Idioms with the "food" concept

Dialect language as a phenomenon and call an interpreter. Characteristics of the major stages of translation. Transfer modalities talk phraseology of the "food" component. The main peculiarity of comparison the respective idioms Ukrainian and English.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 24.03.2016
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Курсову роботу присвячено способам передачі українською мовою фразеологізмів із компонентом Їжа. В роботі наведено та досліджено наукові думки в галузі фразеології, наведено також основні етапи перекладницької діяльності, співставлено відповідні фразеологічні одиниці української та англійської мов і проведено аналіз матеріалу. Всього в роботі використано 60 одиниць фразеологічних компонентів.

Ключові слова: переклад, перекладацький аналіз, фразеологія, фразеологічні одиниці, ідіоми, ідіоматичні вирази із компонентом Їжа.


English language as the other languages has own idioms and phraseological units. It is a phenomenon part of the language, because do it more brightness and picturesque.

These term papers' focused on the theme about phraseology and their components.

It is very topicality for study because it is a mistake when some sayings, proverbs and phrasal words perceive like a slang. First must to denote that some of idioms have long national history. As for slang, it has only psychological meaning and uses by the young people.

The main point of the research is to investigate phraseologisms and idioms in general. To describe the different types of classification of them. To establish the ways and methods of their translation and transformation.

The object of our investigation is to describe such type of phraseological units as the idioms with “food” component. To find and to apply in practice the ways and methods of translation and transformation.

In our work, will use a text with “food” component. In addition, will use the sayings, proverbs and phrasal words, which consider this component.

To see how it is in practice the text, sayings, proverbs and phrasal words will translate.

As for structure of the work, it considers two chapters. First, it is a theoretical chapter. It concludes of a few parts. There are terms and notions about translation and transformation. Besides will establish phraseological units as a language phenomenon. To talk about phraseological classification and components. To give the examples idioms with “food” components and their translation.

In the chapter 2 will describe the ways and methods of their translation and transformation. For that, will use the text, sayings, proverbs and phrasal words with “food” component to establish how it is applied in practice.

Chapter 1. Phraseological units: its main peculiarities from the point of view of linguistics

1.1 Phraseologisms as a language phenomenon and translator's challenge

To understand each other is an important part of our communication. However, if we want to do it well, we must know some rules of interpretation.

First, we must to definite the word “translation” as a term and notion. Therefore, it has a polysemantic nature, its common meaning mostly associated with the action or process if expressing the meaning content of source language word, word-group, and sentence rendering in the target language. From the other hand, it is the work performed by the translator. [1]

Another term - is synonymous to the word “translation”. The term “Interpretation” is often used to denote the way or manner of presenting the idea in translation orally. In this way of translation may be used artistic, genre and stylistic peculiarities. “Interpretation”, unlike “translation”, admits some more freedom of the translator in his treatment of the matter under translation.

Let us talk about phraseology. It is a part of lexicology and also it is main part of culture in every country. One of the method to present the phraseology is the phraseologisms or idioms. In every language, we can meet a lot of idioms. Idiomatic expressions are a vital component of English in particular. They reflect mentality and culture of the people, speaking this language. Ukrainian language has many idioms too. [1]

Idiomatic or phraseological expressions are structurally, lexically and semantically fixed phrases or sentences having mostly the meaning, which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their component parts.

Phraseology can be defined as the study of the structure, meaning and use of word combinations. Phraseological units have in important role to play in human communication. Whenever the author of the source text uses a phraseological unit, is the translator's duty to reproduce it with utmost fidelity, taking into account a great number of various factors.

Translator can use different ways of translation in his work. It depends on the purpose of his work, skill of the translator and of course of the type of the matter for translation. Among them:

Literal translating. This type of translating means that the separate words, the form and the structure fully coincide with the same words in the source language.

In cases, however, the lingual form of the source language words is only partly conveyed in the target language. In this type of translation also includes the method of interpretation by the literal or translator's transcription. It means that you use only orthographic or sounding part in the translation. [2]

In some cases, during the literal interpretation, the translation of some words of the source language can coincide with some words in the target language, but they have quite different meanings.

Verbal translating is also employed at word level. In this type is not used the orthographic or the sounding transformations in the translation from the source language to the target.

Using the verbal translation, you have a choice among some variants, which is impossible in literal.

