Main characteristics of the situational method for teaching of foreign language

Acquaintance with the characteristics and features of the situational method of teaching a foreign language. Situational method as one of the most effective methods of teaching a foreign language. Analysis of the current state of education in Ukraine.

Рубрика Педагогика
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 12.10.2018
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Main characteristics of the situational method for teaching of foreign language

The condition of education in Ukraine is characterised by rapid growth of tempo of updating of knowledge, changes of main approaches and the principles of teaching, search of innovative technologies which would correspond to the current level of development of science. The situational method is considered to be one of the most effective methods of teaching a foreign language. This method demands not only the academic knowledge of language and linguistic material, but transforms the process of knowledge into the process of opening of new experience of communications and the relations between events, the phenomena, objects, their critical thinking. The purpose of article is the review and provide the general characteristics of situational method of teaching of a foreign language. Methods of research used: analysis and generalisation. As a result of the research, we found that this method is based on situational modelling, which is part of interactive learning technologies. Situational Language Teaching is characterised by two major features: focus on vocabulary and reading are the most salient traits of Situational Language Teaching. In fact, mastery of a set of high-frequency vocabulary items is believed to lead to good reading skills; an analysis of English and a classification of its prominent grammatical structures into sentence patterns, also called situational tables, is believed to help learners internalise grammatical rules. Situational teaching assumes immersion of listeners in a certain situation where they can find practical application of their knowledge.

The new national standard for the study of foreign languages is based on such key concepts as communicative culture, motivation, interaction. The use of new intensive teaching methods helps not only to absorb students' linguistic knowledge, the development of their speech skills and the implementation of educational, educational and developmental learning functions. One of the most effective methods of teaching a foreign language is the situational method. This method requires not only academic knowledge of language and linguistic material, but transforms the process of knowledge into the process of discovering a new experience of relationships and relationships between events, phenomena, objects, their critical reflection.

Analysis of recent research and publications on the problem under consideration. The study of the use of the situational method of training was undertaken by foreign scholars such as J.Richards, T.Rogers et al. In turn, Ukrainian scholars O.Bagryantseva, S.Gaponova studied the problems of active teaching methods. These scientific developments are undoubtedly a significant theoretical basis for the practical use of situational learning. However, its pedagogical potential remains poorly understood. N.Borisova, A.Fedorova, M.Kukhareva, M.Potashnik, VReshetko, G.Savelyeva, P.Tretyakov, A.Verbitskii, etc., devoted their work to the problem of introduction of situational approach in the educational process, have established the basis for further in-depth analysis and the emergence of methodological developments of specific learning situations. The method of situational learning, developed by scientists (A.Brushlinsky, V Gordin, A.Matyushkin, M.Makhmutov, O.Pometun, VSolomin) includes the following: case method, situational modelling method, method of solving situational problems and exercises, method of situational analysis. The mentioned methods are used fragmentarily in the educational process of various educational institutions. However, as shown by the analysis of the theory and practice of professional education, situational studying is not yet widely used. The unresolved aspects of the research of the situational method for teaching of foreign language are: unsufficient vocabulary of students, poor implementation of the method in the process of teaching and lack of technical equipment. The purpose of the article is to review and provide general description of the situational method of teaching of a foreign language. Methods of research used: analysis and generalisation.

Discussion. Increasing level of interactivity of education proves the necessity of wide introduction of situational approach in the process of training of future specialists. Learning in situations can be used for different purposes: preparation for the acquisition of knowledge, illustration of general provisions, study of typical situations, etc. Scientists note that situationality in pairs significantly increases the motivation and activity of students. Situational-based exercises enhance students' motives for speaking, reading, listening and writing in a foreign language.

Formation of communicative competence is possible due to provided simulation in the educational process typical situations of real communication, which arise in different spheres of life and relate to various topics. That is, the subject-content plan of foreign language broadcasting of pupils is conditioned by the subject, situation and sphere of communication, which are another component of the content of teaching. Communicative-speaking situation is a dynamic system of interacting of concrete factors of objective and subjective plans that involve people in speech, communication and determine his behaviour within the framework of one communication act. The communicative situation includes four factors: 1) circumstances of reality in which communication takes place; 2) relations between communicators; 3) speech intentions; 4) the implementation of the act of communication, which creates new incentives for broadcasting [1].

Speech action is impossible outside the communication. There are various definitions of the training situation. G. Rohova defines the situation as an artificially created circumstance that causes a need to speak. The educational situation is a situation created by a teacher particularly designed by the student for speaking [5, p.23]. Situations can be real, imaginary, problem, specific, fantastic, problem-information, etc. But they combine one pedagogical condition - the creation of a motivation for speaking, which implies the logic of learning communication.

Situational studying involves immersing of students into a particular situation where they can find practical application of their knowledge. The basis of this methodology is situational modelling, i.e. modelling of specific situations, during interaction with which the participant learns the material, makes a choice, makes personal decisions [2].

