Vectors of scientific research in the field of preschool education
Kostiantyn Luchakovskyi’s manuals as experience of integrative learning of ukrainian and world literature. Optimization the main methods of mastering of the theoretical knowledge by future teachers in the course of studying of professional disciplines.
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VECTORS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
1. VECTORS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
The methodological training basis of teacher of pre-school educational institution is: humanistic, personal, competence-based, systematic, activity- related, environmental, axiological, cultural, anthropological, synergistic and ethnic-pedagogical approaches. Professional training of future teachers is based on the person-centered education paradigm.
Person-centered model of pre-school education makes provisions for: learning by the teachers of age and individual characteristics of pre-school children development; creation of specific, individually-oriented system of training and education of preschool children.
Person-centered activities of future teachers of pre-school educational institution allows for: future teacher's awareness of his/hers role in child's personality formation, ability to understand the child; performing of qualified professional pedagogical interactions of grown-up and child on the principles of collaboration and co-creation in the forms and activity types specific for the preschooler; ability to assess the level of development, politeness, proficiency and adaptability of child bringing-up and educational process to his/hers individual characteristics; designing of child's personality and collective development, forecasting of activity efficiency, research approach to the child, which is aimed at the study of his/hers personalities and at the search for optimal development and self-development ways; amendment of educational process organization depending on the current conditions; creative approach to the activity (development and solving of problem-based situations, formulation of creative tasks).
Training of specialists in the higher school represents the process of professional competence formation that, along with domain knowledge, includes psychological and socio-psychological readiness of the personality to future activity.
Therefore, improvement of the higher pedagogical school requires relevant changes in the system of professional and pedagogical training of the future teacher of pre-school educational institution.
Area of scientific research is determined by the timely character of readiness of teachers to the work with children in pre-school educational institutions on aesthetic, speech, ecological and ethnography education issues. The work of scientists is aimed at the updating not only the content of staff training for pre-school education, but also at diversification of forms and methods of pedagogical subjects teaching in higher educational institutions.
Key words: preschool education, problems of research, training of preschool education, a willingness.
2. KOSTIANTYN LUCHAKOVSKYI'S MANUALS AS EXPERIENCE OF INTEGRATIVE LEARNING OF UKRAINIAN AND WORLD LITERATURE
Galyna BILAVYCH, Irina ROZMAN
The character of K. Luchakovskyi plays an important role in history of development of Ukrainian literary studies, manual making and classical languages translation into Ukrainian, methodology of teaching of Ukrainian and world literature. He is the author of numerous school-books for secondary school, poetical, prose and dramatic works of high artistic merit, letters, diaries, sermons, memoirs, travelling essays, literary, history, zoology, astronomy, philosophy surveys, etc.
K. Luchakovskyi was born in 1846 in the village of Yavche in Berezhan- shchyna district (Ternopil region). He was died in 1912 in Lviv. K. Luchakovskyi's groundwork is interesting not only as «formal representative» of national linguo-pedagogical concept, but also as valuable practical source which still has scientific and methodological importance for solving actual problems of improvement of language and literature teaching. Being the author of many manuals in the area of literary studies he insisted on integrated combination of Ukrainian and world literature, learning of finest Ukrainian and foreign writings in secondary schools of Galychyna at the end of 19th - at the early 20th centuries.
K. Luchakovskyi's manuals have not only great educational and knowing potential, but also significant national-patriotic orientation. Clear evidence of it is the fact that chrestomathy called «Vzory poezii i prozy» (Patterns of Poetry and Prose) was forbidden to bring in Russian empire among other writings which were published abroad.
K. Luchakovskyi's experience of textbooks making deserves creative using in the process of integrative teaching of Ukrainian and world literature and language in modern educational institutes at various levels. It enables to strengthen the role of intersubject communications in language education through simultaneous using of Ukrainian and world-classic works of different genres.
Key words: Kostiantyn Luchakovskyi, manuals, Ukrainian literature, world literature, literary studies.
3. PRECONDITIONS OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GIFTED STUDENTS EDUCATION IN THE USA, CANADA AND UK
In article the preconditions of formation and development of education for gifted students in the United States, Canada and the UK are highlighted. The evolutionary changes in the understanding of the nature of giftedness and characteristics of provision of the pedagogical support of these children and youth of the school age from ancient times to the late nineteenth century are identified.
