Education in the United Kingdom

The story of British schools. Arguments about the purpose of education. The civic university movement. University Charter Awarded. There are plenty of stereotypes, British education is only Oxford and Cambrige, but there are educational stereotypes.

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Ministry of education and science of Ukraine

Uman state pedagogical university named after

Pavlo Tychyna

Ukrainian Philology Department

Education in the United Kingdom

Darya Kraynova

Group 25

Teacher:

Brit N.M.

Uman-2013

Introduction

Universities in the United Kingdom have generally been instituted by Royal Charter, Papal Bull, Act of Parliament or an instrument of government under the Education Reform Act 1988; in any case, generally with the approval of the Privy Council, only such recognized bodies can award degrees of any kind. Undergraduate applications to almost all UK universities are managed by UCAS - the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.

Categories of English Universities

Most UK universities fall into one of six categories:

Ш Ancient universities - the seven universities founded before 1800;

Ш London, Durham and its former constituent college at Newcastle, and the colleges of the former University of Wales (at Lampeter, Aberystwyth, Bangor and Cardiff) - chartered in the 19th century;

Ш Red Brickuniversities - large civic universities chartered at the beginning of the 20th century before World War II;

Ш Plate Glass universities - universities chartered after 1966 (formerly described as the 'new universities' or the 'Robbins expansion' universities);

Ш The Open University - The UK's 'open to all' distance learning university (est. 1968);

Ш New Universities - Post-1992 universities formed from Polytechnics or Colleges of Higher Education.

The central co-ordinating body for universities in the United Kingdom is Universities UK.

Ш The ancient universities in England, Scotland and Ireland are, in order of formation:

Year

Name

Contemporarylocation

Currentlocation

Notes

1096

University of Oxford

Kingdom of England

Oxford, England, UK

"There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry IIbanned English students from attending the University of Paris." Teaching suspended in 1209 (due to town execution of two scholars) and 1355 (due to theSt. Scholastica riot ).

1209

University of Cambridge

Kingdom of England

Cambridge, England, UK

Founded by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute caused by the execution of two scholars in 1209.

1413

University of St Andrews

Kingdom of Scotland

St Andrews, Scotland,

Founded by a Papal Bull building on earlier bodies established between 1410 and 1413

1451

University of Glasgow

Kingdom of Scotland

Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Founded by a Papal Bull

1495

University of Aberdeen

Kingdom of Scotland

Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

King's College was founded in 1495 by Papal Bull and Marischal College in 1593; they merged in 1860

1582

University of Edinburgh

Kingdom of Scotland

Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

Established by a Royal Charter granted by James VI

1592

University of Dublin

Kingdom of Ireland

Dublin, Ireland.

Founded by Charter of Queen Elizabeth I; Trinity College is the only constituent college of the university

These universities often find themselves governed in a quite different fashion to more recent additions. The ancient universities of Scotland also share several distinctive features and are governed by arrangements laid down by the Universities (Scotland) Acts.

In addition to these universities, a number of now-obsolete universities were found during this period, including the University of Northampton (1261-1265), royal attempts to establish universities in Fraserburgh and Durham, plus the predecessor institutions to the University of Aberdeen founded in 1495 and 1593 (discussed below).

Following the creation of the ancient universities, no more universities were created in the British Isles until the 19th century. Precisely which of these 19th-century institutions was the earliest post-ancient university is a matter of debate. In brief, the main university-level foundations after this time are:

St David's College, Lampeter was established in 1822 (Royal Charter 1828),

University College London in 1826 (Royal Charter 1836 when it joined with King's College London to form the University of London)

King's College London in 1829 (Royal Charters 1829)

University of Durham in 1832 (Royal Charter 1837).

In addition the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow traces its origins back to the Andersonian Institute of 1796, but did not receive a Royal Charter until 1964.

The more recent red brick universities of the later 19th century and early 20th century such as the University of Birmingham were soon to follow. Thereafter in the 1950s and 60s the "plate glass universities" were formed and after the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, polytechnics were granted university status.

Ш The University of London (informally referred to as London University) is a collegiate research university located in London, England, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, 10 research institutes and a number of central bodies.

