Hotels and restaurants of Lviv in the context of hospitality: past and present
Cultural and artistic features of the hospitality establishments of the city of Lviv on the example of the old hotel and restaurant complexes. An impartial analysis of Lviv hospitality establishments that give it the opportunity to attract tourists.
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Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts
Hotels and restaurants of Lviv in the context of hospitality: past and present
Ph.D. in Study of Art
Purpose of the research. The main purpose of the article is to analyse cultural and partly art peculiarities of Lviv establishments of hospitality through the examples of the old hotel and restaurant complexes, which are functioning today and attracting many tourists. Methodology. The research is based on the principles of historicism and authenticity. The culturological and art approach gives an opportunity to distinguish the special characteristics of the evolution of the establishments of hospitality as artistic and imaginary reflection of the sociocultural phenomena. It also allows reviewing the special interpretation and implementation of the new forms of social life in Ukraine. Scientific novelty. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the attempt of objective analysis of Lviv establishments of hospitality, which help to attract tourists. The author pays great attention to the development of Lviv establishments, which have saved their specialization to nowadays. Conclusions. In our opinion, Lviv fairly has been ranking first among the Ukrainian tourist cities for several years. Ukrainians and foreigners want to visit it. The city successfully combines cultural-historical advantages with modern decisions as for the conceptualization of the ideas about comfortable and interesting places of dining, accommodation and recreation for tourists and guests.
Keywords: hotels, restaurants, Lviv, tourism, hospitality, interior.
Дьяченко Роксолана Вікторівна, кандидат мистецтвознавства, старший викладач Київського національного університету культури і мистецтв
Готельно-ресторанні заклади Львова у контексті гостинності: минуле і сучасність
Мета дослідження - проаналізувати культурні та почасти мистецькі особливості закладів гостинності міста Львова на прикладі старовинних готельних і ресторанних комплексів, які діють сьогодні та продовжують захоплювати увагу туристів. Методологія дослідження ґрунтується на принципах історизму і достовірності. Культурно- мистецтвознавчий підхід дає змогу виявити характерні особливості еволюції закладів гостинності як художньо- образного відображення соціокультурних явищ, розглянути їх як своєрідну інтерпретацію та практичне втілення нових форм суспільного побутування в Україні. Наукова новизна полягає у спробі неупередженого аналізу закладів гостинності Львова, які, напевно, дають йому змогу здобувати симпатії туристів. Особливо цікавою у цьому контексті уявляється генеза та побутування тих закладів, які зберегли свій основний функціональний профіль і сьогодні. Висновки. Львів, на нашу думку, справедливо декілька років поспіль займає перші місця у рейтингу найкращого туристичного міста України, яке мають бажання відвідати не лише українці, а й зарубіжні гості. Місто вдало синтезує культурно-історичні переваги з сучасними рішеннями щодо концептуалізації уявлень про цікаві й комфортні місця для харчування, проживання та відпочинку подорожуючих та гостей міста.
Ключові слова: готельно-ресторанні заклади, Львів, туризм, гостинність, інтер'єр.
Дьяченко Роксолана Викторовна, кандидат искусствоведения, старший преподаватель Киевского национального университета культуры и искусств.
Отельно-ресторанные заведения Львова в контексте гостеприимства: прошлое и современность
Цель исследования - проанализировать культурные и отчасти художественные особенности заведений гостеприимства Львова на примере старинных гостиничных и ресторанных комплексов, которые действуют сегодня и продолжают удерживать внимание туристов. Методология исследования основывается на принципах историзма и достоверности. Культурно-искусствоведческий подход позволяет выявить характерные особенности эволюции заведений гостеприимства как художественно-образного отражения социокультурных явлений, рассмотреть их как своеобразную интерпретацию и практическое воплощение новых форм общественной жизни в Украине. Научная новизна заключается в попытке беспристрастного анализа заведений гостеприимства Львова, которые, наверное, дают ему возможность приобретать симпатии туристов. Особенно интересным в этом контексте представляется генезис и существование тех заведений, которые сохранили свой основной функциональный профиль и сегодня. Выводы. Львов, по нашему мнению, справедливо несколько лет подряд занимает первые места в рейтинге лучшего туристического города Украины, которое хотят посетить не только украинцы, но и зарубежные гости. Город удачно синтезирует культурно-исторические преимущества с современными решениями по концептуализации представлений об интересных и комфортных местах для питания, проживания и отдыха путешественников и гостей города.