It is concluded that talent at all the times, starting from the earliest aroused the interest of humanity. The evolution of the ideological vision of the problem reflects the «Three Phase Model» of A. Comte, according to which at the first, theological stage, people explain the phenomenon of giftedness from the standpoint of the supernatural as a gift from God; at the second, metaphysical or abstract stage, the person believes that the essence of this phenomenon lies outside the physical world, and therefore is protected from empirical attacks; at the third, scientific or positive stage, there is an introduction of the controlled empirical approach to research on giftedness.
It is proved that the first institutionalized attempts to provide special education services to gifted students in the countries under study took place in the second half of the XIX century. It is found that in the second half of the XIX century. It is found out that the most common form of pedagogical support of gifted students was the so-called «flexible promotion» that allowed the students to finish the first eight grades without attending lectures, however, learning the full scope of the curriculum. This form of pedagogical support of gifted children and youth had not lost its popularity till the 20-ies of the XXth century, gradually giving way to such form as skipping classes.
The promising directions for further research are revealing the genesis and outlining the stages of gifted students education development in the United States, Canada and Great Britain in the XX - the beginning of the XXI century.
Key words: gifted students, formation and development of education of gifted students, USA, Canada, UK.
4. OPTIMIZATION METHODS OF MASTERING OF THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE BY FUTURE TEACHERS IN THE COURSE OF STUDYING OF PROFESSIONAL DISCIPLINES
Natalya GAVRYSH, Olena BREZHNEVA
Attention is focused on changes that occur in the educational process of higher educational establishments of Ukraine: teaching based on the credit- transfer system of educational process organization, change of presentation and interpretation logic of educational, scientific and methodical material, teacher and student's positions changes, accentuating on providing of their subjectness etc. The analyzed body of researches into the problems of professional preparation of future teachers. Separately distinguished researches into teachers' professional preparation to the teaching children bases of mathematics and development of speech (L. Zaytseva, E. Kochemasova, N. Freylah, O. Funti- kova, K. Shcherbakova, A. Bogush, A. Goncharenko, K. Krutiy, I. Lutsenko etc.). Are determined scientific works studied the subjective position of student as important factor of him active plugging in the process of studies (L. Gurie, M. Klarin, A. Kriulina, O. Linnik, O. Meshchaninov); research into didactic intensification of educational activity of students (Y. Babanskiy, I. Galyan, V. Davidov, V. Evdokimov, A. Kuzminskiy, S. Malihina).
The purpose of the article consists in opening of efficiency of individual optimization methods of mastering of theoretical knowledge in the process of study of professional disciplines by students of preschool speciality, presentation of results related to it local experimental research. Are analysed results of experimental research, conducted with the students of Lugansk Taras Shevchenko National University, Mariupol State University, Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Problem questions are marked in the methodics of teaching the future teachers of professional disciplines. On the basis of scientific researches V. Davidov, P. Kosm, N. Menchinska, A. Smirnov intellectual operations are analysed in details: analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, abstracting, systematization and classification, their maintenance is exposed and the essence descriptions are given. Depending on ideas of I. Pasichnik, L. Stoylova, N. Freylah, S. Shadrina, G. Tarasenko, is described the chart- algorithm of application of methods of systematization, algorithmization, structurally semantic charts etc. for the qualitative mastering by the students of preschool specialty of theoretical bases of two central methodical disciplines - theory and methods of logically-mathematical development of preschool age children and preschool linguodidactics. The covering system of the use of noted methods is explained on concrete examples and their efficiency is proven.
Key words: systematization of an educational material, classification, algorithmization, logical ways of thinking, structural-semantic scheme, mode- rative seminars.
5. THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF THE TEACHER'S PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: GLIMPSES OF HISTORY OF SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES
Formation of the teacher's personality is one of the key theoretical problems researched by the Department of General Pedagogy and Preschool Education under Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University. The article provides an overview of key issues and subject areas researched by the Department of General Pedagogy and Preschool Education.
The range of topical issues dominating pedagogical conferences of recent years indicates a great interest towards the polyparadigmatic nature of conceptual modeling, formation and functioning of personality, the interdisciplinary character of personological studies. It signals the need for appraisal of ways to modernize and improve teacher training effectiveness that might help overcome the crisis in the field of pedagogy.
Analysis of theoretical developments and practical achievements in system of education made possible to identify a number of contradictions between: the need of society to citizens with established system of values and the actual state of the process of targeting children and youth; possibilities of value content of upbringing and insufficient level of use it in the educational process and motivation of young people to the development of this content.
The ever increasing requirements for the teacher's professional and cultural level and, therefore, spiritual, intellectual and overall personal qualities call for a greater focus on teacher training. Another widely addressed problem is that of training integration and coordination. Interconnection between integration and differentiation accounts for interdisciplinary ties which become apparent in the process of the future teacher's personality formation.