London is the second-largest university by number of full-time students in the United Kingdom, with around 135,000 campus-based students and over 50,000 distance learning students in the University of London International Programmes. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1836, which brought together in federation London University (now University College London) and King's College (now King's College London).

For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on a semi-independent basis, with some recently obtaining the power to award their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university. The ten largest colleges of the university are King's College London; University College London; Birkbeck; Goldsmiths; the London Business School; Queen Mary; Royal Holloway; SOAS; and London School of Economics and Political Science. The specialist colleges of the university include Heythrop College, specialising in philosophy and theology, and St George's, specialising in medicine. Imperial College London was formerly a member before it left the University of London in 2007.

In post-nominals, the University of London is commonly abbreviated as Lond. or, more rarely, Londin., from the Latin Universit as Londiniensis after their degree abbreviations.

The nine largest institutions of the federal university, usually termed the colleges, are Birkbeck, Goldsmiths, King's College London, the London Business School, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway, SOAS, LSE and UCL. Formerly a constituent college, Imperial College London left the University of London in 2007.

For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 18 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Legally speaking they are known as Recognised Bodies, with the authority to examine students and award them degrees of the university. Some colleges have the power to award their own degrees instead of those of the university; those which exercise that power include:

Institute of Education

King's College London

London Business School

London School of Economics

Birkbeck, University of London - although still awards UoL degrees

Queen Mary University of London

SOAS, University of London

St George's, University of London

University College London

Most decisions affecting the constituent colleges and institutions of the University of London are made at the level of the colleges or institutions themselves. The University of London does retain its own decision-making structure, however, with the Collegiate Council and Board of Trustees, responsible for matters of academic policy. The Collegiate Council is made up of the Heads of Colleges of the university.

The 12 institutes, or Listed Bodies, within the University of London offer courses leading to degrees that are both examined and awarded by the University of London. Additionally, twelve universities in England, several in Canada and many in other Commonwealth countries (notably in East Africa) began life as associate colleges of the university offering such degrees. By the 1970s, almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London. An increasing number of overseas and UK-based academic institutes offer courses to support students registered for the University of London International Programmes's diplomas and degrees and the Teaching Institutions Recognition Framework enables the recognition of these institutions.

Ш Durham University (officially known as The University of Durham) is a collegiate research university in Durham, North East England. It was founded by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years and has claim to be the third oldest university in England.

Durham University has a unique estate, which includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Castle to a 1930s Art Deco Chapel. The university also owns and manages the World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle (which is a residence for students who are members of University College), Palace Green, and the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library.

As a collegiate university, its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide lectures to students, while the colleges are responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of undergraduate students, graduate students, post-doctoral researchers and some university staff.

The university is currently ranked 5th to 8th by all the latest league tables of the British universities."Long established as the leading alternative to Oxford and Cambridge", the university attracts "a largely middle class student body" according to The Times's Good University Guide. Durham has the second highest proportion of privately educated students as well as the best quality of student life in the country according to the Lloyds Bank rankings. The university was named Sunday Times University of the Year in 2005, having previously been shortlisted for the award in 2004.

Current academics include 15 Fellows of the Royal Society, 18 Fellows of the British Academy, 16 Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, 2 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.

The university is a member of the Russell Group of UK universities after previously being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is also affiliated with several university groups including the N8 Research Partnership and the Matariki Network of Universities.

The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in January 2012. The post-nominal letters of graduates have Dunelm (the Latin abbreviation for Durham) attached to indicate the university.

The teaching departments of the University are divided into three faculties: Science, Arts and Humanities, and Social Sciences and Health. Each faculty is headed by a Pro-Vice-Chancellor and one or more Deputies. These, along with the heads of the departments in the faculty and the Vice-Chancellor, make up the Faculty Board for that faculty. Each department also has a Board of Studies consisting of the Pro-Vice-Chancellor of their faculty, the teaching staff of the department, and student representatives.

Natural Sciences is one of the largest degree programmes offered by the university.