Such type of translation does not provide a faithful conveying of sense or content at other than word level. Very often, it makes up the language units ungrammatical and pervert or completely ruin their sense. [2]

Verbal translation is widely employed when the lexical meaning if separate words is to be identified.

Word-for-word translation presents a consecutive verbal translation at the level of word-groups and sentences. It usually employs word-for-word translation to convey the sense of word-group or sentences, which have a structural from, the order of words, and the means of connection quite different from those in the target language. To achieve faithfulness in translation, word-for-word variants are to be corrected.

The interlinear way is used for a strictly faithful rendering of sense expressed by sentences at the level of some text. It means that the translator must to understand not only some words or word-combinations or sentences, but some part of the text to transfer the sense of it.

Sometimes the one sentence has a few variants of translation. To choice one of them you as a translator must to consider the aim and the circumstances in the translation. Various transformations in such type of translating are inevitable as they are caused by grammatical or structural, stylistic and other divergences in the source and target language. [2]

Literary translating represents the highest level of translator's activity. Depending on the type of the matter under translation, this method of performance may be either literary proper and literary artistic.

Literary artistic translation presents a faithful conveying of content and of all artistic merits only of a fiction passage or work.

Literary proper translation is performed on any other than fiction works. These may include scientific or technical matter, different textbooks, business correspondence, the language of documents, etc.

We should mention here of the pragmatic aspects of the translating process. The communicants involved in interlingual communication speak different languages, but they also belong to different cultures, have different knowledge, different social and historical background. This is the main fact in translator's strategy to make the work of translator more truthful and quality.

1.2 Different approaches in classifications of phraseological units

Idiomatic expressions create a significant portion of our everyday communication. Even at present modern times, we use expressions whose original sense lies far away from their present communicative function.

There are three main types of lexical combinability of words:

Free combination - grammatical properties of words are the main factor of their combinability. The translation of those combinations does not provide any changes in the translation of their elements. [1]

Collocations - are the habitual associations of a word in a language with other particular words. Speakers become accustomed to such collocations.

Idioms, which can be regarded as collocations, because they consist of several words that tend to be used together, but they are different because it is difficult to guess meaning of the whole idiom from the separate meanings of the parts.

In phraseological units, we find the last two types of lexical combinability of words. Therefore, they can be defined as stable word groups characterized by a completely or partially transferred meaning.

There exist different classifications of phraseological units from the synchronic point of view based on different approaches: semantic by V.V.Vinogradov, functional by A.I. Smirnitsky, contextual by H.N.Amosova.

V.V. Vinogradov's classification is considered to be the oldest and the most popular. It is based on the degree of idiomaticity and divides phraseological units into three groups:

Fusion - non-motivated idiomatic groups. Here the meaning of the individual words can not be summed together to produce the meaning of the whole.

E.g. Red tape - бюрократія; White elephant - подарунок, якого важко позбутися; Once in a blue moon - на Микола, або ніколи

Phraseological unity is a semantically indivisible phraseological unit the whole meaning of which is motivated by the meanings of its components.

In general, phraseological unities are the phrases where the meaning of the whole unity is not the sum of the meanings of its components but is based upon them and may be understood from the components. The meaning of the significant word is not too remote from its ordinary meanings. This meaning is formed as a result of generalized figurative meaning of a free word-combination. It is the result of figurative metaphoric reconsideration of a word-combination. [2]

E.g. To make a mountain out of a molehill - робити з мухи слона; To play second fiddle - грати другорядну роль; Husband's tea - дуже слабенький чай

Phraseological unities are characterized by the semantic duality. One can't define for sure the semantic meaning of separately taken phraseological unities isolated from the context, because these word-combinations may be used as free in the direct meaning and as phraseological in the figurative meaning. [1]

Phraseological collocations or standardized phrases are the word groups with the components whose combinative power is strictly limited.

E.g. To make friends - потоваришувати; To take into account - брати до уваги

Phraseological expressions are the proverbs, sayings, and aphoristic familiar quotations.

E.g. Birds of a father flock together - Одного поля ягоди; Still water runs deep - Тиха вода греблю рве; Brevity is the soul of wit - Стислість сестра таланту

Structural-semantic classification of phraseological units by professor A.V. Kunin.

Phraseological units reflect the wealth of a language displaying cultural phraseologisms of the speakers of a particular language. They reflect cultural architypes of ethno-linguistic community and help to make explicit the peculiarities of its world perception.

According to professor Kunin - a phraseological unit is a stable combination of words with fully or partially figurative meaning.

