Teaching English

Techniques and exercises in the teaching-learning process. Planning a lesson and classroom management. The use of technologies in teaching foreign languages. Tasks and exercises for developing pronunciation habits. Teaching English for communication.

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Lecture 1. Methods. Methodological categories

Objectives: SWBAT distinguish between methodological categories; list and describe methods of scientific research; examine connections of Methods with other sciences.

1.1 Methods. Methodological categories

Methodology is the study of pedagogical practices in general. It links theory and practice. Within methodology a distinction is made between methods and approaches.

Approach is a theory about the nature of language and language learning. An approach describes how language is used. It also describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language. An approach makes statements about the conditions which will promote successful language learning.

Method is a practical realization of an approach. Method describes types of activities, roles of teacher and learners, kinds of materials, models of syllabus organization. Method includes various procedures and techniques.

Procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. For example: first you do this, then you do that Procedure is smaller than a method, but bigger than a technique.

Technique is a variety of exercises, activities, devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives. For example: finger technique (teacher holds up his hands and allocates a word to each of his five fingers); or technique of silent viewing (teacher plays the video with no sound).

Methods of foreign language teaching is a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in schools and other educational institutions. As any science Methods has its object and subject of investigation.

The object of investigation- the process of teaching a foreign language.

The subject of investigation- the knowledge about the object, theories governing the process of foreign language teaching.

General Methods- methods of foreign language teaching, irrespective of the language taught.

Special Methods- methods of teaching a particular foreign language, f. e. English.

Syllabus (the United Kingdom) or curriculum (the United States) outlines the sequence and content of a language program, and how language learning is to be done. A syllabus/curriculum includes learning objectives according to the level of the students, suggestions for teaching language and skills, teaching aids and materials, home assignments.

Syllabus can be oriented around linguistic features as the organizers of a language learning program. The easier linguistic elements come first, and are followed by more complex items. The syllabus has high emphasis on form.

The notional-functional syllabus moves away from grammatical form and concentrates on functions, for example, such as: asking permission, advice, offers, invitations, apologies, etc as the organizing elements of the syllabus.

Habit- the result of oft-repeated action, the pupils can acquire habits by constant, steady drill.

Skill- the ability to do something well. In language teaching the teacher develops 4 language skills: speaking, listening, reading, writing.

1.2 Methods of scientific research in Methodology

Research is a purposeful, precise and systematic search for new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, or for the re-interpretation of existing knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. Some methods of scientific research in Methodology are: analysis, synthesis, analogy, modeling, observation, talks, investigation, experiment, testing, interview, survey, questionnaires.

Research in Methods usually begins with observation of what is going on in the classroom. For instance, how pupils read, write, speak, understand the teacher; what kinds of errors they make; how the teacher assesses the pupils and so on. Observation should be objective: just the facts. .

Talks with teachers and pupils help to know how much time the pupil works at his English at home, how the teacher individualizes teaching and so on.

The experiment is a specially arranged teaching with the purpose of solving some methodological problems. It is used for testing some hypothesis. The experiment with the new way of teaching demands experimental groups and control groups. The comparison of results shows the difference in pupils' learning. The experiment requires the following procedure:

a. Pre-test in all the groups both control and those taken for experimenting;

b. Experimental class lessons;

c. Post-test.

The difference in results testifies the effectiveness of teaching.

Modeling involves developing physical, conceptual, or computer-based representations of systems.

Scientists build models to replicate systems in the real world through simplification, to perform an experiment that cannot be done in the real world, or to assemble several known ideas into a coherent whole to build and test hypotheses.

Computer modeling is a relatively new scientific research method, but it is based on the same principles as physical and conceptual modeling.

Interviews are particularly useful for getting information about teachers' experiences. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open-ended questions are asked during interviews.

Questionnaire includes a brief explanation of the purpose of the questionnaire. It includes clear explanation of how to complete the questionnaire and directions about where to provide the completed questionnaire. The analysis of the answers allows the researcher to get the data.

The survey is a non-experimental, descriptive research method. Surveys can be useful when a researcher wants to collect data on phenomena that cannot be directly observed (such as opinions on library services). Surveys are used extensively to assess attitudes and characteristics of a wide range of subjects. Data are usually collected through the use of questionnaires, although sometimes researchers directly interview subjects.

Analysis- the careful examination of the different parts or details of smth.

Synthesis- the act of combining separate ideas, beliefs, styles etc.

1.3 Relation of Methods to other sciences

Methods of foreign language teaching is closely related to didactics, psychology, linguistics, psycholinguistics.

