Using the ICARE Format for Structuring Online Courses. Instructional design is a system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion. Model concentrates on the connection between content, context.
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ICARE method is used to create instruction that is built on Dick and Carey Model in 1997 by San Diego State University and it is used in the higher education. Vincent Salyers claims “ICARE was developed by staff SDSS and presented as one possible means for structuring and organizing course content.”( Salyers, V. 2006, July. Using the ICARE Format for Structuring Online Courses. Impact 2006, WebCT, 8th Annual Users Conference; San Antonio, TX). This model was released book “The Systematic Design of HYPERLINK "http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=a0gdmLZwI8IC&oi=fnd&pg=PA71&dq=The+Systematic+Design+of+Instruction"Instruction” in 1978 by Lou Carey and Walter Dick. The instructional design field was created Dick and Carey that is an opposite total of isolated parts.
Instructional design (ID) is a system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion (Gustafson & Branch, 2002, p. 17). Instructional design is a complex process whose origin as could be followed back to the writings of Silvern (1965), which applies a systems approach to solve problems efficiently. The system refers to an integrated set of elements that interact with each other (Banathy, 1987). Systems are:
Interdependent (i.e. No elements can be separated from the system) Synergistic (i.e. all the elements can achieve more than the individual elements alone) Dynamic (i.e. Systems may adjust to changing conditions in environments), and Cybernetic (i.e. Elements communicate between them efficiently) (Gustafson & Branch, 2002).
To do instruction more productivity to learners should follow in the instructional systems design process.
Model concentrates on the connection between content, context, learning and instruction. According to Dick and Carey, "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes"( Dick, Walter, Lou Carey, and James O. Carey (2005) . The Systematic Design of Instruction pp. 1-12).
The ICARE model pedagogical framework was derived from the basic principles of instructional design practice by “adopting various systems or steps of instruction to what seems to us to be particularly useful components of an online course” .
The ICARE model pedagogical framework was derived from the basic principles of instructional design practice by “adopting various systems or steps of instruction to what seems to us to be particularly useful components of an online course” (Hoffman, B. & Ritchie, D. May, 1998. Teaching and learning online: Tools, templates, and training.). This model was developed by designers to create learning modules in a level (micro or lesson). This system consists pedagogical and design based.
The ICARE model includes the following components:
This is a prodrome which envisions to learners about the unit.
The new knowledge which has been learned and that would construct with
Using a microphone or other devices to amplify sound (voice);
Explicate overview of the course, what course to be embraced and how many units (modules) throughout the curriculum program; controversy and involve to other activity.
Goals help to create instructional content; goals assess achievement of instruction; goals provide expectations of learners.
Students have expectation and learners should schedule. "Expect more and you will get more." (Chickering and Gamson (1987) "Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education" pp. 3-7 ).
Prerequisites conclude key parts: time-limit, precedence and liabilities.
The indication is manual of time to study;
Catalog of requiring readings.
Dissemination of materials and data to be dispute into another section ICARE;
Present information without using technical jargon, abstract discourse etc. (information should to separate by several chunks. It's easy to learn materials which split by small chunks.);
Material should connect with reality of action;
Find out previous knowledge;
Utilizing various methods of presenting working paper such as activity, assignments, using technologies and so on. Instances, such as illustrations, diagrams, visual analogies etc. deserve to comprehend information by learners.
Collaboration between learners and teacher;
Students will apply knowledge and Connect that to real world tasks. Into analysis is action - mapping; students define learning activities and then determine content to sustain these.
In the practice using lore and skills;
Activities are constructed which includes bricks such as interactive, exercises and so on;
Learners should involve into learning process which must be related to the problem;
Activities may be off- or on-line;
The section reveals a reflection between what students are learning and they are moved from Connect to Apply. Students practice metacognitive process into activities.
Acquired knowledge impacts to leaner's experience;
Learners' perception about information which they learned to dispute and propagate it;
It has topics for dispute, test, and journal so on.
Diverse activities aid to enhance knowledge and students use links of web sites to learn more information; structure includes glossary, summaries and contain key words and phrases;
To define students' knowledge should: 1. giving them test or quiz; 2 evaluating a module for content, navigation and so on.
Middlesex University has retrofitted ICARE model which will be an insignificant linear progression and component "Connect" was changed to "Content".
In this model links between "Connect", "Apply" and "Reflect" became tight and learning process become more active for students. For learning process by students the new model is suppleness.
ICARE original model
The model provides cooperation between teacher-learner and learner-learner that affords steady learning practice. The model has an iterative approach into the situation but that is systematic.
Kits of learning skills are to relate from prospect of ICARE model and 21st century. Approaches of ICARE model are flexible and elementary for using and designing. The content learning has been taken a main role of ICARE model to respond to students regard scenarios of real world and how needs. ICARE model is used to distribute a vast audience. The one of best learning stimulator is ICARE model which lead students toward learning and that provide presence of motivation to study. ICARE model includes cooperative platforms to provide communication for enhancing online milieu as well as distributed to vast audience.
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