Scientific reports and discussions of pedagogical issues enable the participants to share their teaching and cultural experience, improve communicative ability in foreign languages, inspire them to implement further international projects. Combining actual teacher training competence and modern trends of various national education systems may help create the basis of the successful teacher's personality development and introduction of a new teacher training concept.
Key words: personality, modern teacher, polyparadigmatic nature, training content, conferences, pedagogical university.
6. POLISH PEDAGOGICAL JOURNALS IN GREAT BRITAIN IN THE 20th AND 21st CENTURY
The article discusses Polish pedagogical journals published in Great Britain in the 20th and 21st century. Magazines for children and young people evolved from columns and sections edited in emigrant periodicals published in exile in London since 1940: «Polish Diary», and then since 1944 in the «Polish Diary and Soldier's Diary» (e.g. ««Polish Daily» for Children»). They contained poems, stories, fairy tales from around the world, riddles, Polish legends and stories from different regions of the lost homeland, literary puzzles, stage shows, contests, Polish Christmas carols, excerpts from the classics of Polish literature (Adam Asnyk, Aleksander Fredro, Jan Kasprowicz, Maria Konop- nicka, Ignacy Krasicki, Teofil Lenatrowicz, Adam Mickiewicz, Wladyslaw Orkan, Lucjan Rydel, Mikolaj S p-Sarzynski, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Stanislaw Wyspianski). They were also enriched with the writings of the best Polish writers living abroad. These magazines organized their own literary competitions for the young audience. Many Polish journalists, educators and scholars, who published in the columns of the emigrant periodicals issued in Great Britain (such as «News», «White Eagle», «Polish Diary and Soldier's Diary», «Lviv and Vilnius»), repeatedly stressed the need to preserve the Polish national identity in the young generation of Poles living in exile. Polish children and youth, and their education and upbringing in the spirit of patriotism, love for the homeland and for the Polish language, were the subject of general concern for the whole community of adult emigrants. Over time, a segment of pedagogical journals developed. They included magazines for children and youth edited by the 2nd Corps of the Polish Armed Forces, Polish Combatants' Association, Polish School Matrix Abroad, Scouts, Association of Friends of Children and Youth. They were issued with varying frequency.
Periodicals for children and teenagers acted as a didactic support in Polish Saturday Schools all over the world. First of them were published during World War II and some are still being published. The most important ones are school, youth and scout magazines such as: «Our Paper», «Children», «Mother- land Nurture», «It», «School Paper», «Together Young Friends», «On the Trail», «Links», «Burl». They are being used by parents and educational institutions overseen by the Association of Polish Teachers Abroad and Polish School Matrix Abroad. Their goal is to help develop national identity in Polish youths in exile: to teach them mother tongue, national pride and Christian faith in order to make them future social and cultural activists for Polish independence. All magazines for children, young people and their teachers, educators and scouting trainers promoted patriotic education, strived for the need to maintain the Polish identity in exile, through teachings about the true history of the country of their ancestors, geographical regions, customs, mother tongue and the Catholic religion - free from political censorship.
Key words: polish pedagogical journals in exile, Great Britain, education, children, youth, XX and XXI century.
7. EVOLUTION OF METHODS OF PLAYING ACTIVITIES OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
The study of the problem evolution and sources database made it possible to classify the scientific work covering the theoretical aspects of the curriculum and methodological support transformation for the preschool children play activity in the defined chronological limits.
The first group includes scientific papers devoted to the analysis of theoretical principles of play activity and the formation and development process of curriculum content and methodological support for the play activity in public preschool education (K. Dyakonova, N. Kudykina, T. Filimonova et al.).
The second group of works includes the studies revealing the nature of the game, its psychological and pedagogical mechanism, as well as games classification (D. Elkonin, O. Zaporozhets, H. Lublinska, E. Manujlenko et al.).
The third group of scientific papers is devoted to the pedagogical study of children's games (L. Artemova, T. Hubenko, V. Zalohina, V. Zakharchenko, R. Ibrahimova, N. Kudykina T. Markova, O. Usova, I. Shkolna, O. Yankivska et al.) and covers the guiding techniques for the game (R. Zhukovska D. Men- dzherytska, R. Rimbuh, P. Samorukova et al.). The outlined problem is defined to some extent in the works of contemporary Ukrainian scholars, namely, the formation of relationships in preschool joint game (K. Shcherbakova); pedagogical support of children play activity (N. Kudykina); senior preschool children social adaptation by means of play activity (N. Zakharova); the primary economic experience formation for senior preschool children by means of play activity (A. Sazanova); the features of the role-playing game development for older preschoolers (S. Ladyvir); the development of preschool children's communicative functions in the creative play (K. Karaseva); the game in the educational space of the kindergarten (N. Havrysh).
