Philosophy as a methodological basis of competence approach in system of higher education of Ukraine
Philosophical education - a tool that forms the graduate's qualities that anyone needs for a successful life in modern society. Determination of the value of the philosophical approach to the formation of professional competencies of the student.
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Society can survive and develop only under conditions of adequate responses to the challenges of the social environment. The main characteristic of modern society is the rapid changes of ideas, information dissemination and accumulation of new knowledge. These processes have spread around the world primarily due to intensive development of information technologies and the integration processes in the society. Thus, intellectual work replaces physical labor and new requirements and principles appear in our life.
These challenges caused the changing of priority of higher education institutions from the accumulation of knowledge (qualification approach in education) to the forming of practical skills (competence approach). Others reasons of education changes are the globalization and integration processes in the Ukrainian society, the signing the Bologna Declaration, the rapid development of information technology and general access to large amounts of information. New global and market requirements facing modern Ukrainian society, demand the professionals with a certain culture of thinking, which are able to take responsibility for their actions and decisions and are able to adapt to different situations in life. At the moment, the main ability of the individual becomes to build his or her own life path and career development than to have academic knowledge in a particular area.
Satisfaction of these requirements means to own the following different competencies which are researched by many scholars: T.M Baybara, N.M. Bibik, V.O. Bolotov, S.P. Bondar, I.H. Yermakov, I.A. Zymnya, V.O. Kal'ney, V.V. Krayevs'kyy, A.K. Markova, O.I. Pometun, V.V. Syerikov, O.Ya. Savchenko, A.V. Khutors'koy, S.Ye. Shyshov tried to improve pedagogical basis of competence approach; S.P. Bondar, I.V. Hushlevs'ka, O.M. Dakhin, I.H. Yermakov, I.A. Zymnya, O.K. Korsakova, A.K. Markova, O.I. Pometun, O.Ya. Savchenko, A.V. Khutors'koy, S.Ye. Shyshov researched the structure of competences; L.I. Parashchenko, O.I. Pometun, O.Ya. Savchenko, O.A. Yarulov studied the main groups of competences (occupational and general); O.I. Lokshyna, O.V. Ovcharuk, E. Abel, K. Abroms, A. Zolni, Dzh. Dumas, P. La Frynyer, Zh. Mayz, Dzh. Raven explored the development tendency of competence approach in the modern education system of west Europe; I.H. Yermakov, D.O. Puzikov tried to create the model of competent graduate [5, c. 78-79].
However, despite the many achievements in the direction of development and the importance of competences in today's society, there are still many unsolved problems. For example "what theory and strategy can be the foundation stone of educational competence approach?" Different researches have different views. So, the purpose of this article is to study the role of philosophy and the importance of philosophical education in the forming of competent specialist. For implementation of this goal we need to show the qualities and skills of the graduate of Faculty of Philosophy (by the socio-philosophical analysis of information and facts). Secondly, with the help of the methodology of system analysis, to improve the impact of philosophy ideas on the creation of competence approach.
Modern conditions of life put forward their demands to the future professionals the driving force of development of any country and showed the importance of philosophical education. A real professional, in addition to basic professional knowledge, must have many different qualities and skills (which can be received by philosophical education), such as: the art of thinking, which allows you quickly solve most of problems; creative approach to reality, which helps to integrate into the modern information society; the critical perception of the world, which will facilitate to make a prudent decision, to analyze and search for new information. A specialist must know all methods of cognition and activity, searching for evidence and verification of the validity of any knowledge. At the same time, mentioned properties stimulate person's desire to self-development and self-education, without which it is impossible to adapt to today's changing world. That is why some scholars have pointed out the necessity of transition to a new educational system, which is based on competence approach and focuses on the formation of essential qualities and skills of innovative person who is able to search and can make unconventional decisions. It will be inventive and creative person. Ingenuity becomes the archetype for innovation person and leading purpose of training is the formation of her / his own research position. So currently in the educational activities the transition process from the "memory school" to the "Institute for works with thinking" becomes very important [1, c. 37].
Significant, if not a major role in the formation of such innovative, broad-thinking person plays philosophical education, the purpose of which is to help everyone to develop and improve philosophical, spiritual, moral, aesthetic attitudes, ideals, values and necessary skills and qualities. It will help people to live through all difficulties and troubles in their lives and achieve success . The specificity of philosophizing is a constant movement of thought, and the desire to comprehend, to understand, to change something in ourselves. Also it is an incentive to improve ourselves and our spiritual sphere. Intellectual potential is formed thanks to the improvement of the capacity of the spiritual sphere of social humanitarian development by improving the citizens" education that helps people to adapt to innovations that characterize the modern world.
One of the most important functions of a philosophical education is to develop critical thinking which is one of the most important requirements of the modern person, and current labor market really needs such "educated, skilled and mobile workers", who can effectively use his or her mind. Today this quality, which includes skills of argumentation, flexibility and ingenuity of minds is very demandable in current life and it should be the main quality of innovate person. Critical thinking was an urgent need for life in the modern world because this complex skills let us correctly solve a wide range of practical problems in any professional activity, human relations (situation of moral choice), scientific activities, in daily life, etc. [7, p. 12].
Only the ability to think, which is taught by philosophy, is a condition for the possibility of competence approach creation. That is why today we can say that philosophical education is able to lay the foundations for forming of personal and general (common) competence which should have each person. