Value of sport for development of the personality and psychological maintenance
There are groups of the reasons which lead to injuries and diseases at athletes. Measures of prevention of traumatism in sport. Рsychological escort of athletes during the post-traumatic period and value of sport for development of their personality.
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Bukhara state university
Value of sport for development of the personality and psychological maintenance
Aslanov Kakhramon Polvonovich
associate professor "Theory
and practice of physical training"
Article is devoted to psychological escort of the identity of the athlete and value of sport for development of the personality.
Keywords: sport, training, trainer, trauma, psychological barrier, psychological support, motivation.
Статья поcвящена психологическому сопровождению личности спортсмена и значение спорта для развития личности.
Ключевые слова: спорт, тренировка, тренер, травма, психологический барьер, психологическая поддержка, мотивация.
The human person is formed in the course of public life: in work, in study, in communication with people. And occupations by physical culture and sport make the contribution to formation of the personality and qualities of the person.
During study, trainings and sports competitions pupils transfer big loadings both physical, and moral: the changing situation, responsibility for sports score, strict performance of certain qualities, respect for the rival. All these conditions assist formation at them such traits of character as will power, courage, self-control, determination in the forces, endurance, discipline.
"Researches of psychologists show that occupations by physical exercises promote improvement of sense organs, musculomotive sensitivity, visual and acoustical perception, to memory development, especially - motive" [1; 2].
On sports activities and physical culture pupils learn rules of hygiene, a hardening, about rational ways of performance of physical actions. Level of intellectual working capacity, attention and perception increases. Occupations by physical culture and sport are good means in the prevention of overfatigue, nervous breakdowns and nervoz by preparation for examinations.
In the course of occupations by physical culture and sport working capacity patience and commitment when pupils through fatigue carry out exercises develops and achieve the maximum result.
"In physical culture and sport huge opportunities for esthetic education of the person of development of ability to perceive, feel and to understand correctly fine in an act, in perfect forms of a human body, in the movements of the gymnast, acrobat, diver, figure skater brought to extent of art are concluded" [1; 3].
What success of the athlete in his sports activity depends on? From its efforts, efforts, from its motivation, and of course from its psychological state. Psychological state of the athlete defines his success.
Wearisome trainings, nervousness before competitions, and sometimes and a stress after defeat. All this exerts impact on a condition of the athlete. The trainer who carries out psychological maintenance will help to cope with all this to it.
By results of R. M. Zagaynov's research it is possible to draw conclusions that:
Were disappointed with a debut in competitions about one third of young athletes, and every fifth got a psychological barrier of fear of competitions (and it from those whose sports career proceeded after that still on average 10 and more years).
At a stage of a profound training in the chosen sport of 70% of respondents noted lack of stability in competitions. Upon transition to elite sport every fourth athlete replaced the trainer (one of the main reasons - the conflicts, lack of mutual understanding).
In spite of the fact that 81% of respondents highly estimated the chances to achieve excellent results in sport, really only 35% are satisfied with the sports career .
More than a half of athletes consider that also only 4% - "a little late" or "too late" left sport "a little early" or "too early". On the importance among the reasons of withdrawal from sport on the first place - lack of prospects in sport, on the third mental fatigue, on the fourth the relations with the trainer (physical fatigue and age - only on the 8-9th respectively) .
Both figures, and concrete destinies of athletes convince that the sport needs the organization of psychological service at all its levels. Who gives psychological assistance to the athlete?
psychological traumatism escort sport
First of all, it is the trainer, the psychologist (if he is), partners, friends, family members. R. M. Zagaynov notes presence at high-class athletes of "groups of psychological support" - quite narrow circle of close people to whom the athlete trusts and on whom consults, making decisions in sport and life. However, it is obvious that the athlete himself also can give psychological assistance - and himself (self-help), and to other people (the trainer, partners, etc.).
But it needs to learn. Also the trainer and the psychologist train the athlete here, first of all. From this point of view, psychological maintenance of sports career can be presented as activities of the trainer and psychologist for rendering psychological assistance to the athlete and training of its self-help and the help to people around.
Before the trainer there is a task in the help of overcoming difficulties to the athlete which can arise.
Differentiation of knowledge in the field of psychological ensuring sports activity reached already that measure when it is necessary to take the integrating step. Creation of system of psychological maintenance of sports career in general taking into account all age features, since preschool age can be such step.
The sport for many people is an integral part of life. Sports activities and physical culture help to cope with many problems. But problems can sometimes arise also in the sport.
In a sports training implementation of an improving orientation is complicated by the fact that sports occupations besides the solution of the main objective - physical improvement, solve also problems of difficult specialized adaptation and improvement of a human body in the conditions which are brought closer to extreme to the maximum loads.
Increasing efficiency of educational and training process, the trainer shouldn't forget about early identification and elimination of the reasons causing this or that pathological condition of the athlete.
There are 5 groups of the reasons which lead to injuries and diseases at athletes:
Violation of the rules of medical control.
Violation by athletes of discipline and the established rules during the trainings and competitions.
Unsatisfactory condition of places of occupations, equipment, sports equipment, clothes and footwear of athletes.
Shortcomings of the organization and technique of educational and training occupations and competitions.
Adverse sanitary and hygienic and weather conditions when carrying out educational and training occupations and competitions.
At the heart of an origin of a sports injury as well as in any other form of pathology, objective and subjective factors lie, each of which in one case can be the cause of damage, and in the friend - a condition of its emergence. Here it is necessary to consider, besides, the character and localization of a trauma which are depending on qualification and age of the athlete. So, at beginners and athletes of the lowest categories the slight injuries which aren't demanding long-term treatment (bruises of soft fabrics, grazes, the phenomena connected with an overload of the musculoskeletal device, etc.) prevail.