Faculty of Social Science & Health

Department of Anthropology

School of Applied Social Sciences

Department of Archaeology

Durham University Business School

(Including the Economic, Finance and Business Departments)

School of Education

Department of Geography

School of Government and International Affairs

(Including the Politics Department and the Institute for Middle East and Islamic Studies)

School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health

Durham Law School

Faculty of Arts and Humanities

Department of Classics & Ancient History

Department of English

Department of History

School of Modern Languages and Cultures

(Includes Arabic, French, German, Italian, Russian and Hispanic Studies Departments)

Department of Music

Department of Philosophy

Department of Theology and Religion

English Language Centre

Faculty of Science

School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Department of Chemistry

Department of Earth Sciences

School of Engineering and Computing Sciences

Department of Mathematical Science

Department of Physics

Department of Psychology

Ш Newcastle University (formally, the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a public research university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England. The University can trace its origins to a School of Medicine and Surgery (later the College of Medicine), established in 1834, and to the College of Physical Sciences (later renamed Armstrong College), founded in 1871. These two colleges came to form one division of the federal University of Durham, with the Durham Colleges forming the other. The Newcastle colleges merged to form King's College in 1937. In 1963, following an Act of Parliament, King's College became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, and latterly, Newcastle University.

Newcastle University can be described as a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of research-intensive UK universities. The university has one of the largest EU research portfolios in the UK. Newcastle attracts over 20,000 students from more than 120 different countries. Teaching and research are delivered in 24 academic schools and 40 research institutes and research centres, spread across three Faculties: the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences; the Faculty of Medical Sciences; and the Faculty of Science, Agriculture and Engineering. The university offers around 175 full-time undergraduate degree programmes in a wide range of subject areas spanning arts, sciences, engineering and medicine, together with approximately 340 postgraduate taught and research programmes across a range of disciplines.

Teaching schools within the University are based within three faculties. Each faculty is led by a Provost/Pro-vice chancellor and a team of Deans with specific responsibilities.

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape

School of Arts and Cultures

Newcastle University Business School

Combined Honours Centre

School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences

School of English Literature, Language and Linguistics

School of Geography, Politics and Sociology

School of History, Classics and Archaeology

The Language Centre

Newcastle Law School

School of Modern Languages

Faculty of Medical Sciences

Newcastle Biomedicine

School of Biomedical Sciences

School of Dental Sciences

School of Medical Sciences Education Development

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Dentistry

School of Psychology

Faculty of Science, Agriculture and Engineering

School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development

School of Biology

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials

School of Chemistry

School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

School of Computing Science

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

School of Marine Science and Technology

School of Mathematics and Statistics

School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering

Ш The University of Wales is a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK.

It is currently in the process of merging with Swansea Metropolitan University and University of Wales: Trinity Saint David to form a new institution which will be known as University of Wales: Trinity Saint David.

Founded in 1893 as a federal university, it accredited institutions throughout Wales, and validated courses at institutions in Britain and abroad, with over 100,000 students. Its external validation operations are being wound down prior to the proposed merger with the University of Wales: Trinity St David, which will take over some of its operations under a different academic model.

Formeraccreditedinstitutions

College

Established

Undergraduatestudents

Postgraduatestudents

Location

Vice-Chancellor

Aberystwyth University

1872

8,450

2,570

Aberystwyth

April Mc Mahon

Bangor University

1884

9,500

Bangor

John G. Hughes

Glyndwr University

2008

7,695

Wrexham

Michael Scott

University of Wales, Newport

1841

7,525

1,850

Newport

Peter Noyes

Cardiff University

1883

21,800

Cardiff

Colin Riordan

Swansea University

1920

Swansea

Richard B Davies

University of Wales, Trinity Saint David

2010

Lampeter and Carmarthen

Medwin Hughes

Ш Red brick university (or redbrick university) is a term originally used to refer to six civic universities founded in the major industrial cities of England. The term is now used more broadly to refer to British universities founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in major cities. All of the six original redbrick institutions, or their predecessor institutes, gained university status before World War I and were initially established as civic science or engineering colleges.

Whilst the term was originally coined as these institutions were new and thus regarded by the ancient universities as arriviste, the description has since ceased to be derogatory with the 1960s proliferation of universities and the reclassification of polytechnics in 1992. The six institutions are members of the Russell Group (which receives two-thirds of all research grant funding in the United Kingdom).