The fourth group of works is the scientific achievements on the development of preschool teaching (preschool education) in different historical periods in Ukraine (L. Artemova, L. Batlina, S. Popychenko T. Stepanova, I. Ulyuka- yeva et al.). The scientists carried out a series of educational research focused on different areas of the child education in pre-school in Ukraine (L. Verha- zova, O. Donchenko, N. Lazarevych, O. Styahunova, M. Chernyavska et al.).
The works covering become valuable for the research: periods of national educational concept (L. Berezivska, N. Dichek, N. Hupan, O. Sukhomlynska); the establishment and development of public preschool (L. Artemova, Z. Bo- rysova T. Stepanova, I. Ulyukayeva et al.), which served as a basis for the development of periodization for curriculum and methodological support of preschool children play activity in Ukraine (second half of XX - beginning of XXI c.).
The results of the evolution and sources analysis allow us to state in mind that the scientific understanding of the gained experience in changes history within the content and methodological support of preschoolers' play activity will facilitate the efficient implementation of the tasks for providing quality pre-school education and improvement for its development in the future.
Key words: transformation, games activity, program, program and methodological support, preschool upbringing, preschool education.
8. TURE IN THE CONCEPT OF «CARING SCHOOL COMMUNITY»
The paper analyzes one of modern American concepts of school organizational culture, the concept of «caring community». Scientific interest to the phenomenon of organizational culture in the USA appeared in the 70 years of the twentieth century, when for the first time, it was assumed the interconnection of school culture and effective operation of schools. The modern concept of «caring school» arose from the need for profound changes in the internal environment of American high schools, so-called «reculturing»: overcoming racial, ethnic conflicts in schools, reduction of drug abuse, the elimination of violence in schools and disorder mental health of students, empower students and their families. The central idea of this concept is the need for enhanced cooperation between the institutions of school, family and society in order to create a safe environment in the school.
An analysis of studies of American educational theorists who study education experience caring communities it is found that the activity of schools of this type is based on the following principles: establishing positive social and interpersonal relationships (connectedness), the existence of broad rights and opportunities for everyone (empowerment), supporting school safety (safety), development of cooperation members of the school community (collaboration), harmonizing the actions of members of the school community (consistency), a sense of common ownership (shared ownership), mutual respect (respect), joy atmosphere (fun).
The result of the implementation of the principles of «caring school» concept is changing of the school culture, namely the nature of the relationship between the groups of members involved in her life. Thus, the development of a culture of teamwork makes teachers more supportive of new ideas. The relationship between teachers and students a change in such a way that students begin to be seen as participants in the educational changes that establishes the relationship of mutual respect and trust between the two sides. The relationship between children establish on the model of the relationship between the children in family. Building partnerships between parents, community and school can minimize the risk of conflicts between them, and therefore within the school itself.
Key words: organizational culture, school, reculturing, caring community, cooperation.
9. ALTERNATING CUSTODY AS SEEN BY FATHERS CLAIMING CUSTODY OF THEIR CHILDREN
The article presents findings of empirical analysis concerning the opinions on alternating custody expressed by fathers claiming custody of their children after a divorce. One form of custody that is currently gaining more and more popularity is known as alternating custody, which allows both parents to maintain contact with their child after a divorce. Nowadays, growing interest in this form of custody can be observed in many countries, including Sweden, Canada, Norway, Australia and Poland, all of which have amended regulations and introduced alternating custody to the already-existing sole and joint custody. Changing perceptions of the father's role and his importance in the process of upbringing have triggered discussions on alternating custody among interested parties, representatives of scientific circles, and family judges. It should be emphasised that men themselves have been undergoing a transformation and they now want to be involved in their child's life to the same extent as mothers. The study discusses the popularity of this form of custody in Poland and assesses its weak and strong sides. It also focuses on the conditions necessary for the implementation of this form of custody that is based on division of parental rights and duties and the child living with one parent and then spending similar amount of time with the other. The studies revealed that alternating custody is considered unpopular and infrequently implemented. Fathers participating in the survey recognized its importance for maintaining close bond with the child. However, they also expressed some concerns as far as the child's sense of stability is concerned. The majority of the respondents declared the willingness to implement alternating custody after a divorce as they considered it a chance to provide the child with healthy conditions for his/her development and to maintain close contact with the child. The respondents also perceive this type of custody as a chance to be an involved, not a secondary parent.