Ключевые слова: отельно-ресторанные заведения, Львов, туризм, гостеприимство, интерьер.
Formulation of the Problem
Tourism appeared in ancient times. Despite some pragmatic goals of the traveling such as visiting holy places, attending Olympic Games, tourism continued developing. In any case, such travellers needed shelter, food and rest. It explains why the spread of hotel and restaurant business and the history of its rapid development is closely connected with the intensification of traveling and expansion of services. Particularly, it is important at the present stage of social development because its association with the concept of hospitality as well as service.
Relevance and purpose of the study. In May of 2017, our country hosts many tourists who intend to attend the 62nd Annual Song Contest "Eurovision-2017". Due to Jamala's victory in Stockholm, it will take place in the capital of Ukraine - Kyiv. It is known, the several biggest cities of Ukraine have fought for the © Diachenko R., 2017 right to host the contest. In May 19 2016 5 five cities of Ukraine - Kyiv, Odesa, Lviv, Dnipro, Kherson, Kharkiv expressed their desire to organize the contest.
The capital of Ukraine won the competition. We do not focus on all qualifying points, related to selection. We only note that the fiercest fighting was between Kyiv and Lviv. Lviv has been occupying the first place in the category of "the best tourist city in Ukraine", that is why that situation was not surprised, especially for ordinary citizens, who were out of the different special technical features and pragmatism of the organizers.
To understand properly the cultural peculiarities of Lviv, which has been the most popular city among tourists, we should to make a brief historical overview, associated with the emergence of the establishments of hospitality in the city. Thus, the purpose of the research is to analyse cultural and artistic features of hospitality Lviv establishments of hospitality on the examples of old hotels and restaurants that act now and continue to attract tourists. Particularly, we are interested in the genesis of the establishments that have retained their basic functional profile.
First of all, we should analyse the background of the appearance of the hospitality establishments in Western ethnic regions of our country. They can be considered as the first establishments of this sphere. Exploring the origin of Ukraine in hotel and restaurant economy of hospitality, we can prove that they were contributed by the European orientation of Western regions of the country.
In 1672, the first coffee cafe began working in Kamenetz-Podolsk. This fact is documented. Finally, during the XVII century many coffee houses, appeared in Lviv and in Galicia in general.
In general, as for the western part of Ukraine the scientists found more than 20 thousand inns in Galicia at the beginning of the twentieth century. For poor people who traveled to Galicia, they were surely in handy. It is clear that the main visitors of such establishments were local residents, but travelers also often used them. It was very convenient for poor travelers to stay at the inn because food and drinks were usually quite cheap (although the range was very limited). The travelers could spend night free of charge. The buildings of hospitality were mostly wooden or mud. In winter, they were lined by sheaves for insulation. The roofs were thatched.
In general, the active development of coffee houses dates back to the first decade of the twentieth century. Thus, at the beginning of 1906 there were 25 coffee cafes in Lviv. In 1911 there were 46. At this time, the owners began to pay more attention to the interior. The "Vienna" type of coffee houses changed to "Warsaw" one.
Unfortunately, later the most part of the first hotels in the city was closed and rebuilt their interiors. The most of old "tsukernyas", restaurants and "knaipps" also disappeared in Lviv. There are establishments among thousands of restaurants, which have managed to survive in the hard period. For example, restaurants, which have been functioning for decades, continue working. Although they repeatedly changed their names, owners and clients, but they survived to our times and created their new interior with own traditions and cuisine. We can see among these establishments such as "Vienna coffee house", "Academic", "Theatrical", "Delicious gossip", "Centaur", "Kumpel", "Blue Bottle", "Split", "Puzata hata" and others .
"Viennese coffee house" is one the first cafes and the most popular cafes of Lviv. It is situated with the hotel "Viennese coffee house" in the Svoboda avenue, near the monument of Taras Shevchenko, the Theatre of Opera and The Square-Rynok.
The construction of the hotel "Vienna" and "Viennese coffee house" was started in 1829 by Karl Hartmann, a merchant. Later his wife and daughter continued it. At that period there were guest rooms in the hotel. In 1870 Antonio and Henovefa Zieber bought the coffee house and opened a buffet there. In their cafe they sold delicious Viennese strudel and croissants of their own production.