Didactics may be defined in two ways, as the art of teaching or as the discipline about teaching. As the art, didactics explains the process as the practical cognitive quality, the inner skill to produce specific tasks (Gutirrez, 2001). This is, the ability teachers show to communicate knowledge to others, to make easier for students to understand the content they are learning.

In the second sense, didactics as the science refers to clear, ordered and supported concept in theory (Gutirrez, 2001). It is also believed that to know about the methodology is not enough to acquire the art of teaching. But, it is a required step to reach that art, if a teacher is not a born-gifted. From this perspective, it can be stated that this discipline has two objects of study (Gutirrez, 2001):

1. The teaching - learning process

2. The teaching - learning techniques and methods

Therefore, according to Gutirrez (2001), didactics is the science which studies the teaching - learning phenomena as prescriptive aspects of an efficient methodology. That is to say, this discipline deals with the formal aspects of teaching, methodology and all elements that interact within the classroom. Didactics concerns about objectives, teaching, motivation, discipline in class, communication, evaluation, methods and techniques.

It does not matter if didactics is an art or a science, but it tries to explain the relationships hold among the different elements in class, it does not prescribe, it rather describes procedures to approach and understand the education phenomenon. It also set a series of questions with the purpose of making people grasp why these or those results are obtained in classroom.


Language learning engages the whole physiology. Studies of the human brain help Methodology in using strategies and techniques for dealing with diversity in learners, create meaningful activities and materials for use in the classroom, create a positive language environment, create language learning that allow students time for reflection on the processing of information.

Pavlov's theories of conditioned reflexes, of the second signaling system have a direct relation to the teaching of a foreign language.

Psychology supplies us with the knowledge about habits and skills, the ways of forming them, the influence of formerly acquired skills on the formation of new ones. Psychology allows the methodologists to determine the psychological content of teaching-what to teach, what habits and skills should be developed in pupils to acquire language proficiency. Psychology also helps Methods in selecting effective techniques for teaching and learning, for example, under what conditions pupils can learn words, phrases, sentence patterns more effectively or how to ensure pupils' memorizing new words in an easier way. Psychological investigations about memory are significant. For example, the Soviet psychologist, P.K. Zinchenko proved that in learning a subject both voluntary and involuntary memory is of great importance. He came to the conclusion that in teaching a foreign language we should create favorable conditions for involuntary memorizing. Zinchenko showed that involuntary memorizing is possible only when pupils' attention is concentrated not on fixing the material in their memory through numerous repetitions, but on solving some mental problems which deal with this material.

Psychology also helps method to determine the role of the mother tongue in different stages of teaching, the amount of material for pupils to assimilate at every stage of instruction, the sequence and ways in which various habits and skills should be developed, the methods and techniques for presenting the material and for its retention by the pupil and so on.

Linguistics deals with the problems which are important for Methods: language and thinking, grammar and vocabulary, the relationship between grammar and vocabulary and many others. Methods uses, for example, the results of linguistics investigation in the selection and arrangement of language material for teaching. Many prominent linguists have not only developed the theory of linguistics, but tried to apply it to language teaching. The following quotation may serve as a proof of this: It has occurred to the linguist as well as to the psychologist that the foreign language classroom should be an excellent laboratory in which to test new theories of language acquisition.

Psycholinguistics is the study of how the mind handles language...how language is acquired, how it is stored in the mind, and how it is processed in use. (Field 2008).

Psycholinguistics is interdisciplinary in nature and is studied by people in a variety of fields, such as psychology, cognitive science, and linguistics. There are several subdivisions within psycholinguistics that are based on the components that make up human language.

Linguistic-related areas:

Phonetics and phonology are concerned with the study of speech sounds. Within psycholinguistics, research focuses on how the brain processes and understands these sounds.

Morphology is the study of word structures, especially the relationships between related words (such as dog and dogs) and the formation of words based on rules (such as plural formation).

Syntax is the study of the patterns which dictate how words are combined together to form sentences.

Semantics deals with the meaning of words and sentences. Where syntax is concerned with the formal structure of sentences, semantics deals with the actual meaning of sentences.

Pragmatics is concerned with the role of context in the interpretation of meaning.

Psychology-related areas:

The study of word recognition and reading examines the processes involved in the extraction of orthographic, morphological, phonological, and semantic information from patterns in printed text.

Developmental psycholinguistics studies infants' and children's ability to learn language, usually with experimental or at least quantitative methods (as opposed to naturalistic observations such as those made by Jean Piaget in his research on the development of children).