The civic university movement

These universities were distinguished by being non-collegiate institutions that admitted men without reference to religion or background and concentrated on imparting to their students "real-world" skills, often linked to engineering. In this sense they owed their structural heritage to the Humboldt University of Berlin, which emphasised practical knowledge over the academic sort. This focus on the practical also distinguished the red brick universities from the ancient English universities of Oxford and Cambridge and from the newer (although still pre-Victorian) University of Durham, collegiate institutions which concentrated on divinity, the liberal arts and imposed religious tests (e.g. assent to the Thirty-Nine Articles) on staff and students. Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh), usually grouped with Dundee, were founded on a different basis.

The first wave of large civic red brick universities all gained official university status before the First World War, all of these institutions have origins dating back to older medical or engineering colleges and were located in the industrial centres of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras that required strong scientific and technical workforces. These universities developed out of various 19th century private research and education institutes in industrial cities. The 1824 Manchester Mechanics' Institute formed the basis of the Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), and thus led towards the University of Manchester proper. The University of Birmingham has origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School. The University of Leeds also owes its foundations to a medical school: the 1831 Leeds School of Medicine. The University of Bristol began with the 1876 University College, Bristol, the University of Liverpool with a University College in 1881, and the University of Sheffield with a university college in 1897.

Name University Charter Awarded Predecessor institutions Image Notes

Victoria University 1880

(defunct 1903) Owens College, Manchester (1851)

Leeds School of Medicine (1831)

University College Liverpool (1881)

Main Quadrangle University of Manchester by Nick. Victoria University was a federal college based in Manchester with satellite sites in Leeds and Liverpool.

It was defunct by 1903 as Leeds and Liverpool sought independent university status which led to the formation of the new Victoria University of Manchester.

University of Birmingham 1900 Birmingham Medical School (1825)

Mason Science College (1875) The first independent civic university to be awarded full university status by Royal Charter.

University of Liverpool 1903 University College, Liverpool (1881) Victoria Clock Tower, Liverpool University .

University of Manchester 1903 (as Victoria University of Manchester)

2004 (as University of Manchester) Mechanics' Institute, Manchester (1824)

Owens College, Manchester (1851)

Victoria University of Manchester (1903)

UMIST (1956) The federal Victoria University existed between 1880-1903. Victoria University of Manchester gained royal charter as a new entity in 1903. UMIST formed in 1956 and merged with the Victoria University of Manchester in 2004 to form the current University of Manchester.

University of Leeds 1904, Leeds School of Medicine (1831) ,University of Sheffield 1905 ,University College of Sheffield (1897),University of Bristol 1909,University College Bristol (1876).

Other institutions

Many institutions share similar characteristics to the original six civic universities, namely those in the second wave of civic universities before the advent of the plate glass universities in 1961. These universities differed from the red bricks in that they evolved from local university colleges rather than civic institutes and all previously awarded external Oxford University and University of London degrees before being granted full status after the First World War. These include the University of Reading, founded in the late 19th century as an extension college of Oxford University which was the only university to receive its charter between the two world wars and describes itself as a "red brick" university. Queen's University Belfast,[citation needed] which became a civic university in 1908, also lays claim to the title having previously been established in 1845 as a college of the Queen's University of Ireland (later Royal University of Ireland). Many of the original constituent institutions of the University of Wales bear the "red brick" hallmarks: Aberystwyth; Bangor; Swansea; Cardiff. Certain constituent colleges of the University of London, such as Royal Holloway, Queen Mary and Goldsmiths College are also literally Victorian red brick in style.

Various other civic institutions with origins dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries have also been described as Red Brick: University of Dundee (originally an independent university college, before becoming a constituent college of the University of St Andrews), Birk beck, University of London (founded in 1823), University of Exeter and University of Hull, (both originally extension colleges of the University of London), University of Leicester, Newcastle University (originally two extension colleges of the University of Durham), University of Nottingham, and University of Southampton.

In 1963, the Robbins Report recommended expansion of the British university system. The universities established after this report are often known as the 'Plate Glass' universities began with the 1876 University College, Bristol, the University of Liverpool with a University College in 1881, and the University of Sheffield with a university college in 1897.

