Feast of St. Patrick's Day

The official version of the holiday St. Patrick's Day. The first missionaries in the Ireland. Shamrock as a symbol of Catholicism color. The concept of the Holy Trinity. Prayer ascetic on Mount Crowe. The fight with the dragon to him leave the island.

Рубрика Религия и мифология
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 16.03.2014
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Feast of St. Patrick's Day

Dima Boyarchuk

form 10a

school 19

Odessa, 2014

The official version of the holiday

St. Patrick's Day - a holiday celebrated on March 17 in Ireland, Northern Ireland, on the island of Montserrat, and the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador as a national holiday dedicated to St. Patrick.

March 17th 415 AD in Uellse in the family of Roman citizens and Kalfurniusa Konchessy boy was born - Meiuayn Sukkat (Maewyn Succat).

Father was Mevina smallholders and deacon of the local church. but held this position mainly because of money, so that the young Patrick was not particularly devout.

Around the age of 16 he was captured by pirates and taken to Ireland, where he came into the service of the chief named Milcho.

Young Patritsius was forced to become a shepherd and spent all day with a herd of sheep. That's when he believed in God. began to pray.

In his "Confessions." he wrote: " I have prayed many times a day. Love for God and fear of God more and more came to me. and my faith was strengthened." Six years later. as the story goes. he heard a voice that he believed belonged to God, " Soon you 'll come home."

And then a voice said. "Look. your ship is waiting." The young shepherd escaped and reached the coast, he begged sailors to take him on board. saying that his family will pay the costs, but the captain refused.

Then Patrick, as legend has it. he prayed again. and the captain suddenly changed his mind and took the passenger.

Once home. Patrick, despite the joy of the family. now once again a son, decided to become the spiritual path.

He met with the French bishop Germanus ( Saint-Germain ). which strengthened him in this endeavor. And later returned to Ireland as a missionary on behalf of Pope Celestine I.

In Ireland, he is revered as a saint who brought Christianity Ireland. However, Christian monasteries existed before him, but... apparently, no one before him could reach severe hearts descendants of the Celts and Druids. Died again - presumably - March 17 493 years. Informally called the birthplace of Patrick Bannaviem Taberniae.

Historians are wondering - where to look for the estate or county. they bring a different perspective on the location of this county.

This could be the grounds of ancient Britain, and the area of Scotland, and maybe even some Western country.

Nobody knows the date of his return to Ireland, unknown - whether he was alone, or come with friends. And finally - was brought by Patrick shamrock on Irish soil or this flower was ascribed to the saint after his death ?

Some scientists dare to suggest that St. Patrick did not exist as such. and. most likely, it was a group of three monks.

And they were not the first missionaries in the land of the Irish.

They already existed before the appearance of the recording of the first missionaries. for example, know the name of the British Celts Congar. which relate primarily to the holding of the first in the history of Ireland Christian liturgy. A little later, this event will be attributed to St. Patrick.

There is a story about another missionary Paladiuse

This man is still in 380 introduced Christianity in Ireland, but he did not hit the Church and was excommunicated from her. Most importantly, he had the title of "Patrisius." Do Paladiusa existed follower, also from the Celts - Zukat. He also held the title of "Patrisius." Biography of the monk as two peas similar to the biography of St. Patrick.

Historians remember and another Paladiusa

This engaged in missionary activity, but still neyavlyalsya monahom.To there - Patrick. quite possibly not a specific person. but a collective image of several missionaries left their mark in the history of the Christianization of Ireland. And the name Patrick - not the name and title of Rome. which eventually acquired the name value.

However. be that as it may. with the name of St. Patrick's linked to many legends. for example, that he used a three-sheeted clover (shamrock) explained to the people the concept of the Holy Trinity. " As well as the three leaves can grow from a single stem, and God can be one in three persons " - this phrase has become a saint hristomatiynymi.

And in Ireland there is a tradition attached to a piece of clothing trefoil cross symbolizing the color of Catholicism. and the color of the character " emerald of the country."

There is also a hymn. which tells that Saint Patrick using trefoil interrupted pagan ritual that occurred in the village of Tara, the royal capital of Ireland those times. holiday catholicism ascetic

They say that once the druid Locri began to insult the holy. and with it the entire Christian faith in the most unseemly expressions. Naturally, a devout Christian could not sustain such a blasphemy and prayed to the Lord to punish the heathen. Suddenly Locri was raised in the air, then fell to the ground. smashing his head against a stone.