Questions and topics for discussion

1. What is the difference between method and approach?

2. Give reasons to confirm that Methods is an independent science.

3. What methods of scientific research are most widely used in Methodology?

4. What sciences is Methods related to? Give examples.

Lecture 2. Aims, content, principles of FLT. Methods, techniques and exercises in the teaching-learning process

Objectives: SWBAT distinguish between aims of teaching foreign languages; describe and analyze components of the content of FLT; discuss principles of foreign language teaching and learning and .choose the most important of them.

2.1 Aims of FLT in a secondary school

According to Rogova there are three aims which should be achieved in foreign language teaching: practical, educational, cultural.

Practical aims.

Students should acquire a language as a means of communication and be able to use it while listening, reading, speaking, writing. This is reflected in the syllabus in accordance with the stages of instruction.

Educational aims

Learning a second language is of great educational value. Since language is connected with thinking, through foreign language study students develop their intellect. Students have to memorize words, sentence patterns, idioms, structures; thus they develop their voluntary and involuntary memory. Through learning a foreign language students understand how words express thoughts, how the language functions; thus they come to the better understanding of their native language. Teaching a foreign language contributes to the linguistic education of the students; they extend their knowledge of phonic, graphic, structural and semantic aspects of language through contrastive analysis of language phenomena. Learning a second language also develops students' imagination and willpower.

Cultural aims

Learning a foreign language students read books, magazines, watch films, study such materials as maps, photos, menus, pictures, posters. In this way they get acquainted with the life, customs and traditions of people whose language they study.

Practical, educational and cultural aims are related and form a unity. The leading role belongs to practical aims, because the others can only be achieved through the practical command of the foreign language.

2.2 Content of FLT in a secondary school

The content of FLT or what to teach is laid down in the syllabus. The content of FLT includes three components:

Psychological component- It answers the question what to teach in psychological terminology- habits and skills. The syllabus determines the following 4 skills the students should acquire while learning a foreign language: speaking, reading, writing, listening. In the syllabus teachers can find directions as to the level of skills that should be reached in each particular form and their development from form to form.

linguistic component- It includes language material such as sentence- patterns, utterance- patterns, pattern- dialogs, texts, topics It also includes linguistic material, such as phonology, grammar and vocabulary., which is carefully selected. A great deal of work has been done in compiling the minimum vocabulary and minimum grammar.

methodological component- Students should be taught how to learn the foreign language. For example, how to memorize words and keep them in memory, how to perform drill exercises in a most effective way, how to perform creative exercises.

2.3 Principles of FLT in a secondary school

Methods of teaching foreign language is based on the following methodological principles:

-scientific approach

It implies careful determination of what and how to teach to achieve the aims set by the syllabus.

- communicative approach

It means students should be involved in oral (listening, speaking) and written ( reading, writing) communication throughout the whole course of learning a foreign language. This principle determines the content of teaching, selection and organization of the material, the use of teaching aids.

- differential approach

Each language activity requires special attention on the part of the teacher. For example, there is the difference in teaching oral and written speech, listening and speaking, prepared and unprepared speech and so on.

-integrated approach

Students do not assimilate phonetics, grammar, lexis as discrete components of the language, but they grasp them in sentence-patterns, pattern-dialogs, related to certain situations and in this way pronunciation, grammar and lexical habits are developed. Secondly, students use speaking, listening, reading and writing skills as interdependent parts of a language experience in order to exercise their communicative competence in as many ways as possible.

-accessibility - Since students learn the target language for communicative needs the material should be arranged in a most suitable way for the purpose.

-durability- It implies the ability of the students to keep in their memory linguistic and language material they have studied. The durability is ensured by:

-vivid presentation of the material, when students are involved in the process of presentation, their thinking and senses are at work;

-by constant revision or drill;

-by the use of the material by the students for communicative needs;

-by systematic supervision and control on the part of the teacher.

-conscious approach

It implies comprehension of the material by the students through the rules, situations, context and other linguistic means( synonyms, antonyms, definitions, etc), translation into the mother tongue, visual presentation( objects, pictures, gestures, facial expressions), through singling out some features which are characteristic of this material.

- activity

Learning a foreign language is impossible without active participation of the students throughout the whole course of study. If students are not involved in the act of communication in the target language they soon lose interest in the subject and become passive at the lessons. The main sources of activity are: motivation, desire and interest.

- taking into account the learners' native language

In teaching and learning the foreign language and the mother tongue are closely connected and influence each other. The students can transfer language skills acquired in the native language to those in the target language, for example in learning to write. But the mother tongue often interferes with the target language, for example in acquiring pronunciation habits. In learning grammar students often make mistakes because they try to transfer the structure of their native language to that of the target language. The teacher can't eliminate the mother tongue of the students. He should use it as a means of teaching whenever it helps students in acquiring knowledge necessary for developing habits and skills.