Name

UniversityCharterAwarded

Predecessorinstitutions

Image

Notes

Victoria University

1880

(defunct 1903)

Owens College, Manchester (1851) Leeds School of Medicine (1831)

University College Liverpool (1881)

Victoria University was a federal college based in Manchester with satellite sites in Leeds and Liverpool.

It was defunct by 1903 as Leeds and Liverpool sought independent university status which led to the formation of the newVictoria University of Manchester.

University of Birmingham

1900

Birmingham Medical School (1825)

Mason Science College (1875)

The first independent civic university to be awarded full university status by Royal Charter.

University of Liverpool

1903

UniversityCollege, Liverpool (1881)

University of Manchester

1903 (as Victoria University of Manchester)

2004 (as University of Manchester)

Mechanics' Institute, Manchester (1824)

Owens College, Manchester (1851)

Victoria University of Manchester (1903)

UMIST (1956)

The federal Victoria University existed between 1880-1903. Victoria University of Manchester gained royal charter as a new entity in 1903. UMIST formed in 1956 and merged with the Victoria University of Manchester in 2004 to form the current University of Manchester.

University of Leeds

1904

LeedsSchoolofMedicine (1831)

University of Sheffield

1905

UniversityCollegeofSheffield (1897)

University of Bristol

1909

UniversityCollegeBristol (1876)

The civic university movement

These universities were distinguished by being non-collegiate institutions that admitted men without reference to religion or background and concentrated on imparting to their students "real-world" skills, often linked to engineering. In this sense they owed their structural heritage to the Humboldt University of Berlin, which emphasised practical knowledge over the academic sort. This focus on the practical also distinguished the red brick universities from the ancient English universities of Oxford and Cambridge and from the newer (although still pre-Victorian) University of Durham, collegiate institutions which concentrated on divinity, the liberal arts and imposed religious tests (e.g. assent to the Thirty-Nine Articles) on staff and students. Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh), usually grouped with Dundee, were founded on a different basis.

The first wave of large civic red brick universities all gained official university status before the First World War, all of these institutions have origins dating back to older medical or engineering colleges and were located in the industrial centres of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras that required strong scientific and technical workforces. These universities developed out of various 19th century private research and education institutes in industrial cities. The 1824 Manchester Mechanics' Institute formed the basis of the Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), and thus led towards the University of Manchester proper. The University of Birmingham has origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School. The University of Leeds also owes its foundations to a medical school: the 1831 Leeds School of Medicine. The University of Bristol began with the 1876 University College, Bristol, the University of Liverpool with a University College in 1881, and the University of Sheffield with a university college in 1897.

(defunct 1903) Owens College, Manchester (1851),Leeds School of Medicine (1831),University College Liverpool (1881).

Main Quadrangle University of Manchester by Nick Higham.jpg Victoria University was a federal college based in Manchester with satellite sites in Leeds and Liverpool.

It was defunct by 1903 as Leeds and Liverpool sought independent university status which led to the formation of the new Victoria University of Manchester.

University of Birmingham 1900 Birmingham Medical School (1825)

Mason Science College (1875). The first independent civic university to be awarded full university status by Royal Charter.

University of Liverpool 1903 University College, Liverpool (1881) Victoria Clock Tower, Liverpool University ,University of Manchester 1903 (as Victoria University of Manchester)

2004 (as University of Manchester) Mechanics' Institute, Manchester (1824)

Owens College, Manchester (1851), Victoria University of Manchester (1903)

UMIST (1956) , The federal Victoria University existed between 1880-1903. Victoria University of Manchester gained royal charter as a new entity in 1903. UMIST formed in 1956 and merged with the Victoria University of Manchester in 2004 to form the current University of Manchester.

University of Leeds 1904 Leeds School of Medicine (1831),University of Sheffield 1905 University College of Sheffield (1897), Sheffield Uni.jpg

University of Bristol 1909 University College Bristol (1876), University of bristol tower .