This definition is suited for the purpose as it includes two properties of phraseological units: stability and figurative meaning, which differentiate these units from the word combination, and also from the set expressions. [2]

This classification is considered the most detailed one. In own definition he keeps close watch to the elements of phraseology which have not be emphasized by the researchers.

Structural-semantic classification:

Nominative phraseological units, which stand for a certain notion denoting things, actions and properties.

E.g. A hard not to crack - незламний; Dead Sea apple - яблуко розбрату; Still life - a term used by artists to describe amotionless picture of a bowl of fruit, flowers, etc.; For dear life - комфорт.

Communicative phraseological units are those units whose structure is a simple, complex and compound sentences. He distinguishes two types of them: proverbs and sayings. [3]

E.g. Slow and steady wins the race - тихіше їдеш, далі будеш; there is no smoke without fire - не буває диму без вогню; Life is not bed of roses - життя прожити не ниву перейти; Like a cat on hot bricks - сидіти як на голках, як вуж на сковорідці.

Nominative-communicative phraseological units are the units, which belong to this class of verbs:

E.g. Life from hand to mouth - жити від зарплати до зарплати; Live not to eat, but eat to life - жити не заради того, щоб їсти, а їсти заради того, щоб жити; To lead a fast life - вести безпутне життя; Make love not war - кохайте, а не воюйте.

Pragmatic - the interjection of the speaker and the hearer in communication. Phraseological units include interjectional idioms and repose phrases. They are used to express emotions and feelings.

E.g. Drop dead! - Замовкни! Стихни! Oh my eye! = Oh my God! - О Боже! As sure as eggs is eggs - 100% впевнений; Such is life! - Ось це так життя!

Professor Smirnitsky classifies phraseological units according to the functional principle. Two groups are distinguished: phraseological units and idioms.

Phraseological units are neutral, non-metaphorical when compared to idioms:

E.g. Get up, fall asleep, to take to drinking.

Idioms are metaphoric, stylistically coloured:

E.g. To take the bull by the horns, to beat about the bush, to bark up the wrong tree.

Structurally prof. Smirnitsky distinguishes one-summit (one-member) and many-summit (two-member, three-member, etc.) phraseological units, depending on the number of notional words:

E.g. Against the grain, to carry the day (вийти переможцем), to have all one's eggs in one basket.

Professor Amosova classifies phraseological units according to the type of context. Phraseological units are marked by fixed or permanent context, which can't be changed: French leave (but not Spanish or Ukraine). Two groups are singled out: phrases and idioms. [3]

Phrases consist of two components one of which is praseologically bound, the second serves as the determining context:

E.g. green eye (ревниве око), green hand (неосвічений робітник), green years (юні роки), green wound (рана, що не заживає), etc.

Idioms are characterized by idiomaticity: their meaning is created by the whole group and is not a mere combination of the meanings of its components:

E.g. red tape(бюрократія), mare's nest (нонсенс), to pin one's heart on one's sleeve (не приховувати своїх почуттів).

Source of idioms are quite different. It takes from everyday life, from the Bible, from the world literature, from different languages and from the history.

1.3 Idioms with “Food” component

The language without idioms is lifeless and dry. It is perceived as a pupils' language. Therefore, this area of the language must be studied. There is a mistake when the idioms are perceived as a slang. It is not right.

Idioms are the important part of every language. Instead of idioms, slang is a very narrow part of the language. Slang is used by the young people to understand each other better. It has psychological meaning. But idioms are the folk art, which has a history.

As for English idioms, that is the peculiarity part of language, which determines the difference between the English and American variants.

As it sad before, idioms have different types. And one of them are the idioms with “food” component.

Let us see some phraseological collocations and some sayings.

1. Apple of one's eye - «зіниця ока» или «світ очей» -- даний вираз застосовується для вираження почуття любові до людини, рідше предмета, до якого ставимося особливо трепетно. [4]

E.g. Mary is full of life and gaiety. She is an apple of my eye. - Мері сповнена життя та радощів. Вона світ очей моїх.

2. Cool as a cucumber - даний вираз стосується людини, яка здатна контролювати власні почуття та емоції, а також не піддається почуттям паніки. Іншими совами залишається непохитним, холоднокровним. [4]

E.g. Nick and Tom were very anxious before the interview but Andrew was cool as a cucumber. - Нік та Том були дуже схвильовані перед співбесідо, проте Ендрю залишався непохитним(зберігав непохитний спокій).

