre (interference of organological parameters of various chamber-instrumental genres while saving their basic aesthetic-semantic functions);
- generic (interference of organological and aesthetic-semantic parameters of related chamber genres - chamber-instrumental, chamber-vocal and chamber-orchestral);
- inter-generic (interference of aesthetic-semantic parameters of unrelated genres on the basis of chamber-instrumental genre organology).
These hybrid modifications demonstrate a significant degree of relativity of innovative polystructural and multifunctional genre models of the chamber-instrumental ensemble, the appearance of which in the genre and typological fund of Ukrainian music testifies to the processes of evolutionary technical and compositional development at a new historical stage in the genesis of the system of ensemble genres in the cultural and artistic practice of the postmodern era.
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