Many institutions share similar characteristics to the original six civic universities, namely those in the second wave of civic universities before the advent of the plate glass universities in 1961. These universities differed from the red bricks in that they evolved from local university colleges rather than civic institutes and all previously awarded external Oxford University and University of London degrees before being granted full status after the First World War. These include the University of Reading, founded in the late 19th century as an extension college of Oxford University which was the only university to receive its charter between the two world wars and describes itself as a "red brick" university. Queen's University Belfast,[citation needed] which became a civic university in 1908, also lays claim to the title having previously been established in 1845 as a college of the Queen's University of Ireland (later Royal University of Ireland). Many of the original constituent institutions of the University of Wales bear the "red brick" hallmarks: Aberystwyth; Bangor; Swansea; Cardiff. Certain constituent colleges of the University of London, such as Royal Holloway, Queen Mary and Goldsmiths College are also literally Victorian red brick in style.

Various other civic institutions with origins dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries have also been described as Red Brick: University of Dundee (originally an independent university college, before becoming a constituent college of the University of St Andrews), Birkbeck, University of London (founded in 1823), University of Exeter and University of Hull, (both originally extension colleges of the University of London), University of Leicester, Newcastle University (originally two extension colleges of the University of Durham), University of Nottingham, and University of Southampton.

In 1963, the Robbins Report recommended expansion of the British university system. The universities established after this report are often known as the 'Plate Glass' universities.

Ш The term plate glass university (or plateglass university or plate-glass university) refers to any of the several universities founded in the United Kingdom in the 1960s in the era of the Robbins Report on higher education. In some cases these were older schools with new Royal Charters, now making them universities. Contrary to popular myth, Lord Robbins was not responsible for their foundation, with most of the applications for reclassification already accepted by the University Grants Committee in the later 1950s/early 1960s.

Beloff's plate glass Universities

Aston University (1966)

University of East Anglia (1963)

University of Essex (1964/5)

University of Kent (1965)

Lancaster University (1964)

University of Sussex (1961)

University of Warwick (1965)

University of York (1963)

Certain aspects of the design of these universities acknowledges the formation of the group; for example, at Sussex the first batches of student residences to be built were named after some of the other new universities, i.e. "Essex House", "Kent House", "Lancaster House", "Norwich House" (for UEA), and "York House".

Other universities sometimes referred to as plateglassuniversities

Dates refer to the granting of a Royal Charter, and university status, not to founding of the institution.

University of Bath (1966)

University of Bradford (1966)

Brunel University (1966)

City University London (1966)

Heriot-Watt University (1966)

Keele University (1962)

Loughborough University (1966)

University of Salford (1967)

University of Stirling (1967)

University of Strathclyde (1964)

University of Surrey (1966)

University of Ulster (1968)

Ш The Open University (OU) is a distance learning and research university founded by Royal Charter in the United Kingdom. The university is funded by a combination of student fees, contract income, and allocations for teaching and research by the higher education funding bodies throughout the UK. It is notable for having an open entry policy, i.e. students' previous academic achievements are not taken into account for entry to most undergraduate courses. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-campus, but many of its courses (both undergraduate and postgraduate) can be studied off-campus anywhere in the world. There are a number of full-time postgraduate research students based on the 48-hectare university campus where they use the OU facilities for research, as well as more than 1000 members of academic and research staff and over 2500 administrative, operational and support staff.

The OU was established in 1969 and the first students enrolled in January 1971. The University administration is based at Walton Hall, Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, but has regional centres in each of its thirteen regions around the United Kingdom. It also has offices and regional examination centres in most other European countries. The university awards undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, as well as non-degree qualifications such as diplomas and certificates or continuing education units.

With more than 250,000 students enrolled, including around 32,000 aged under 25 and more than 50,000 overseas students, it is the largest academic institution in the United Kingdom (and one of the largest in Europe) by student number, and qualifies as one of the world's largest universities. Since it was founded, more than 1.5 million students have studied its courses. It was rated top university in England and Wales for student satisfaction in the 2005, 2006 and 2012 United Kingdom government national student satisfaction survey, and second in the 2007 survey. Out of 132 universities and colleges, the OU was ranked 43rd (second quartile) in the Times Higher Education Table of Excellence in 2008, between the University of Reading and University of the Arts London; it was rated highly in Design, Art History, English, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Computer Science, Development Studies, Social Policy and Social Work and Sociology. It was ranked overall as a nationally top forty, and globally top five hundred university by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2011, as well as being ranked 247 for citations of its academics.