One day during Lent Saint Patrick fasted for forty days and nights on the top of Croagh Patrick mountain.

God was afraid that he might die and leave unfinished his life's purpose. so I asked Patrick to stop fasting, but he agreed to it only under three conditions: the Irish do not have to constantly live under oppression. the country would be flooded for seven years before the end of the world to avoid destruction, and that Patrick himself was allowed to judge all on the last day. After that, the mountain became known as Croagh Patrick.

Each year tens of thousands of pilgrims. many of which are bare foot. climb the holy mountain "Croagh Patrick", a height of 765m. above sea level.

Tradition has it that on this mountain St. Patrick made one of his miracles - commanded by snakes of all Irish land to gather at his feet. and then drive them out.

According to legend, one large and sly snake did not want to leave the Emerald Isle. Saint had to resort to trickery.

He built a large box and the snake said that she could not be able to fit in it. Stubborn reptile succumbed sense of contradiction and argue with a missionary.

Once the snake got into the box. holy quickly covered it and threw it into the sea.

Perhaps legend exaggerates anything.

But there is a real fact - no snakes in Ireland (though skeptics argue that them there, and he has never been ).

Thanks Mission St.. Ireland became the "Island of Saints ". home to the land of monks and missionaries who carried the light of Christianity in other countries.

There are indications that they went up to the land of Russia today. From the writings of St. Patrick kept his autobiography - " Confessions," one message and prayer " St. Patrick's Shield " (" Plea deer " ).

According to legend, this prayer of St. read when he went with his disciples by ambush, had pitched a pagan king. wanting to interfere with the mission of Patrick.

Instead travelers soldiers in ambush saw a herd of deer pass by. According to the pious belief that who faithfully repeats the prayer of the saint, will be safeguarded against all evil.

Saint Patrick - one of the most venerated saints in the world. Western Church celebrates his feast day on March 17 in a number of Orthodox Churches his memory is honored March 30 by the new style (March 17, Old Style).

Holiday traditions

Contact St. Patrick's Day with religion

Despite the fact that this event is now celebrated quite a large scale and a feast. before St. Patrick's Day still is the only day of the church for centuries. March 17 honored the memory of the Baptist and the patron saint of Ireland, died on this day. Also on this day always comes to Lent. a time when mass celebrations and noisy festivities are not welcome. Most crowded procession on this day was a procession to the church parishioners to mass. Now it's hard to believe, but in the old pubs in the day did not work. Tradition to go to the pub after Mass and miss his teammates for the health of a couple of cups of whiskey Patrick came much later. Incidentally, it is whiskey, not beer - all in traditional drink of the day.

While men may honor the memory of the saint in the local pub. the woman went home and prepared a festive meal. Despite the post resourceful Irish allowed themselves a celebratory dinner with meat, because they believe that in their holiday St. Patrick turns into a fish any meat lowered into the pan (the tradition recorded in the XII century ). Of oil and other products not mentioned anything. but starving for a few weeks of fasting people welling with much pleasure. After dinner, families went to visit or take guests themselves.

Away sang and danced a lot. do not forget to kiss jugs of whiskey, and in the evening it was time to ancient legends. fairy tales and horror stories. Before diverges on track to drink the last glass of whiskey. It put itself shamrock that man wore a hat or on his lapel. drank whiskey and shamrock taken out and rushed over the left shoulder. It was called " drown the shamrock " (drowning shamrock).

More odnin custom - all members of the family on the sleeves burnt match was drawn cross.

The custom of wearing a shamrock

This practice was first mentioned in the poem. in the late 17th century, dated 1689. Prior to this, in honor of the patron saint of the Irish wore so-called St. Patrick crosses decorated with ribbons or lace. There are several varieties of such crosses. Crosses, which made for a boy is a circle ( or squares with a painted circle in the middle ) of thick paper. Radiating curved lines. they were divided into many sectors. and each sector is painted in the color of your natural dye. Used for yellow egg yolk, for green - chew spring green for red - blood, etc. ( in selection of materials also lay some symbolism ). Such a cross, reminding all in traditional hat worn on how badge.

Girls were excised from two paper The rectangular strips, fastened them at the right angle and decorated with ribbons. In the center of the socket attached green silk. It was worn on the right shoulder or chest. Adults wove crosses branches of the weeping willow and attached to the ceiling kitchen ( each year adding new cross ). Until the XVIII century wearing shamrock considered vulgar ( vulgar ) obychaem.Vpervye as the official emblem of the shamrock troops began to use the Irish Volunteers (Irish Volunteers), formed in 1778-1779. It was a militia (police ) organized to protect Ireland from the enemy ( especially in the face of France) instead of the regular troops. abandoned the fight against the rebels North American colonies.