3. Hard nut to crack -цей вислів перекладається як «міцний горішок» і застосовується, коли ми говоримо про людину, на думку або поведінку якої важко вплинути. [5]

E.g. I did my best to force him come here, but he is a hard nut to crack. - Я приклав максимальних зусиль, щоб примусити його прийти сюди, проте він виявився «міцним горішком» (непохитним). [5]

This sum is a hard nut to crack for a boy of 10. - Цей приклад надто важкий, щоб його міг розв'язати 10 річний хлопчик.

4. It's another cup of tea (altogether) -- даний вислів застосовується, коли ми хочемо сказати, що справа не стосується попередньої, або ж перекладемо цей вислів як «дві великі різниці». [5]

E.g. Web-mastering doesn't relate to programming. It's quite another cup of tea. -- створення веб-сторінок немає нічого спільного із програмуванням. Це дві великі різниці..

Для передачі цього ж значення використовується і інший вислів - another kettle of fish (altogether).

I'd driven an automatic for years but learning to handle a car with gears was another kettle of fish altogether. - я багато років водив машину із автоматичною коробкою передач, проте навчитися їздити на машині із механічною коробкою, зовсім інша справа.

5. Be like chalk and cheese - цей вислів має на увазі речі, які за своїм змістом та формою не схожі один на одного, тобто абсолютно різні. [5]

E.g. I was surprised when I heard they were sisters. They are like chalk and cheese. - я був здивований дізнатися, що вони сестри. Вони абсолютно не схожі.

6. Make one's mouth water -- цей вислів використовують для вираження почуттів в очікуванні смачної, апетитної їжі. [4]

E.g. The smell of barbecue made my mouth water - від запаху шашлику у мене аж слинки потекли.

7. Full of beans - в перекладі означає бути сповненим енергії та ентузіазма, бути в натхненні, піднесенні. [6]

E.g. I've never met anyone so full of beans before breakfast. - я ще ніколи не зустрічав такої людини, яка була б в такому піднесенні з самого ранку.

Another example is the phraseological collocations. Let us see them and their translations.

Couch potato - дане словосполучення у своєму складі містить слова couch -- диван, и potato - картопля. Даний вислів описує людину, яка весь час сидить на дивані і не збирається із нього вставати. Про таку людину кажуть лінюх або ледацюга. [4]

E.g. My husband became a real couch potato - he spends all day long in front of the TV. -- мій чоловік перетворився на справжнього лінюха. Весь свій час він проводить лежачи перед телевізором.

Half-baked - прямим перекладом даного словосполучення є «недопечений», а в переносному значенні ми кажемо, що рішення було необдумане, прийняте поспіхом, або недопрацьована робота чи план. Коли ми говоримо про людину, то це недосвідчена, ще надто молода. [6]

E.g. This project can't be accepted, it is half baked. - Цей проект недопрацьований, а тому не може бути прийнятий.

It is unreasonable to entrust this matter to a half-baked specialist. - Недоцільно доручати цю справу спеціалісту без досвіду.

Bad apple - говорять про людину, яка на фоні усіх інших є поганою. Іншими словами кажуть, що людина капосна, або просто негідник.

E.g. You can find a bad apple in every company. - Капосну людиу можна знайти у кожній компанії.

Big cheese - говорять про діже важливу особу.

E.g. A big cheese will give everyone a bonus at the end of the year. - Бос виплатить бонус кожному в кінці року.

Egg head - говорять про розумника, інтелектуала. На таку людину також кажуть, що він батан. [6]

E.g. In spite of this love of reading the denied being an egghead. - Навіть через таку любов до читання він не стане батаном.

Lemon law - кажуть про закон, який гарантує покупцям повернення коштів за товар, якість якого не відповідає оголошеній.

E.g. Automobile lemon law of this state is designed to protect the customers form unsafe and defective new car. -Захисний закон стосовно автомобілей створено, щоб вберегти покупців від небезпечних та несправних машин.

Sour grape - говорять про людину, що нездатна сама отримати те, що є у інших, про нещиру людину. [5]

E.g. She said, she didn't want to join the club anyway, but I bet it was clearly sour grapes. - Вона сказала, що нізащо не приєднається до нас, проте закладаюсь, що це було не щиро.