The Open University is also one of only three United Kingdom higher education institutions to gain accreditation in the United States of America by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, an institutional accrediting agency, recognized by the United States Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation.

Ш The term new universities has been used informally to refer to several different waves of new universities created or renamed as such in the United Kingdom. As early as 1928, the term was used to describe the then-new civic universities, such as Bristol University and the other "red brick universities". It later came to be used to refer to any of the universities founded in the 1960s after the Robbins Report on higher education. These institutions are now known as "plate glass universities". Today, the term specifically relates instead to any of the former polytechnics, central institutions or colleges of higher education that were given university status by John Major's government in 1992 (through the Further and Higher Education Act 1992) -- as well as colleges that have been granted university status since then. Though referred to as "New" or "modern" some Polytechnics were founded in the early to mid 19th century ( London Polytechnic 1838). These institutions are more often called post-1992 universities and sometimes modern universities.

Post-1992 universities that trace their roots to former polytechnics

Anglia Ruskin University - formerly Anglia Higher Education College, Anglia Polytechnic then Anglia Polytechnic University

Birmingham City University - formerly the University of Central England in Birmingham and before that, Birmingham Polytechnic

University of Brighton - formerly Brighton Polytechnic

Bournemouth University - formerly Bournemouth Municipal College, Bournemouth College of Technology, Dorset Institute of Higher Education then Bournemouth Polytechnic

University of Central Lancashire - formerly Lancashire Polytechnic

Coventry University - formerly Lanchester Polytechnic then Coventry Polytechnic

De Montfort University - formerly Leicester School of Art and later City of Leicester Polytechnic

University of East London - formerly the West Ham College of Technology then North East London Polytechnic

University of Glamorgan - formerly Glamorgan Polytechnic then The Polytechnic of Wales

University of Greenwich - formerly Thames Polytechnic

University of Hertfordshire - formerly Hatfield Technical College then Hatfield Polytechnic

University of Huddersfield - formerly Huddersfield Polytechnic

Kingston University - formerly the Kingston Technical Institute then Kingston Polytechnic

Leeds Beckett University - formerly Leeds Polytechnic, then Leeds Metropolitan

University of Lincoln - formerly Humberside Polytechnic, then University of Humberside and then University of Lincolnshire and Humberside

Liverpool John Moores University - formerly Liverpool Polytechnic

London Metropolitan University - merger of London Guildhall University, formerly the City of London Polytechnic, and University of North London, formerly the Polytechnic of North London

London South Bank University - formerly South Bank Polytechnic

Manchester Metropolitan University - formerly Manchester Polytechnic

Middlesex University - formerly Middlesex Polytechnic

Northumbria University - formerly Newcastle Polytechnic, formed from the merger of Rutherford College of Technology, the College of Art & Industrial Design and the Municipal College of Commerce

Nottingham Trent University - formerly Trent Polytechnic then Nottingham Polytechnic

Oxford Brookes University - formerly Oxford School of Art then Oxford Polytechnic

University of Plymouth - formerly Polytechnic South West, formed from Plymouth Polytechnic, Exeter College of Art and Design, Rolle College, Seale-Hayne College and Plymouth School of Maritime Studies

University of Portsmouth - formerly Portsmouth Polytechnic

Sheffield Hallam University - formerly Sheffield Polytechnic then Sheffield City Polytechnic

Staffordshire University - formerly Staffordshire Polytechnic (originally North Staffordshire Polytechnic) and previously the separate Staffordshire College of Technology, the Stoke-on-Trent College of Art and the North Staffordshire College of Technology

University of Sunderland - formerly Sunderland Technical College then Sunderland Polytechnic

Teesside University - formerly Teesside Polytechnic

University of the West of England - formerly Bristol Polytechnic

University of Westminster - formerly the Polytechnic of Central London, founded as the Royal Polytechnic Institution (1838)

University of Wolverhampton - formerly Wolverhampton Polytechnic

In addition, the New University of Ulster absorbed Ulster Polytechnic (at Jordanstown) in 1984.