Key words: joint custody, alternating custody, family, divorce, fatherhood.
10. THE BLUE STRAWBERRY AND A GIANT MOUSE? STROOP EFFECT IN ASSESSMENT OF INTERFERENCE CONTROL IN PREREADING CHILDREN
The article presents theoretical introduction to the concept of a project which is aimed at preparation of set of tasks based on Stroop Effect, aimed at the diagnosis of the interference control in pre-reading children. Interference control depicts the ability to react adaptively while the perceptual conflict occurs. Interference control encompasses the ability to suppress a spontaneous/dominant response to the stimuli and to activate a response which is incongruent, non-automatic. For example, a person may be asked to name the real size of an animal which is printed in incongruent size (e.g. small mouse printed as large). The perceptual conflict results in most of examined persons latencies in response execution. The concept of interference control and methods of diagnosis of interference control in prereding children are discussed.
Better explanation of etiology of impulsive behaviors, deficits in attention, chaotic and unpredicted behaviors of children pose a challenge for contemporary developmental psychologists and clinicians. This problem stands in a complementary relationship to the tenets of educational psychology, preschool pedagogy, forming part of the processes of education, instruction and learning. Familiarity with the problem of interference control developmental patterns helps to create suitable conditions of education and instruction which allow teachers and parents to help children to acquire adaptive and well-organized behaviors which are important both for education and socialization. Acquiring strategies to cope with distractors is important when a child should focus attention on relevant instead of irrelevant facets of different mental tasks. Effective inhibitory processes are crucial in interpersonal functioning during problem solving, conflicts resolution and cooperation with others. It is assumed that project's results may result in theoretical justification of methodical focus on training of inhibitory processes in kindergartens, with adequate techniques and didactic methods, as well as concise instructions for the parents.
Key words: interference control, inhibitory control, Stroop effect, cognitive development, preschool age.
11. DISCOURSE GUIDANCE IN TEACHING DISCIPLINE «UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE FOR PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES»
Transformation processes in contemporary educational sector have necessitated changes in conceptual and methodological orientations teaching linguistic courses in pedagogical universities. Research intersection of modern linguistic trends and semantic content of the course «Ukrainian language for professional purposes» have proved their functional suitability for professional speech formation of future specialists in primary education. In particular, there is an active influence of developments in modern Text linguistics and Discourse Studies on the content and methods of forming basic competencies of students.
The concept of «discursive competence» is treated as a recognized ability of the individual to an effective organization of process of communicative interaction management to achieve a goal.
Formation discursive competence involves work on oral and written discourse types. The development of discursive skills while mastering oral professional communication can take place through appropriate communication situations. Since it is hard to achieve spontaneity in teaching speech situation, so it becomes necessary step for students to analyze discourse with regard to all its functional elements: construction of expression of emotionally expressive load, use etiquette formulas and extra linguistic means, assessment of imaginary situation of communication, intentions of communicants, their social status due to behavior, attitudes and previous experience, the purpose of communication and its outcome.
It appears more difficult to define discursive skills in written communication and relies on stylistic differentiation of addressed or not addressed texts.
Key words: text, Text Linguistics, discourse, discourse competence, discursive art, Discourse Studies, communicative competence, professional speech.
12. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE CONSIDERATION OF THE THEORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
The theory of physical education for preschool children is researched in this article. On the basics of theoretical analysis the role and place of the theory and the methodology of physical education for preschool children in the system of training of specialists in the field of preschool education in the context of highlighting of keeping health directivity of modern preschool education becomes clear.
It is researched that for the first time in the beginning of the 21st century the idea of keeping health became the invariant core of physical education for preschool children. Defined invariant core of the idea in physical education can be used for the improving of the modern theory and methodology of physical education for preschool children as a subject on the theoretical and practical levels.
On the theoretical level of the problem of keeping health for preschool children should become the priority direction in the development of preschool education. The solving of this problem in the context of the subject supposes the reinterpretation of the conception of priority for the development of keeping health character in physical education; realization of responsibility for physical and mental health of pupils by future teachers; formation active attitude in students to the importance of keeping their own health and health of other people; theoretical basing of means, principles and methods of physical education; basing of main principles in organization of sport and health-improving activities with preschool children; theoretical basing and making models of physical education for children, main factors of making keeping health environment in preschool educational establishment. On the practical level the realization of keeping health physical education for preschool children in the context of studying the course provides methodological recommendations about different aspects of physical education in preschool educational establishments; the organization of methodological supply of making the optimal level of health and providing the harmonious development of a child; using of sport and recreation technologies and means of healthimproving preventive work for saving and promotion of health and full-fledged physical development of preschool children; formation of keeping health competence of a child; improving the professional competence of teachers and their readiness to embed healthy paradigm to the system of preschool education.
Key words: theory and the methodology of physical education for preschool children, keeping health directivity of physical education, education process, priority of organization of sport and health-improving, formation of keeping health competence.
13. CASE METHOD AS MEANS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SOCIAL PEDAGOGUES AND SOCIAL WORKERS IN HIGH SCHOOL
The entry of Ukraine into European educational space, the focus on competent but not simply knowledgeable approach in training of future specialists of social sphere contributes to creating an effective innovative educational environment in higher educational institutions through progressive innovations, introduction of advanced technologies and models of teaching. On behalf of underlined, the main attention is focused on the innovations in the methods of teaching that transform it into self-learning methods, affect the internal structure and make the future specialists get not only certain amount of knowledge but obtain a real professional competence. One of the most effective methods of training in high school is the method of case study.
The proposed article deals with the content and theoretical foundations of case-method, the essence, its goals and objectives, its significance and value in the process of training the future specialists are studied; the types of cases according to their contents and the ways of their presentation as a means of forming specialist's characteristics are highlighted; on this basis the peculiarities of its usage in created professional environment by the future social pedagogues and workers are presented.
The usage of case-method are analysed by the author in the light of professionally oriented training the implementation of which involves several stages - from the development of the case by the teacher up to direct structural work based on this method during the practice classes. Types of cases by semantic load and ways of presentation are analyzed, features of activity with them in a professional artificially created environment, the feasibility of using different types of cases are justified, depending on teaching purposes and terms of prior training on the part of students. Theoretical principles outlined in the article are illustrated by the author's own way of teaching the academic discipline «Technology of social and educational work» based on case-study method.
Key words: innovative technology of education, professional training, professional competence, case, method «case study», group work.
14. FOSTER CARE AND GUARDIANSHIP OF HOMELESS CHILDREN IN EUROPEAN PEDAGOGY
The article provides the definition of «child care», «compulsory care of juvenile delinquents», «religious education». It overviews the evolution of institutional care in the XIX - XX centuries (homes for orphans and the homeless, foster homes, medical and educational centers, child and youth mental health hospitals).
It is ascertained that there were not any significant discrepancies between guardianship of minors and compulsory care of juvenile delinquents. Establishment of orphanages was aimed at providing help for children who found themselves in difficult life circumstances, strengthening their faith and moral principles. From the outset compulsory care of juvenile delinquents was marked by gender differentiation with more attention paid to girls. Establishment of homes for the homeless was considered a step forward in institutional care; however, «being homeless» was not associated with one's economic or social condition.
The XX century was marked by evolutionary changes in forms and contents of institutional care. New care forms came into existence, however, the old classic ones were still widely applied. Instead of large fostering institutions smaller social homes were set up. Much investment was put into training teachers, although orphanage staff frequently lacked teaching expertise. The concept of neglect became a form of social stigma.
The article dwells on the institutional care in Austria and Germany in the 1970-ies, where regular protests against violence eventually resulted into a breakthrough in social assistance policy. Innsbruck Institute of Pedagogy has been engaged by the government to promote student research of foster homes within the project «Institutional care».
The article focuses on differentiation and professionalization of social work, the so called «homeless pedagogy». It also provides a brief overview of general historiography of institutional care.
Key words: homeless children, care, compulsory care, religious education, education through labour, European pedagogy.
15. TRAINING FEMALE DOMESTIC SERVANTS IN THE LIGHT OF «THE FRIEND OF SERVANTS» (IN PERIOD OF 1897 - 1918)
The monthly called «The Friend of Servants» issued in Krakow within the period of 1897 - 1918 was the sort of magazine which only until the year 1910 represented and supported the matters of female domestic servants. One of its publishers had been for many years the social and educational activist and teacher Adela Dziewicka, but its editor was Katarzyna Platek. Until 1910 the periodical covered cultural, educational, social and didactic issues. They were also publishing religious and edifying talks, or even series of articles of patriotic and historical content. Quite varied were the columns of correspondence and advertising. Since 1911 the periodical altered in quality to become more religious and even preacher-like in character. Many articles were not signed, which is the reason why they can be assumed to come from the publishing staff. The periodical provided additionally the information on the ways of educating house-keeping servants in the specially formed schools which were available throughout both Galicja (Krakow, Lwow, Przemysl) and Wielkopolska (Dobrojewo). In those schools the young servants were mainly instructed in reading, writing, calculating, religion, sometimes singing, and even history. In Przemysl and Dobrojewo the girls were taught to perform all the household chores as assumed by house-keeping servants (ie. the cleaning, washing, ironing, sewing, cooking, taking care of farm animals, poultry and the like. The schools intended for domestic servants offered free education. The classes were mainly held on Sunday afternoons. Any abscence from school was excused by the employer. Their teachers did not receive any pay. In Dobrojewo the older girls were trained in apprenticeship by the younger ones, and they were trained in cooking by a qualified cook. It cannot be denied that they were also trained by the school founder herself countess Barbara Kwilecka, in whose mansion the school was situated. At the end of the school year dedicated and gifted students were mostly awarded with belles-lettres and religious books. In the Dobrojewo school, the apprentices got paid as when being apprenticed they were performing all the duties of the domestic servants. The unemployed servants were admitted support from the community of the Daughters of the Love of God in Krakow. In their convent on Sundays and other holidays they could learn reading, writing, calculating and needlework. Those abilities helped them to find a job. The educational centres for servants chiefly focussed on the intellectual development of their charges as much as on their practical knowledge and morality.
Key words: female domestic servants, schools, the press, Galicja, «The Friend Of Servants» 19 - 20th c.
16. IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERACTIVE TEACHING METHODS IN FUTURE AGRARIANS' MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION AT FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES
Modern multicultural society arises new demands for professional training of future agrarians. Nowadays abilities to think critically, to build constructive interaction with foreign colleagues, to find understanding with ethnophors during foreign internship, to function effectively in quickly changeable reality, to master a foreign language fluently as a means of cross-cultural communication, to demonstrate tolerant attitude toward a foreign culture in the conditions of euro integration and globalization are required from graduates of the agrarian university. As a result, humanizing and democratization of the pedagogical process have acquired actualization in the system of higher agrarian education. It orientates teachers at abandoning an authoritarian style of educational activity organization and putting interactive teaching methods into practice of higher educational institutions.
Realization of interactive teaching methods considerably increases educational motivation and enables successful forming future agrarians' multicultural competence by the foreign language's means thanks to permanent active interaction of all participants of the pedagogical process. Such interaction is collective, group or pair inter-studying, where a teacher and students are equal subjects of education. The use of interactive teaching methods eliminates prevailing of one participant over another, accordingly every expressed opinion on a concrete issue has the right to exist.
The implementation of interactive teaching methods in future agrarians' multicultural education at foreign language classes envisages modelling of various socio-cultural situations, which represent the modern world's diversity, developing of the professionally-oriented role plays, universal search of decisions on the basis of the analysis of circumstances and a suitable communicative situation. The essence of interactive teaching reveals in permanent active interaction of the pedagogical process subjects. It appears as reciprocal studying, built on the dialogic basis, where a key role is played by free ideas exchange and polemic. Interactive is such method, in which a future agrarian functions as an active participant of multicultural education: talks, interacts, manages own development. It positively affects intrinsic motivation of the cognitive activity.
Having conducted the research, we have found that application of interactive teaching methods has a positive influence on future agrarians' multicultural education at foreign language classes, cultivates their democratic world view, tolerant attitude toward ethnophors, people with different cultural values, customs, traditions, views, teaches to think critically and accept correct decisions in modern multicultural society.
The article deals with the issue of the implementation of interactive teaching methods in future agrarians' multicultural education at foreign language classes. The essence of interactive teaching, its key objective and tasks have been considered. The stages of realizing the interactive teaching methods in a pedagogical process of agrarian higher educational institution have been described. The specificity of group and frontal forms of organizing the multicultural education while interactive studying, built on the dialogic basis has been characterized. The rules of conducting discussion have been determined. The functions and place of a role play in forming future agrarians' multicultural competence at foreign language have been analysed.
Key words: interactive method, pedagogical process, multicultural education, foreign language, agrarian branch.
17. FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF VOCATIONALLY ORIENTED FOREIGN LANGUAGES TEACHING AT NON-LINGUISTIC HIGH SCHOOLS
Larisa MAKSIMUK, Lilia LEVONYUK
The article deals with the problem of formation of professional competence of students in the process of teaching a foreign language at non-linguistic faculties of higher educational establishments in Belarus. As the practice of teaching a foreign language at none-linguistic high school shows, the level of an oral foreign language proficiency of future specialists in the field of professional communication is not sufficient: it does not provide students ready to cooperate actively with professional foreign language environment.