At highly skilled athletes reduction of quantity of injuries is noted. Sports qualification, an experience and sports experience allow them to avoid many damages. The specific injuries connected with features of their sports activity and caused by the excessive, repeatedly repeating loading are characteristic of athletes of high qualification.
Besides, for definition of the directions and measures of prevention of traumatism in sport it is necessary to consider organizational and methodical shortcomings of creation of educational and training process, namely:
lack of rather long period of preliminary all-physical, mental and motive training during which the corresponding abilities of the athlete are led up to the level allowing to start training in physical actions;
the wrong formation of movement skill at elementary education, i.e. formation of the wrong equipment inherent in the chosen sport;
the wrong structure of process of training, i.e. lack of the sequence directed by tasks, the choice of methods and tutorials, etc.;
errors in holding a training separate micro and mesocycles, all year cycle, long-term preparation, i.e. the wrong choice of exercises and loadings, excessive loadings at insufficient restoration, the aspiration to prolong stay in a condition of peak of sportswear, reduction of time of rest for increase in the general time of a training, a break, insufficient for restoration, between competitions, etc.;
lack of individual approach to the athlete without his age, the state of health, degree of readiness and fitness.
Besides physical injuries, incorrectly organized, sports activities bear in themselves very big psychological loading.
Unfortunately, athletes sometimes are traumatized. Psychological rehabilitation allows to accelerate process of recovery and quicker to adapt to loadings. If as a result of a trauma the athlete can't continue to compete at competitions - it is necessary to help him to adapt to life in new quality. It also is a task of psychologists.
psychological preparation - use of all types of psychological assistance for ensuring mental readiness of the athlete for training process, competitions, the solution of various problems in sport and life .
Psychological escort of athletes during the post-traumatic period includes:
adaptation to current situation,
preparation or for a new round of trainings, or for integration in ordinary life (if traumatized are incompatible with sport).
The trauma is more serious, the shock which is endured by the person is more. Especially it concerns athletes as the trauma can lead them to loss of a possibility of further sports career. Everyone, traumatized endures a stage of rejection of this situation. Here participation of the trainer is very important to switch all attention of the athlete to recovery, to remove consequences of emotional shock, to exclude risk of aggravations (the "inspired" diseases arising during treatment in a hospital).
Rehabilitation after treatment
Upon termination of treatment each athlete needs psychological rehabilitation for restoration of a positive spirit, removal of the arising mental barriers to the fastest restoration, mobilization of internal resources to preservation of a physical and mental shape.
Preparation for a new training stage
The trainer helps the athlete to set the new objects for the next training period and to create a resource state for achievement of these purposes.
If the athlete isn't able to continue career in sport, the trainer helps to be integrated quickly and effectively in ordinary life: to decide on a new profession, to construct personal relations, to achieve success in other kinds of activity .
In spite of the fact that all these types of psychological assistance are closely interconnected, each of them has the specifics, the general and private technologies which knowledge significantly increases psychological competence of the trainer. However their effective practical application demands the accounting at least of the following conditions: sport; features of sports group; age, sex, individual and psychological features of athletes; stage of sports career
On each of stages of sports career according to its tasks certain specifics as in use of separate types of psychological assistance, and in their combination will be found.
In what cumulative effects of system of psychological maintenance of sports career will be shown?
They can be expected as at the level of dynamics of sports results (i.e. results of sports activity in narrow sense), and at the level of the general development of athletes (i.e. results of sports activity in a broad sense).
Sports preparation - long-term, year-round, specially organized process which is followed by increase in physical activities, extremeness of conditions, tension of mental forces, sharp increase in the social role of sport expressed by an intensification of training of athletes, increase of mental tension of wrestling, increase in motivational force of a sports victory, the amplifying professionalizing of the sphere of sport. All this extremely raises requirements to the athlete, his mentality and generates new tasks and consequently, and the related new forms and methods in the organization and management of process of sports preparation. For full training of athletes the system of psychological maintenance as purposeful activities for diagnostics and development of mental qualities, regulation of mental states, formation of individual style of sports activity, etc. is necessary .
In each sport there are features of the organization and carrying out training process, especially at the final stage of the Olympic four years, but the allocated directions of psychological maintenance are applicable for most of them. Knowledge of these features allows to provide actions for psychological preparation and to consider activity of the sports trainer at a planning stage.
Optimum use of means and methods of psychological maintenance will allow to carry out effectively complex training of athletes and as much as possible to realize the athlete's potential at a competition.
Use of modern technologies, methods of regulation of mental states, creation of adequate rituals of training, predsorevnova-telny and competitive behavior allow to solve the majority of problems of psychological training of high-class athletes.
List of references
1. Vasilkov А.A. Theory and technique physical training.? Rostov N / D.: Phenix, 2008. - 381 p.
2. Gorbunov G.D. Psychopedagogik's of sport. ? M., 1986. - P. 64-70
3. Gorskaya G.B. Psychological ensuring long-term training of the athlete. ? Krasnodar, 1995. - 178 p.
4. Gogunov E.V. Martyanov B.I. Psychology of physical training and sport. ? M.: Academy, 2000. - 288 p.
5. Ilyin E. P. Psychology of physical training. ? M., 1987. - 287 p.
6. Marishuk V.L., Serova L.K., Information aspects of management of the athlete. ? M.: F&S, 1983. - 111 p.
7. Marishuk V.L., Bludov Yu.M., Plakhtiyenko V.A., Serova L.K. Psychodiagnostics techniques in sport. - 2nd prod. ? M.,1990. - P. 56
8. Puni A.A problem of the personality in sport psychology. ? M., 1980. - P 47.
9. Zagaynova R.M. Life and consciousness of the practical psychologist. ? M., 2001. - 571 p.
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