Students learn a foreign language differently. The teacher should assess the progress of each individual in the class and find the way how to manage the classroom activity so that the slowest learners are not depressed by being left behind and the fastest and the most able learners are not frustrated by being held back. Individualization is achieved through the use of individual cards; the use of additional material; the use of computer programs; by special selection of exercises for bright, average and dull students; by arranging students' communication in the target language so that each student can do his best as a participant of the work in class.

- visualization

Through visual presentation of the material and the students' observation of language behavior of native speakers students acquire the necessary habits and skills in intonation, word usage and grammar. Visualization allows the teacher to create natural conditions for students' oral practice and free conversation. It implies the use of audio-visual aids and materials throughout the whole course of study for presentation and retention of the linguistic material and for developing oral and written language.

2.4 Methods and techniques in the teaching-learning process. Types of exercises

In the teaching-learning process Teacher and Learner are interrelated. This interrelation is carried out through methods. The notion method is an abstract one, it is revealed in certain techniques. Technique is a definite action of a teacher. It is what actually takes place in the classroom to accomplish an immediate objective. For the better understanding of the abstract character of the notion method and its correlation with techniques, let's imagine method to be a certain capacity while techniques are fillers of this capacity.

The choice of techniques for each method depends on the methodological principles of the teacher, students' intellectual development, their age, stage of learning and other factors .There are a lot of traditional and non-traditional techniques, such as: repetition, substitution, completion, eliciting, pre-reading, filling in the gaps, jigsaw, role-play, problem solving and so on.

The main methods of teaching are: explanation, demonstration, drill. By means of demonstration and explanation students acquire the material. Drills help to memorize new material. When organizing the drill the teacher must determine how many exercises are needed and what they should be like. In methodology there are different approaches to the aims and role of exercises in teaching a foreign language and different criteria for their classification. In accordance with the communicative nature of language teaching there are 2 main types of exercises: non-communicative and communicative.

To non-communicative exercises belong:

-Grammar (put the verb in the necessary form)

-Lexical (group the words according to the topic)

-Phonetic (Read the words paying attention to the sounds)

-Transformation (Change from active voice into passive)


-Substitution (Fill in the necessary word)

To communicative exercises belong:

-Description, discussion, press-conference, interview, dramatization, making comments, debates.

According to the number of students exercises can be individual, pair, group, mass.

According to the skills developed exercises can be receptive and productive.

According to the thought process exercises can be drill and creative.

According to the place of performance exercises can be home and class.

According to the stages of working with the text, exercises can be pre-text, text, and post-text .

Questions and topics for discussion

1. What are the aims of teaching foreign languages in school?

2. What components does the content of FLT include?

3. What principles of FLT should methods of foreign language teaching be based upon? Which of them do you think are the most important?

4. What are the language learning principles according to Douglas Brown?

5. What is the difference between method and technique? Give examples of techniques.

6. What is the difference between communicative and non-communicative exercises?

7. Illustrate with examples the main methods of teaching: explanation, demonstration, drill.

Lecture 3. Teaching aids and teaching materials

Objectives: SWBAT describe different teaching aids and materials; determine requirements for textbooks; state the importance of the use of modern technologies in FLT.

3.1 Teaching aids and teaching materials

Teaching aids and materials support the lesson plan and assist learning. They use the senses of hearing (through audio tapes, CDs) and sight (through visual aids such as handouts, worksheets/books, overhead transparencies, videotapes and PowerPoint). Research indicates that whilst only about 12% of what we learn comes from hearing, 75% comes from what we see.

A well designed aid should promote perception and understanding, reinforce the spoken word, aid memory retention through repetition, motivate and arouse interest. Visual aids should be simple, to the point, related to the lesson plan, interesting and attractive.

The range of teaching aids and materials includes:

-whiteboards ( blackboards);

-interactive board;




-pictures, posters, maps, photos;

-flash cards;



-video cassettes/DVDs;

-computer programs;


-overhead transparencies;

-audio cassettes;

-teacher's book;

-student' book;

Blackboard- The teacher draws simple stick figures to indicate the speakers in a conversation; for teaching concepts of weather draws the sun, snow, umbrella; draws a square for teaching prepositions, ; draws the verb chart when tense or aspect is presented; writes lists of words.

Real objects- train, plane tickets; menus; small flags; buttons made of different materials and in different sixes; cartons and containers; magazines; books; calendars can be effective

Pictures- they should be kept in categories related to the topics. They should be large enough to be seen from all parts of the room, clear and simple in design.