The authors emphasize that, until recently, in the teaching process only one function - informative - was basically implemented, and in a limited way, but for successful communication with their foreign partners in the professional sphere specialists need to improve their skills, especially in understanding oral speech, speaking and writing. For this reason, foreign language skills are most successfully realized as a part of business professional and communicative competence. Thus it is recommended and methodically justified to provide professional and communicative training in a foreign language, which implies professionally-focused training of students in foreign language communication, which is now recognized as a priority in education.
In the result of the analysis of various foreign language teaching models, conducted on the basis of Belarusian none-linguistic high schools, on the compliance of selecting the content and organization of teaching materials (texts, assignments and exercises), forms and methods of educational work of students and the methodologies used by teachers, it was concluded that an important place in the course of professionally oriented education should be allocated to the tasks of development of personal socially valuable qualities of a future specialist. Therefore, the transition from pedagogical influence to pedagogical interaction is one of the main conditions for search and introduction of effective methods of foreign languages teaching.
To conclude, we should say that a new paradigm of relations within the educational process requires innovative technologies that could change the principles of educational process towards student-centered teaching; contribute to the formation of students' self-analysis and self-assessment skills, develop their communicative skills, teamwork. According to the authors a model of professionally oriented foreign languages teaching should be developed (taking into account the positive aspects of existing models), which will ensure the success and effectiveness of the language training of none-linguistic students of universities. integrative learning professional discipline
Key words: professional competence, professional communication, professional and communicative competence, professionally oriented foreign language communication, student-centered teaching.
18. THE ORGANIZATION OF PRACTICAL TRAINING OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF CONTEXTUAL APPROACH
Victoria MA YKOVSKA
The challenges of modern society show that in the process of professional training is necessary not only transmit knowledge but also work out skills of it's using in real situations. Solving this problem requires the introduction into the professional training specific forms of interaction between teachers and students. Contextual approach allows to improve the organization of complex practice of bachelors for professional purposes in the form of educational training. The leading idea of contextual learning is that student digest educational information in the context of their own practice activity, that causes the effectiveness of transition of future professional from transition from learning state to profession state. In Kharkov Trade and Economic Institute of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics student's quasi-professional activity based on contextual approach is organized during bachelors for professional purposes complex practice in the form of educational training. The main tasks its carrying out is to deepen the understanding of the specific conditions of virtual enterprise in the area of tourism or trade; mastery of duties of commodity, economist, marketer, manager and accountant; acquisition of experience in the team. Training is conducted among the fourth year students. During its passing students solve typical tasks, inherent to kinds of planning and economic, financial, marketing and commercial, administrative activity according to the posts which can be occupied by bachelor. During seven weeks students create six virtual enterprises. Training course is conducted in the form of business game, participation in which requires not only the availability of professional knowledge and skills and creative potential of students, but also the competences of using the modern information technology. The duties of students during the passage of academic training is regular class attendance on schedule for the realization of training program; personal responsibility for their work; timely preparation of the report and its protection in time. Thus, contextual approach provides integrity, organization and practicality of training of future professionals.
Key words: context, contextual learning, contextual approach, contextual type of educational process, students quasi-professional activity.
19. SCHOOLING ORGANIZATION OF ABORIGINAL CHILDREN IN CANADA
Nataliya MUKAN, Mariya ZAPOTICHNA
In the article the problem of aboriginal peoples' education in Canada has been studied. Canada has one of the most advanced education systems in the world. It is multicultural country, the population of which embraces representatives of different nationalities as well as aboriginal peoples.
The analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights the distinct aspects of the research subject, has been conducted. It is cleared that education in Canada has been studied by foreign and Ukrainian scientists: T. Kuchay, J. Edwards, N. Francis, J. Reyhner have studied schooling; O. Ba- rabash, N. Mukan, M. Leshchenko have researched lifelong learning; Yu. Shyyka, S. Shapson, V. O'Doyley, L. Olber have analyzed bilingual education, etc. C. Andersen, A. Johns, J. Cummins, Y. Hebert, D. McCaskill, H. Raham, J. Friesen, V. Friesen, J. Lambe have studied education of aboriginal peoples of Canada.
The goal of the article is defined as research of schooling organization of aboriginal children in Canada. The objectives of the article are as following: to analyze the scientific and pedagogical literature devoted to the problem under research, to study the specificity of schooling organization of aboriginal children, and to define the factors which influence the aboriginal children's progress.
The specificity of schooling of aboriginal representatives has been researched and it is cleared that there are three types of schools which aboriginal children attend (federal schools under the governance of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; band-operated schools; regular provincial public schools)....
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