Post-1992 universities that are not former polytechnics[edit]

University of the Arts London - formerly London Institute

The Arts University Bournemouth - formerly The Arts University College at Bournemouth and before that The Arts Institute at Bournemouth

Bath Spa University - formerly Bath College of Higher Education

University of Bedfordshire - formerly University of Luton, created by the merger of the University of Luton and De Montfort University's Bedford campus

Bishop Grosseteste University - formerly Bishop Grosseteste College, and Bishop Grosseteste University College

University of Bolton - formerly Bolton Institute of Higher Education

BPP University - formerly BPP University College, and before that BPP College, and earlier BPP Law School

Buckinghamshire New University - formerly Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College, and before that Buckinghamshire College of Higher Education, and earlier the High Wycombe College of Art and Technology

Canterbury Christ Church University - formerly Christ Church College

University of Chester - formerly Chester College of Higher Education

University of Chichester - formerly Chichester Institute of Higher Education then University College Chichester

Cranfield University - formerly College of Aeronautics formed 1946, later Cranfield Institute of Technology, currently all-postgraduate university (Silsoe and Shrivenham campuses were partly undergraduate till 2007)

University for the Creative Arts - formerly Kent Institute of Art & Design and Surrey Institute of Art & Design, University College

University of Cumbria - formed in January 2007 from the merger of St Martin's College, the Cumbria Institute of the Arts (CIA) and the Cumbrian campuses of the University of Central Lancashire

University of Derby - formerly the Derbyshire College of Higher Education

Edge Hill University - formerly Edge Hill College

Falmouth University - formerly Falmouth College of Arts

University of Gloucestershire - formerly Cheltenham & Gloucester College of Higher Education

Glyndwr University - formerly the North East Wales Institute of Higher Education

Harper Adams University - formerly Harper Adams University College

University of the Highlands and Islands

Leeds Trinity University - formerly Leeds Trinity University College

Liverpool Hope University - formerly a fully accredited institution of the University of Liverpool, then Liverpool Hope University College

Newman University - formerly Newman College of Higher Education, then Newman University College

University of Wales, Newport - formerly Gwent College of Higher Education then University of Wales College, Newport

University of Northampton - formerly Northampton Technical College, Nene College then University College Northampton

Norwich University of the Arts - formerly Norwich University College of the Arts

University of Roehampton - formerly Roehampton Institute, then University of Surrey Roehampton (as part of the federal University of Surrey)

Royal Agricultural University - formerly the Royal Agricultural College

Southampton Solent University - formerly Southampton Institute of Higher Education

St Mary's University, Twickenham - formerly St Mary's University College, Twickenham

Swansea Metropolitan University - formerly Swansea Institute of Higher Education

University of Wales Institute, Cardiff - One of three universities in Cardiff

University of West London - formerly Thames Valley University

University of Winchester - formerly Winchester Diocesan Training School, renamed King Alfred's College then University College Winchester

University of Worcester - formerly part of the University of Birmingham Department of Education then Worcester College of Higher Education

York St John University - formerly the College of Ripon and York St John then York St John College

Post-1992 universities that trace their roots to former Central Institutions

University of Abertay Dundee - formerly Dundee Institute of Technology

Edinburgh Napier University - formerly Napier Technical College, Napier College of Commerce and Technology then Napier Polytechnic

Glasgow Caledonian University - formed from the merger of Glasgow Polytechnic and The Queen's College, Glasgow

Queen Margaret University - formerly Queen Margaret College then Queen Margaret University College

The Robert Gordon University - based in Aberdeen, formerly Robert Gordon's Technical College then The Robert Gordon Institute of Technology

University of the West of Scotland - formerly University of Paisley (itself formerly Paisley College of Technology)

All the categories of university award academic degrees, having received university status when the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 came into effect or in the years thereafter, although some of the newest universities may not have the power to award research degrees - the UK Government having separated research degrees from university title criteria.

Literature

british cambrige education

1. uk.wikipedia.org

2. http://www.4icu.org/gb/

3. http://www.ox.ac.uk/

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