Situational simulation is part of the technology of interactive learning. Interactive learning is a special form of cognitive activity that has a specific intended purpose - to create a comfortable learning environment in which each student feels his or her success, intellectual ability. The essence of interactive learning is that the learning process takes place only through the constant, active interaction of all students. This is coaching, mutual learning, where both the student and the teacher are equal, equal subjects of learning and understand what they are doing, reflect on what they know, know how and carry out. The organisation of interactive learning provides modelling of life situations, the use of roleplaying games, joint problem solving based on the analysis of circumstances and the situation [4, p.9].

The range covering the field of knowledge and the sphere of professional activity is virtually limitless, this explains a wide range of possibilities of situational methodology, which is why this approach can be actively used to teach a foreign language of professional orientation. So, students are offered some situations where they should orient themselves and offer their own solutions of the problems, the plan of action. Thus, the activation of intellectual activity, the expansion of the lexical reserve, the practical application of the acquired vocabulary and grammar. Situational training is considered not only as a temporary use of situations in educational activities, but also as a process of teaching foreign language communication.

The problematic situation is the beginning and source of creative thinking [7, p.120-124]. It is an intellectual difficulty of the student, which leads to the complexity of the explanation of the phenomenon, fact, or is an obstacle to the achievement of the goal in already known ways. The problematic situation stimulates the cognitive need of the reader, directs his thoughts and creates internal conditions for the acquisition of new material [1]. Problematic situation has a number of characteristic features: 1) there is a state of intellectual or psychological load; 2) the situation has a certain contradiction; 3) the situation is not consistent with the student's ideas about her; 4) there is a need to seek additional knowledge, information and evidence; 5) attitudes and decisions are needed for understanding events, new approaches [3, p. 24].

It should be noted that the simulation of real situations of communication is possible only if a positive emotional atmosphere is created at foreign language classes. The task of a teacher is now not to infinitly correct the errors, but to create a positive atmosphere of joint search activity, the organisation of role-playing games, the use of group and paired work, competitions, contests, etc. [6, p.108].

So, it's worth remembering the right mood and atmosphere at the lesson. A gaming element is the basis for realizing the situational approach, and the main figure of these game situations is the performer who, in the course of implementing educational actions, must use all his mental and psychophysical resources: thinking, memory, attention, imagination, emotion, voice, facial expressions, gestures , pauses. And thus the student - the role performer - learns to act. Such an approach to learning is well aligned with the goals of overcoming psychological difficulties, above all shyness, anxiety, psychological stress, uncertainties that may appear in some students in the process of learning.

Conclusions

situational foreign language

Thus, the application of the methodology of situational modelling facilitates creative communication, acquisition of skills in cooperation in the team and the formation of a sense of responsibility for the implementation of tasks, the ability to build an argumentated response. There is no doubt that the skills and abilities formed during the introduction of situational learning will be necessary in the professional activities of students.

The essence of interactive learning is that the learning process takes place only through the constant, active interaction of all students. The situational method has the prospect of development as one of the newest technologies, the application of which can improve the efficiency of training students of foreign competence.

References

1.Artemov,V.A. (1969). Psihologiia obucheniia innostrannym yazykam [Psychology of foreign language teaching]. Moscow: Prosveshchenie [in Russian].

2.Hurenko,O.I. (2015). Zaprovadzhennia sytuatyvnoho pidkhodu do polikulturnoi osvity maibytnikh sotsialnykh pratsivnykiv [Implementation of situational approach to the multicultural education of the future sociologists]. Naukovi zapysky Berdyanskoho derzhavnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu [Scientific Notes of Berdyansk State University], 2, 56-62 [in Ukrainian].

3.Pivkin, S. D. (2000). Problemno-situativnoe obuchenie kak sposob modelirovaniiaprofessionalno-orientirovannoipodhotovki menedzhera v tekhnicheskom vuze [Problem and situational training as a way of modelling of the professionally-oriented training of the manager in technical university]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Kazan: Kazan State Technical University [in Russian].

4.Pometun, O. I., & Pyrozhenko, L. V (2004). Suchasnyi urok. Interaktyvni tekhnolohii navchannia [Modern lesson. Interactive technologies of training]. Kyiv: A.S.K [in Ukrainian].

5.Rohova, H.V., Rabinovich, F.M., & Sakharova, T.E. (1991). Metodika obucheniia inostrannym yazykam v srednei shkole [Methods of teaching foreign languages in secondary school]. Moscow: Prosveshchenie [in Russian].

6.Slastenin, V.A., Isaev, Y.F., & Shiianov, E.N. (2007). Pedagogika [Pedagogy], Moscow: Akademiia [in Russian].

7.Verbitskii, A.A. (1991). Aktivnoe obuchenie v vysshei shkole: kontekstnyipodkhod [Active learning in higher school: contextual approach]. Moscow: Vysshaia shkola [in Russian].

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