It was a very prestigious organization composed only of wealthy citizens. because they are on " self-financing ". ie each volunteer himself provided uniforms and weapons. Her other feature - it consisted almost exclusively of Protestants. as of 1793 the Catholics were forbidden to carry weapons. In military operations the Irish Volunteers to participate and have not had a chance. but they had to demonstrate a high political activity. In 1791 part of the Belfast Irish volunteers united in brotherhood (Irish Brotherhood), invited their ranks Dubliner Theobald Wolfe Tone (Teobold Wolfe Tone), offered them a new name and a new political program.So the Society of United Irishmen (United Irish Society) - the main organizing and directing force of the uprising in 1798. Irish volunteers were disbanded in 1793. Former comrades found themselves on different sides of the barricades during the uprising in 1798. and a shamrock emblem of the People's Militia has become an emblem of the rebels... While sprig of shamrock worn on the hat. and not on the chest. So. during his visit to Dublin in 1820 by King George IV was riding in a carriage standing flaunting shamrock adorning his hat.

With the growth of national consciousness shamrock became a symbol of the rebellious spirit of the freedom of the Irish. In the middle of the XIX century, the shamrock on so much already associated with nationalist and revolutionary-minded masses that Queen Victoria forbade the special decree of such use in the Irish regiments of the British regular troops. ( One did this decree to promote the new national symbol more than the volume of romantic poetry ). However, already in 1900 the same Queen Victoria others by the special decree obliged all Irish soldiers serving in the British Army. March 17 wearing a shamrock in memory of those killed in the Boer War...

Heraldry holiday

The first and main character of this holiday, Saint Patrick himself, but as March 17 became not so much a day honoring a saint as the day of Ireland in general, traditional attributes steel shamrock, harp, green, shileyla, leprechaun with a pot of gold.

Shamrock is not the official emblem of Ireland

State emblem - gold 12- string harp on blue field1, it was she who adorns all government documents and the presidential standard. King of Ireland as a coat of arms on the golden harp azure field (Azure a harp or) is first mentioned in the French catalog emblems dating from the year 1280 (Wijnbergen Roll)

Gold in heraldry symbolizes nobility. power and wealth. as well as the Christian virtues : faith. justice, mercy and humility. Azure means generosity, honesty, loyalty and perfection, or just the sky. Harp - a symbol of sublime reflection and contemplation, a fair trial.

Trefoil usually does not appear on stamps or coins or banknotes. However, as a symbol of Ireland it is registered in accordance with international conventions on trademarks. brand names and copyrights. As a public symbol shamrock much more used in the UK. In the coat of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Northern Ireland shamrock symbolizes along with Rose - emblem of England. the thistle - the emblem of Scotland and leek (or daffodil ) - Uelsa.2Ego emblem can be seen on postage stamps of Great Britain.

Color Symbolism

St. Patrick wore a blue robe. Green - the color of the spirits of nature and the inhabitants of the lower world. In the old Irish tried to avoid this color because it brings bad luck. In any case not be putting green children: they could steal the green LEDs that were quite indifferent.

Shileyla - another attribute of the day St. PatrikaShileyla - oaken staff. So called oak forest in County Wicklow. Shileyla used as a walking stick or stick with the game of curling ( Gaelic race field hockey ), and sometimes served as a weapon. The real masters of the battle had just two staves. one to reflect the impacts. and the second - to apply... Now they are made of thorns.

Fairy-tale characters

Leprechauns St. Patrick's Day does not really have a relationship nikago. They - the representatives of the Magic people inhabiting otherworldly hostile to mere mortal world. Leprechauns - heroes of folk tales and part of the ancient pagan tradition. which fought Saint Patrick. With the same success on holiday cards could be put snakes Patrick expelled from Ireland... But modern holidays has its own laws. holidays should be commercially successful, sold well. and postcards and other attributes with the image amusing little men dressed in green. naturally sold better than harsh Apostle of Ireland. Do leprechauns except disposing appearance and jingoistic costume has another advantage : they - the owners of pots of gold, and all these pictures side by side with pots rainbow 4 as visual symbols of wealth and prosperity... If adventurer and treasure will be able to catch a leprechaun this creature must tell the person where his hidden treasure. However. it should be borne in mind that fully trust Leprechaun should not - these men can cheat and impish unsuspecting treasure hunter.

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