Top banana - про людину, що займає дуже високу посаду, «великий бос», «шишка», директор організації чи об'єднання. [4]

E.g. Tom is the captain of the handball team. Everyone knows he is the top banana. - Том капітан команди з гандболу. Усі знають, що він головний директор (шишка).

Though cookie - кажуть про людину із міцними нервами. Беземоційна людина, яку не ранять чужі слова або дії. [5]

E.g. Your son is a tough cookie but I can handle him. - Ваш син беземоційна не пробивна людина, проте я все одно звернуся до нього.

Let us summarize. So in chapter 1 of our Coursework we considered some important parts of the phraseological units. Among them the main peculiarities of linguistics, phraseologisms as a language phenomenon, different types of classifications. [29]

It was discussed about the ways and the methods of translations and transformations in Ukrainian language different word groups, collocations, sentences and compound sentences. How its hard sometimes to translate or transformation some of them. Try to understand why the idioms so important part of every language, and why we must to study them.

Besides we considered idioms with “food” component, gave the examples of their translation and application. [27]

Chapter 2. Ways of translation of phraseological units with “Food” component from English into Ukrainian

2.1 Ways of translation of phraseological units with “Food” component

The main point in the translation of idioms or phrases with “food” component is the translation, which involves culture bound and like puns. These components are a necessary part during the translation from the source language to the target language. The translator must do a work to lead to compliance some phases from one language to another. [12]

In some cases in the process of interlingual translation, one idiom is substituted for another, and this substitution does not independent from the linguistic elements, nor from the image in the phrase, but from the function of the idiom in general.

E.g. Don't quarrel with your bread and butter. - Не плюй в криницю - прийдеться води напитися.

Don't teach fishes to swim. - Не вчи вченого їсти хліб печений.

It has to lead to the meaning of the idiom or phrases during the translation from the source language to the target language. There are often proverbs and sayings.

In his definition of translation equivalence, Popovich distinguishes four types:

· Linguistic equivalence - it means word for word translation.

· Paradigmatic equivalence - it means the elements of a paradigmatic expressive axis', which Popovich sees as being a higher category than lexical equivalence.

· Stylistic (translational) equivalence - it means that the functional elements of the phrases or idioms in both languages are approximately. In the other words they have no an identical meanings.

· Textual (syntagmatic) equivalence - it means that equivalence depends on the structure of a text, of form and shape. [9]

Translation involves far more than replacement of lexical and grammatical items between languages and, as can be seen in the translation of idioms, the process may involve discarding the basic linguistic elements of the source language text so as to achieve Popovich's goal of 'expressive identity' between the source language and target language texts. But, once the translator moves away from close linguistic equivalence, the problems of determining the exact nature of the level of equivalence aimed for begin to emerge. [22]

The other author I. Korunets classificates idiomatic or phraseological expressions as a structurally, lexically and semantically fixed phrases or sentences, which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their components.

He says that on rare occasion the lexical of idiomatically bound expressions can coincide with their direct. It means that it has not transferred meaning which facilities their understanding.

The idioms with “food” component are the stable expressions usually. Very often during the translation, the translator does not guess the meaning of English idiom. Only philological inquiry help establish the meaning of the idioms with “food” component and the real sense of the idiom. [28]

E.g. Dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad. - В гостях добре, а в дома краще. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure. - Їж в волю, а пий в міру.

Some of these idioms for the both languages may have different literary images and reflect the traditions, customs, the way of conduct or the mode of life of a nation. Their meanings due to absence of similar idioms in the target language may be sometimes achieved with help of single word.

E.g. Cool as a cucumber - холоднокровний, piece of cake - легко, nutty as a fruitcake - нетямущий, навіжений.

In our case can not used the word-for-word translation, because almost of all of these idioms or phrases must lose their direct definition.

The choice of the way of translation may independent from the source language or from the absence of contextual equivalents from the stable expression in the target language. [6]

As it said before, such type of idioms or standardized collocations may have synonymous single words in the target language. It depends on the meaning of the phraseologisms and on the style of the sentence where are used.

Very often, the translation traditional combinations may be translated with free equivalents. It means that when the translator does a work some of words or word combinations may be not translated.

E.g. Sell like hot cakes - розкуповувати нарозхват. Cards depicting Santa are selling like a hot cakes. You can't have both. You can't your cake and eat it.- Ти не можеш отримати усе. Ти не зможеш зробити так, щоб і вовк був ситий і віці цілі.