Flash cards- they include expressions, groups of words or single words and numbers. They can be given to group leaders to play games, create dialogs, engage in problem solving or prepare crossword puzzles.

Overhead transparencies-design and layout should be simple with simple words or keywords rather than sentences.

Videotapes- it is necessary to make appropriate spoken introduction explaining why you are going to show the videotape to the class, give clear instructions as to what activities you expect students to be doing while the tape is running - should they make notes or should they concentrate on listening and watching ; set up the equipment before the lesson.

3.2 Traditional and multimedia textbooks. Requirements for textbooks

Textbook is one of the most important sources for getting knowledge. It contains the material at which students work in class and at home. A good textbook should meet the following requirements:

1. correspond to the objectives of the syllabus;

2. fit students' age, level, class size;

3. have good design, size, layout;

4. have the methodology which is comprehensible to the teacher;

5. ensure students' activity in speaking, reading, writing, listening;

6. material should be graded- change didactically from easy steps to more complicated ones;

7. grammar is divided into small fragments, each taught in response to an immediate need;

8. have exercises for practice: drill, speech, home, oral written;

9. have different material for reading: texts, dialogs, poems, jokes;

10. have reasonable price;

11. be available in the local shops;

12. have illustrations to help students in comprehension and speaking;

13 reflect the life and culture of the people whose language students study.

Textbooks can be prepared in an electronic form and can be of an unlimited access when published on Internet. In comparison with the classical printed textbooks, electronic publications can use many supplementary tools, which can make understanding of explained phenomena simpler: color animation, sound records, etc. But electronic textbook cannot be understood as a replacement of classical books. In learning English studying a classical textbook with a paper and a pencil in hand is very important.

3.3 The use of modern technologies in teaching foreign languages


The exercises most appropriate for the computer are: substitution or transformation drills, gap-filling, copying, writing down a dictation, putting words in a correct order, answering certain types of comprehension questions, providing a focus for small group discussion, cooperation, planning, problem solving.

Advantages of using computers:

-the user can work independently, he is more relaxed and is not afraid of being corrected;

-feedback to the users helps students to analyze patterns in the language and self-assess themselves;

-programs teach the language in different and more interesting , attractive ways and present language through games and problem solving techniques;

-programs provide learners with some sort of computer literacy which is essential in modern society;

-computer has no days off , it is patient and will tirelessly go over and over again the same point for as long as necessary;

-computer can provide information requested in a very short time;

-computer laboratory can develop collaborative environment, where teachers and students interact to explore various topics and exchange ideas about them.

Limitations of the computer

-often learners work in isolation and it does not help in developing normal communication between learners which is the main aim in any language lesson;

-programs deal mainly with reading and writing skills;

-it is more tiring to read from a screen than from a printed text.

The Internet

With the Internet teachers can share their experiences an resources with each other. The can refer to the lesson plans and exercises other teachers have published in the Internet. Students can listen to English songs, stories, news, read authentic texts. They can practice their spoken English in a chat room with native speakers.

Electronic mail

E-mail allows to communicate quickly and inexpensively over long distances. Using the e-mail pen-pal program is a very successful and motivating communicative activity with students of all levels and ages. At the beginning of the year the teacher finds another teacher in another country who is interested in exchanging letters. This can be done easily through various educational networks available on the Internet. The students in one school write letters to the students in the other school.

Power Point is an alternative to using overhead transparencies for the production of interesting and visually attractive presentations. The main advantage in using PowerPoint is the flexibility. . Graphs, drawings, tables and organizational charts make presentation more interesting, but as a general rule keep presentations simple and clear. PowerPoint, like overhead transparencies, is most effectively used to emphasize the main points the teacher wishes to make. Here are some points to remember: limit the number of slides, for example, no more than 12 for a ten minute presentation use only one or two animation or transition effect).

3.4 The use of interactive board in foreign language teaching

Directions: Listen to the lecture. In the first section fill in the missing words. In the second section circle the correct word. In the third section complete with the correct word

1. What is an interactive whiteboard?

An interactive whiteboard is simply a surface onto which a computer screen can be 1via a projector. It is touch-sensitive and lets you use a pen on it (or in some cases, a finger) to act like a mouse, controlling the computer from the board itself. Changes made to information projected onto the whiteboard are transferred to the computer and can be 2 and used in future lessons. Everything that can be displayed on a computer can be 3... onto the whiteboard and, if the computer is linked to speakers and a DVD or video player, multimedia resources can be incorporated too. If the board is connected to the Internet, teachers can have immediate access to appropriate websites to 4. work in the lesson.