After The First World War, the hotel "Vienna" and "Viennese coffee house" could lose its name because of the desire to erase all traces of Austrian regime. However, they managed to maintain themselves and they became a label of the city.
After reconstruction in autumn 2005 the tourists liked "Vienna" (Figure 1) as a small family hotel, which combines a high level of service and a loyal pricing policy. "Only we have the Austrian sophistication and Ukrainian hospitality, historical sites and best location" - the site of the hotel says.
In "Viennese coffee house" traditionally, like many years ago, appoint business meetings and in the street lovers, couples and students meet under the clock .
By the mid-twentieth century in Lviv and its region, 47 hotels and 4 motels functioned. The most famous of them were city hotels "Grand Hotel", "Dniester", "George", "Lion's Castle", "Lviv", "Carpathians", "Tustan" .
In the range of XIX-XX centuries the style of modern was popular in the European architecture. In Austro-Hungary, it was well-known as a style of "Secession". Among the most famous historical city hotels during the Austro-Hungarian regime we should mention the first hotel "George", built in 1796. Then it was entitled " De La Rus" (it was called because it was the main place of hostility for travelers in the direction East - West and vice versa). Later, the hotel got the name "George Hotel" in honor of its famous founder - George Hoffman, a businessman. In 1894 the hotel was placed in the first building. Unfortunately, the hotel "George" was locked whereas in 1901 it was reopened in another place (Figure 2). There is also a first-class restaurant (today after the last reconstruction in 1990 its interior is designed in the neo-classical stylistics) and delicious coffee house. The Marble Hall offers concerts of live music, performed by the orchestra.
Figure 1. Hotel of "Vienna" and "Viennese coffee house" (past and present) (httD://www.lvivcenter.org/uk/uid/Dicture/?Dictureid=3512)
Figure 2. Hotel "George" (past and present)
"Grand Hotel" is one of the most luxurious and oldest hotels of the medieval Lviv (Figure. 3). It has interior in the style of late historicism - Neo-Baroque. It stated working in 1893 and contained a restaurant, built in the same style with the hotel.
The hotel is located in one of the most beautiful buildings of the city, built by famous architects of the XIX century. Its style is subtle Romanticism. Its architects are Erasmus Hermatnyk, Zygmunt Kendzerskyy and sculptor - Leonard Marconi. The house is situated among street area on the west side of the central avenue of the city. It forms the complex with the passage of Hausmann.
At first, there were many shops on the ground floor. There was art salon Jan Bromilskyi with furniture of Francis Tenerovych. There were also 48 rooms and a restaurant at the loft. In 1893 the hotel received electric lighting. It was considered as one of the best and most comfortable hotels.
In 1910 the company of Edmund Zhyhovych made the reconstruction of the hotel. A cafe "City", with a long balcony along the facade was established. After the Second World War there was a hotel ''Lviv" and then "Verkhovyna". At the Soviet period, popular cafe "Lvivianka" functioned on the first floor.
The design work on the restoration and reconstruction of the building were held in 1991-1992. Today, the lobby is decorated with stained glass "Galicia", made by Gregory Komsky (1992). After the last reconstruction, it became a part of hotel and restaurant complex "Grand Hotel".
The internal plan of the hotel is corridor. It means two-way deployment of rooms. The interior saved stucco decor .
The restaurant "Atlyas" (Figure. 4) with its reflections from the interior styles of the Middle Ages, had been one of the favorite restaurants of the city since 1880s. The restaurant was named after its first owner M.L. Atlyass who was well-known manufacturer of vodka, liqueurs and an inventor of "smetankivka" and "atlyasivka". The elites attended this establishment. There were concerts, exhibitions of paintings, literary and artistic evenings. When M. Atlyass's son-in-law Edward Tarlersky got the restaurant. "Go to Mr. Edzya" became the famous phrase in Lviv. Edward allowed entering the pubs for people. Everyone, who went to the toilet, said, "I go to Mr. Edzya". Coffee house was working the whole day. So people could drink and eat without interruption. The vodka "Nemuvka", named after the poet Heinrich Zbezhovsky - Nema was the most popular in Lviv.