Faithful translating of a large number of picturesque phraseological expressions, on the other hand, can be achieved only by a thorough selection of variants having in the target language a similar to the original lexical meaning, and also their picturesqueness and expressiveness. This similarity can be used on common in the source language and in the target language componental images as well as on the structural form of them. As a result, the meaning of such idioms is mostly guessed be the translator, which generally facilities their translations. [13]

E.g. Fish begins to stink at the head. - Риба гниє з голови. Forbidden fruit is sweetest. - Заборонений плід завжди бажаний. Have bigger fish to fry - Мати багато важливих справ.

A number of phraseological units, due to their common source of origin, are characterized in English and Ukrainian by partial or complete identity of their syntactic structure, their componental images, picturesqueness and expressiveness. Such kind of idioms often preserve a similar or even identical word order in the source language and in the target language. [3]

E.g. Like to peas in a pod. - Схожі як дві краплі води. Walk on eggshells - Ходити на шпиньках. Jam tomorrow - Марні обіцянки.

National or colloquial variants of international idiomatic substitutes, therefore, always differ considerably by their picturesqueness, expressiveness and their lexical meaning. They are only semantically analogous to genuine equivalents, which may sometimes lack absolute identity in the source language and in the target language.

E.g. We were amazed at the number of people who had found out on the grapevine. - Ми були здивовані, що значна кількість людей дізналися про ці чутки.

Therefore, almost each of idiomatic expressions has either a different form of component, a different word order or a slightly different lexical meaning of a componental part. Yet despite the pointed out divergences such and like idiomatic phraseological units do not cease to be absolute equivalents in either of two languages.

Isomorphic is also the existence in both the languages of a number of idiomatic expressions, which are of regular sentence-type structure containing some common componental part. Hence, their lexical meaning, nothing to say about their componental images, their picturesqueness and their expressiveness are identical as well. [2]

E.g. Some argue that while a coherent system may be disable, it is not що послідовна система залишається мрією, це щось не реальне з тих пір, як ігнорується реальність.

As can noticed, some English and Ukrainian expressions are far from uniform lexically, structurally, and be their componental images, picturesqueness and expressiveness. They do not always spring form the same of origin either. Because of this, a faithful translation of phraseological expressions depends upon some factors the main of which are as follow: [1]

· whether the idiomatic expression in the source language and in the target is for the same or different source of origin;

· whether the idiomatic expression has n the target language only one, more than one or all images, when translated, are perceived by the target languages speakers;

· whether the structural form of the idiomatic expressions can be retained in the target language without any transformations;

· whether there exists an analogous or similar in sense idiomatic expression in the target language.

Not all these and some other factors should be neglected when translating of these expressions from and into English. In fact, here exists a regular interdependence between the lexical meaning, the origin, the picturesqueness and the expressiveness of idioms on the one hand and the method of their translating on the other.

Talking into a count these and some other factors, the following ways of faithful rendering the idiomatic or phraseological units are to be followed: [21]

Absolute or complete equivalents;

· translation of idioms by choosing near equivalents;

· translation by choosing genuine idiomatic analogies;

· translating idioms by choosing approximate analogies;

· descriptive translating of idiomatic and set expressions.

The next step of our work is to investigate all if these points in detail.

Absolute or complete equivalents in translation of idioms with “Food” component

This is the way of translating by which every component part of the source language idiom is retained in the target language unchanged.

These componental parts include all notional and lexically charged functional which contribute to the lexical meaning of the idioms with “food” component.

The notional components are also create the main images and figurative meaning of phraseological units. [4]

Translating with the help of equivalents is resorted to when dealing with idioms which originate from the same source in both the languages in question. These may be are:

1. Greek or other mythology.

E.g. Spill the beans - full of beans. - Сповнений енергії. - After the sleep, I was again full of beans. - Після сну я знову сповнений енергії.

Apple of discord - a bone of connection. - Яблуко розбрату. - Yesterday his point of view became an apple of discord. - Учора його точка зору стала приводом до суперечки.

2. Ancient history or literature.

E.g. The milk of human kindness - співчуття, доброта. - Dear old Martha had much of the milk of human kindness about her; she never berguded sharing whatever she had (From Sharspear's Macbeth, I v)

The grapes are sour (Aesop) - «зелений виноград». It may sound like sour grapes, but I assure you I feel no bitterness, just disappointment.