There are two main types of interactive whiteboard. Hard boards have a hard magnetic surface behind the screen and need special pens to write on them. Soft boards have a tough membrane on the surface which can be written on with a finger or a special pen. Most interactive whiteboards are 5.. with specific software tools to exploit the potential of the board.

2. Why use an interactive whiteboard?

-it can be used for all ages across the (cooperation, curriculum, acquisition );

-it increases teaching time by allowing teachers to (present, prepare, produce) web-based and other resources more efficiently;

-it provides more opportunities for (interference, intonation, interaction) and discussion in the classroom;

-it (increases, decreases, destroys) enjoyment of lessons for both students and teachers;

-it allows teachers to (show, share, shine) and re-use materials, reducing workloads;

-it inspires teachers to change their pedagogy and use more ICT, encouraging professional (display, progress, development);

-students are able to cope with more complex concepts as a result of clearer, more (effective, effortless, efficient) and more dynamic presentation.

3. Whiteboard functions and their contribution to teaching and learning

Colour-it allows teachers to indicate important areas to f., to link similar ideas or d. between ideas, or to demonstrate a process

Annotations on the screen- they are useful for m thinking and for adding information , questions and ideas to text, diagrams or pictures on the s.

Inclusion of sound and video clips- this can e.. learning in a lesson

Drag and drop- any item on the board can be moved to another position. It will help with activities, such as: matching, l, grouping, sorting, gap filling, ordering.

Highlighting specific elements of the whiteboard display- Text, diagrams and pictures can be h.. on the whiteboard, allowing teachers and pupils to focus on particular aspects of the display. It is often possible to cover part of the display and r it only when needed. This can be helpful when pupils are being expected to focus on just a part of a text or a picture.

Cut and paste- sections can be cut and e. on the screen, copied and pasted, undone and redone. These features help give pupils the confidence to take r. as they know they can always go back or make changes.

Flip chart pages- These pages can be turned backwards and f., allowing teachers to go over particular aspects of a lesson or to recap areas that some or all of the pupils may not have understood. Pages can be viewed in any order and images and text can be dragged from one page to another. It may also be possible to make a l.. between pages, so that a teacher can move between a general statement and a more detailed analysis.

Split screen- Teachers can split the screen and display two different sets of things at once. This can be useful when e. what happens if particular changes are made.

Rotate objects- This allows o. to be moved so that pupils can see symmetry, rotation and reflection

.Linking a digital microscope to the screen- This can provide a greatly enhanced e.. when it comes to examining and discussing microscopic images.

Questions and topics for discussion

1. Name the teaching aids and materials used in FLT. What factors are important in selecting teaching aids and materials?

2. Compare different foreign language textbooks and say how they differ and what they have in common. Say, which textbook you would like to use in school. State the reason for your selection.

3. Is there any difference between traditional and multimedia textbooks?

4. How can computer technologies be used in teaching and learning a foreign language?

5. How can interactive board contribute to language teaching and learning?

Lecture 4. Planning a lesson and classroom management

Objectives: SWBAT compare three kinds of plans, determine the differences between lesson formats, discuss the rules for effective classroom management, examine lesson plans and compile their own plans.

4.1 The importance of planning. Types of plans

A lesson plan is a working document that helps the teacher to keep to the objectives of the lesson, follow the stages of the lesson in relation to the time available. Plan is a result of an individual work of a teacher. Experienced teachers write a short outline. New teachers usually write a detailed plan. The foreign language teacher needs three kinds of plans: calendar (for a year), unit (for a series of lessons), daily (for a particular lesson). In making up an outline of the year's work the teacher consults the syllabus, teacher's book, student's book and other teaching materials.

In compiling a unit plan the teacher determines the difficulties of the lesson: phonetic, grammar, vocabulary and distributes these difficulties evenly over the number of class periods. The teacher selects and distributes exercises for class and homework, teaching aids and materials. The unit plan helps to compile a daily plan.

4.2 Items of a daily plan

The items that are included in a daily plan are: theme, objectives, procedure, activities, aids and materials, anticipated problems.

-Theme- the name of the topic studied at the lesson

-Objectives- aims of the lesson. They must be specific and concrete. The teacher determines three kinds of objectives for each lesson: teaching, developing, educational.

Objectives should be stated as precisely as possible. For example: teaching objectives are stated in such a way:

Students will be able to (SWBAT) write a story using all the new words of the lesson; Students will be able to ask and answer questions in the Present Perfect and make up dialogs following the models...;

Students will be able to understand the following words when hearing and use them in the sentences orally;

The verbs in the objectives should indicate what students will be able to do. For example: recite, write, describe, participate, demonstrate, define, compare, solve...