Figure 3. Hotel "Grand" (past and present)
(http://www. famoushotels. org/hotels/1046)
There were several rooms in "Atlyas". They were "White", "Green", " Gray" and "Art". However, the most original room was a "Draft" one, which was popular, due to the tubes where visitors sat at and mugs, chained to tables. There was a small room in the coffee house, where the elite artistic bohemia of the city gathered.
Masters' painting, cartoons, poems, records of visitors decorated the tavern's walls .
Figure 4. Restaurant "Atlyas" (past and present) (http://photo-lviv.in.ua/naipopulvarnisha-knaipa-lvova-ta-prvvit-vid-pana-edzva)
It should also be emphasized that many hotel and restaurants, which are the proud of the city, were built on the edge of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They belong to works of art with its own architectural and interior design approaches and solutions and are designed by the best architects of that era.
In addition, choosing a hotel-restaurant complex, the elite of the first third of the twentieth century tried to get all kinds of comfort. People could visit the elegant restaurant or office. They also could use the omnibus or crew to travel with assistance of diligent workers. There were central heating, bathroom, sewerage, electric lighting and telephone in the hotel room. All of them had to create functional comfort and gifted aesthetic pleasure.
We should say that an interior is an important part of comfortable life and service. It is also a kind of art-project activities, which main task is to combine aesthetic, practical and pragmatic goals. Therefore, we decorate practical things with to make them aesthetic and beautiful. So decorative means of expression is a combination of content and artistic imagery. Naturally, the general requirements for interior design are aesthetics; decoration; art style that creates aesthetic attraction; providing the recreation by the various interactive solutions and psychological comfort, which provides a sense of security, good health and so on.
Thus, the interiors of the establishments of hospitality have to be functional and provide comfort, aesthetic pleasure whereas it display general stylistic characteristics of the room.
In addition, an interior attracts consumers and fights against elements of the premises. Unfortunately, today few owners can allow build the separate building for a restaurant and a hotel in the city where the architects would have much space to realize their imagination. There they would have opportunity to design premises in any ways and make them convenient and comfortable. We often have the situation, when an owner finds the ready premises and rebuild it, as he likes. However, in this case, we can meet some risks. If people do not follow the rules of the creating of an interior in the design, they will spoil everything. So different rooms have different interiors, which keep many consumers.
Consequently, many establishments, including cafes, offer customers excellent cuisine and interesting interiors. Today, Lviv is the leader of the number and quality of conceptual design solutions of interior of the restaurant service .
At the end of the twentieth century, many new restaurants with unusual formats appear in Lviv. Their owners thought that new establishments would give a solid profit in a month. Today, they are "Kriivka", "Mazoch-cafe", "Old Tram" etc. For example, "Kriivka" is connected with the history of the URA (Ukrainian Rebellion Army). The restaurant "Mazoch-cafe" exploits erotic themes. The owners of "Old Tram" specially bought an old tram and restored it in according to archival photos .
Finally, among Ukrainian cities, Lviv has been taken the first place in the tourism sphere. Ukrainians and foreigners want to visit it. The city successfully combines cultural-historical advantages with the modern decisions, concerned the conceptualization of the comfortable and interesting places of the dinning, living and having a good time for tourists and Lviv guests.
Unfortunately, the amount of article does not allow analyse all establishments of hotel and restaurant hospitality that is why we have chosen some of them. However, the further research of this area in other cities of our country is actual and perspective.
Hotel "Vienna". Retrieved from http://wienhotel.com.ua/uk/restaurant/restaurant history [in Ukrainian].
Р^^єп^, R. V. (2016). Forming of the design interior of the restaurant establishments of Ukraine of XX - the beginning of XXI centuries. Candidate's thesis. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
Interactive Lviv. Retrieved from http://www.lvivcenter.org/uk/lia/obiects/?ci obiectid=387 [in Ukrainian].
Lviv coffee houses - past and present. Retrieved from http://kava .lviv.ua/ua/news/553/~lvivski-kav-ya rni- mynule-i-teperishnie [in Ukrainian].
Malska, M. & Ganych, N. (2013). Restaurant business. Кум: fyiv National Good-Economic universities [in Ukrainian].
The Most popular knaipa of Lviv and congratulations from Mr. Edsya. Retrieved from http://photo- lviv.in.ua/najpopulyamisha-knajpa-lvova-ta-pryvit-vid-pana-edzya [in Ukrainian].
Pankova, E. (2003). Tourist regional science. Kyiv: А^фгес [in Ukrainian].
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