3. The Bible or works on a biblical plot.

E.g. Adam's apple - forbidden fruit. - Заборонений плід; Fruit of your lions - Діти; The salt of the Earth - Сіль Землі; Corn in Egypt - Надлишок чогось, достаток; Loaves and fishes - Земні блага; To seat under one's vine and fig-tree - сидіти під своєю лозою і смоківницею (тобто спокійно і безпечно сидіти вдома).

A great many absolute equivalents originate from contemporary literary or historical sources relating to different languages. Among them French, Spanish, Danish, German, Italian and Arabic. [19]

Most of them belong to their native authors. Because of their stability, they have become known in the whole world. Let us see the examples.

E.g. the grapes of wrath - грона гніву (вперше зустрічається у творі Дж. Хоу “Battle Hymn of the Republic”, 1862) - USA; Appetite comes with eating - апетит приходить під час їжі (вперше зустрічається у творі «Про причини», 1815) - France;

Caviar to the general - занадто тонке блюдо для грубого смаку. Shakspear; The banana republic (O'Henry) - бананова республіка.

Some of idioms of this type of translating originate from national folklore.

E.g. The rotten apple injures its neighbors - паршива вівця все стадо псує; Find the bean in the cake - пощастило; Good vine needs no bush - хороший товар сам себе хвалить;

Some of them traditional ground.

E.g. Apple-pie bed - it was a tradition in English school, when someone of student was linked in his bed. It is look like pie.

Translating with help of monoequivalents, as the absolute equivalents are sometimes called, is very often made use of when dealing with sentence idioms containing the subject, the predicate and some other parts of the sentence, though some minor alterations in their structure or word order may not be excluded altogether. Such alterations do not influence on their images, picturesqueness or their expressiveness and figurative meaning. Such example we can see in a phase Appetite comes while eating - апетит приходить під час їжі. [26]

Not only regular idioms but also many so-called standardized word-combination, which may often originate in the two languages from a common source, can be translated by absolute equivalents.

That's why, they retain in the target language the semantic identity, and the componental structure of the source language units.

Sometimes stable word-combinations can be translated in the other way. It calls “translation by means of loans” («переклад за допомогою калькування»).

Choosing near equivalents in translation of idioms with “Food” component

The meaning of a number of idioms with “food” component have a common source in both languages. Unlike absolute equivalents, one or even most of their components have difference.

This type of translating the idioms with “food” component can used when it has no any require transferring their picturesqueness and expressiveness. [16]

The slight divergences in the near equivalents are displayed in some aspects:

1) in the structure of the target language variant;

E.g. Butter someone up - бути вкрай люб'язним з кимось (у цілях своєї вигоди). «Підмащуватися» - задобрити. We'll have to butter father up before we tell him the news about the broken car - Ми повинні задобрити тата, перш ніж сповістити йому про поламану машину.

Cream of the crop - кращий у своєму роді;

Yesterday Jim bought DVD with the cream of the crop of this season's movies. - Вчора Джім купив DVD з кращими фільмами цього сезону.

2) In omission or adding of a componental part in the target language;

E.g. Make one's mouth water - слинка тече;

The restaurant is supposed to be wonderful and every time that I see the menu it makes my mouth water. - Ресторан повинен бути чудовим, так як кожного разу, коли я його бачу, у мене слинка тече.

3) In substitution of a features or image of the source language phraseological or idiomatic expression for some other in the target language;

E.g. Bread and butter - головне, основна частина;

Just explain the bread and butter of your report. You don't have to go into details. - Поянсни основні пункти твоєї доповіді. Не птрібно вдаватися до деталей.

4) In the generalization of the features of the source language idiomatic expression;

E.g. apple of one's eye - бути чиїмось улюбленцем;

Baby Jessica is the apple of her father's eye. - Крихітка Джесіка улюблениця свого батька.

5) In the concretization of some features of the source language idiomatic expression;

E.g. carrot top - людина з рудим волоссям. - Simon is the first carrot top I've ever gone out with. - Саймон найрижіший з усіх, кого я коли-небудь зустрічав.

Similar componental substitution during the translation of the idioms with “food” component can be observed in regular standardized collocations and in comparative proverbs or sayings.

E.g. Man does not live by bread alone. - Не хлібом єдиним живе людина.

All bread is not baked in one oven. -- Не весь хліб з однієї печі (Всі люди різні).

To know on which side one's bread is buttered. -- Знати, з якого боку твій хліб намазаний. Too much pudding will choke the dog. -- Від занадто великого шматка пудингу і собака подавиться.


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