Developing objectives:

SWBAT compare, analyze, differentiate, guess, develop memory and attention...

Educational objectives:

SWBAT be responsible, tolerant, conscientious, disciplined, patriotic...

-Remember: objectives must:

-Be measurable;

-Be realistic for the class;

-Be something the students can accomplish;

-Cover no more than one class period;

-Be specific and concrete.

Bloom's Taxonomy of the cognitive Domain can be a useful tool for the teachers. In 1956 Benjamin Bloom outlined six levels of cognitive function: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. His taxonomy has been taught to and used by educators ever since. When developing curriculum and determining instruction teachers look at these six levels and think of them in terns of action verbs .

-Procedure- The teacher indicates in his plan what will be done at each stage of the lesson, the

approximate time, perhaps some details of any complex instructions.

-Activities- For each stage of the lesson the teacher thinks of the activities he is going to use. Activities are indicated in the procedure part of the lesson. Sometimes in the plan in the margin the teacher includes a note of the groupings and interaction at each stage. Activities should match the objectives.

-Aids and materials- the teacher thinks of materials and aids

-Anticipated problems- the teacher should be flexible in class and be able to adapt the lesson according to circumstances that can occur in terms of language or management. For example, the teacher can anticipate what students will find difficult in a particular language item.

4.3 Types of foreign language lessons. Requirements for the lesson

There is no common opinion concerning types of the lessons. But according to the majority of methodologists there are the following types of lessons:

Presentation and primary consolidation

Practice of language and speech habits




Non-traditional forms of organizing a lesson are usually used after studying one or several topics. They create the atmosphere of a holiday, increase motivation for studying a language. They require participation of all students of a class, the use of different visual aids. The aims of such lessons are: to assess students knowledge, to provide interest in the language, to minimize teacher's involvement in the lesson

Some examples of non-traditional lessons are:

Internet lessons

Internet can be used for the following purposes: to include materials of the net into the lesson, for independent work of students at home, for getting rid of gaps in the knowledge.

Video lesson

Watching a film students perceive information about other culture, form their own point of view, develop their attention and memory.


After studying one or several lessons, for example on the topic "Town", students make an excursion about the town, tell the "foreign guests" about the places of interest.


Preparation for the performance develops students' speech, creative abilities, promotes better understanding of the language and culture.


It is a form of a dialog on extracting information. Topics for the interview might be: biography, spare time, plans for the future.


Students have a discussion on a certain problem or topic


The main aim of such lessons is to teach students to put the acquired knowledge into practice, to work in cooperation with other students, to do research. The project may be done in different ways: article, recommendations, poster, album, brochure.


"What? Where? When?"; "The field of wonders"; "Linguistic express" and many other games can be used at the lesson.

Integrated lesson

English can be integrated with such subjects as: History, Literature, Computer studies. Such lessons form students' aesthetic taste, teach them to guess, analyze, make conclusions.

In the orgnization of the lesson there is always a wide range of possibilities. However, there are certain requirements which should be observed:

Every lesson should begin with a greeting in the foreign language and a brief talk between the teacher and the students.

There should be a variety of activities at every lesson, including pronunciation drill, oral activities, exercises for reading and writing.

The lesson should be conducted at a high speed when oral drill exercises are performed. Students shouldn't stand up to say a word, a phrase or a sentence.

The lesson should provide a certain sequence in students' assimilating language material and developing habits and skills: perception, comprehension, memorizing, usage following a model, usage in new situations.

The lesson should provide time for the activity of each student in class.

The lesson should provide conditions for students to learn.

The work done during the lesson should prepare students for their independent work at home.

The lesson should be well equipped with teaching aids and materials.

According to the type of the lesson there are different formats of the lesson. The receptive skills (reading or listening) lesson plan may include the following:

warm-up (to create interest and establish the theme);

pre-reading or pre-listening (teaching vocabulary, making predictions about the content based upon pictures, title, etc);

presentation(reading/listening for gist);

reading/listening for details;

follow up(talking for fluency using new vocabulary);

6. wrap up (review of what was covered in the lesson; giving homework)

The language lesson plan may include the following:



controlled practice(for example, substitution drill);

free practice;

production; ,

wrap up.

4.4 The role of the teacher in the language classroom

The current learner-centered approach determines the greater role of the teacher. The main roles of the teacher at the lesson are:

Manager- the teacher gives instructions for students to get into groups

Model- the teacher asks students to repeat a sentence after her for pronunciation practice.

