Albert Einstein

A brief sketch of the life, the stages of personal and academic formation of the Albert Einstein. Areas of activity of the scientist and the assessment of its achievements. The theory of relativity, the content and scope of practical application.

Рубрика Физика и энергетика
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 10.03.2016
Размер файла 11,6 K

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Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in the city of Ulm in southern Germany, into a poor Jewish family. His father, Hermann Einstein (1847-1902), was a co-owner of a small enterprise for the production of feather stuffing for mattresses and quilts. His mother, Pauline Einstein (nйe Koch, 1858-1920) was a wealthy merchant family from corn Julius Dertsbahera.

In the summer of 1880 in Munich, where Einstein's family moved to Hermann Einstein and his brother Jacob opened a small company selling electrical equipment. Soon, the youngest was born in Munich, Einstein's sister Maria (Maya, 1881-1951).

Primary education Albert Einstein was in a Catholic school in Munich. At the age of 11-13 years, Einstein experienced a state of deep religiosity. But the boy read a lot and soon, reading popular science books made him a freethinker and forever instilled in him a skeptical attitude to the authorities. With six years, according to the mother's initiative Einstein started playing the violin. Subsequently, the passion for music remained, and became an integral part of Einstein's life. Many years later, while in the United States at Princeton in 1934, Albert Einstein gave a concert, with all charges which went in favor emigrated from Nazi Germany, scientists and cultural figures. In his violin Einstein performed the works of Mozart, whose avid fan he was.

It may seem strange, but in high school he was not among the first students. The only items which it succeeded were mathematics and Latin. Einstein did not like very much at the gymnasium - in particular, a well-established system of rote learning material schoolboys and authoritarian attitude of teachers to students. He believed that excessive cramming harms the spirit of study and creative thinking. Because of these differences, Albert Einstein often entered into debate with their teachers.

In 1894, the German brothers Jacob and his company moved from Munich to the Italian city of Pavia. Einsteins moved to Italy, but the Albert some time staying with relatives in Munich. He needed to finish all six gymnasium classes. But, have not received a matriculation certificate in 1895 he followed his family in Pavia.

In 1895, Albert Einstein sent to Switzerland, to Zurich, to pass the entrance exams at the School of Engineering and become a teacher of physics. math exam Einstein passed brilliantly, but miserably failed exams in botany and the French language, which did not allow him to go to Zurich Polytechnic. However, the director of the College advised the young man to go to the graduating class of the school in Aarau in one of the cantons in Switzerland to receive a certificate and repeat admission to college.

At school, Albert Einstein Aarau became interested in electromagnetic theory Maxwell and her devoted all his spare time. In the fall of 1896, he successfully passed all the exams in school and received a certificate, and in the same year was admitted to the Faculty of Education at the Polytechnic. While studying at the Polytechnic, Einstein made friends with a fellow student, a mathematician Marcel Grossmann (1878-1936), and also met his future wife, a student of the Faculty of Medicine of the Serbian Mileva Maric (she was 4 years older than him). In those days, to get Swiss citizenship, was required to pay 1,000 Swiss francs. It was rather big money for the Einstein family. In 1896, Albert Einstein renounced German citizenship, but only after 5 years, became a citizen of Switzerland. This year the company of his father and brother finally went bankrupt, the Einstein family moved to Milan. There Herman Einstein, already one without his brother, opened firm on the electrical trade.

Study in Switzerland Polytech Einstein was given a relatively easy. The style and technique of teaching is significantly different from the ossified authoritarian Prussian school. He had very good teachers, including a wonderful teacher Hermann

Minkowski geometry (his lectures, Einstein often truant, what then are sincerely sorry) and analyst Adolf Hurwitz.

In 1900, Einstein completed the Swiss Polytechnic University and received a diploma of the teacher of mathematics and physics. Exams passed it well, but not brilliantly. And, although many teachers highly evaluated the student's ability Albert Einstein, no one wanted to help him to continue his scientific career. In 1901, Einstein finally became a citizen of Switzerland, but until the spring of 1902 could not find a permanent job. Due to the lack of income he was starving in the literal sense of the word, I do not eat for several days. This was the cause of liver disease, from which a scientist suffered the rest of his life.

But in spite of all the hardships that dogged Einstein in 1900-1902 gg., He found time for further study of physics. In 1901, the Berlin magazine «Annals of Physics» published his first scientific paper, «Effect of capillarity theory.» This work was dedicated to the analysis of the forces of attraction between the atoms of the liquid on the basis of the theory of capillarity.

einstein scientist relativity

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