Monitor- the teacher goes round listening to pairs practicing a dialog.

Counselor- the teacher advises students how best to approach a task

Informant- the teacher explains when we use the present perfect for recently completed actions.

Facilitator- the teacher provides material and guidance to enable students to work on their own.

Social worker- the teacher stays behind after class and discusses one of the student's personal problems which is affecting his/her work.

Friend- the teacher chats with students over coffee or arranges a cinema visit with a class.

4.5 Classroom management

There are many things in the classroom that are important to the dynamics of the lesson. They are usually described under the heading of "classroom management".

1. space

desks should be arranged in a way that encourages students to listen to each other; to see the board and the visual materials the teacher may be holding up. The teacher doesn't always sit, he moves around the room depending on the activity.

2. time

it's not necessary to plan too much in the lesson. It's necessary: to tell students how much time they have for a particular activity; warn the class 1-2 minutes before the activity is due to finish; at the end of the lesson to summarize what has the lesson been about; give "slower" students enough time to answer the question; build up a sense of rhythm in the lesson, varying relaxing and intensive activities.

3. using students' names

using names makes for better rapport with the students and involves them directly and rapidly.

4. eye contact

the teacher looks at the class while speaking; allowing his gaze to travel round the class without staring at any one student.

5. voice

the teacher varies the loudness and tone of the voice depending on the stage of the lesson.

6. teacher talk and student talk

the balance between teacher talking time(TTT) and student talking time(STT) depends on the type of the lesson and the activity.

7. eliciting

eliciting is when the teacher brings out student knowledge, suggestions and ideas. By eliciting the teacher can lessen TTT and increase STT.

8. giving instructions

for giving instructions the teacher uses simple and short expressions. He may use visual or written clues or demonstrate if necessary.

9. establishing rapport and maintaining discipline

the teacher is positive; he keeps an eye on what the students are doing. He responds and reacts to what students say; he encourages good group dynamics, so that learning can occur in an open non- threatening environment (as Krashen says the teacher lowers "the affective filter").

10. getting organized

before the teacher starts the lesson he runs through the lesson plan and makes sure he has all the necessary aids and equipment listed in the plan; checks that the board is clean; makes sure the seating is arranged the way he wants to.

11. learning styles

The teacher prepares lessons that address all learners:

Visual learners- they learn through seeing. They prefer looking at pictures time lines, using handouts, writing assignments on the board.

Auditory learners- they learn better through listening. The best for them: repeating difficult words aloud, taking part in debates, listening to books on tapes.

Kinesthetic or tactile learners- they learn through moving, touching, and doing. They can't sit still for a long time. They prefer having excursions, making projects.

Questions and topics for discussion

1. Compare three kinds of plans.

2. Name the items included in a daily plan.

3. Illustrate with examples five types of lessons.

4. What kinds of non-traditional lessons are conducted in our schools?

5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional lessons?

6. What requirements for organization of a lesson do you think are the most important?

7. What is the difference between different formats of the lessons?

8. Determine the rules for effective classroom management.

9. Examine any foreign language lesson plan and say how it is organized.

10. Analyze one of the lessons in any foreign language textbook and determine the difficulties of the lesson.

Lecture 5. Teaching English for communication

Objectives :.SWBAT describe 4 types of communication; distinguish between four competence areas.

5.1 Teaching English for communication. Types of communication

Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts, ideas and emotions. Communication is a process that involves a sender who encodes and sends the message, which is then carried via the communication channel to the receiver where the receiver decodes the message, processes the information and sends an appropriate reply via the same communication channel. As for cross-cultural or inter-cultural communication, it is how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them.

There are the following types of communication:

Verbal communication is divided into written and oral. Oral communication can be face- face communication or a conversation over a phone or on a voice chat over the Internet. Written communication can be either via mail, or email.

Verbal communication is important for the language classroom. Students should know what is expected of them at the lesson. The instructions of the teacher when he explains the task or gives a test should be understandable to students. The teacher answers the students questions. When the teacher has the trouble with managing the classroom he speaks to the students. The way the teacher pronounces words and sentences may influence the students.

Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. Body language is important to the way students read the teacher. For example, students may be on the defensive if the teacher crosses his arms often. But making eye contact with the students can improve non-verbal communication skills. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a person's face say a lot about his/her mood. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.

Verbal and nonverbal communication strategies are important to the development of an effective teaching. The teacher cam make his lessons more effective by thinking ahead of time about the nonverbal cues that should accompany the discussion or presentation.

Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time.


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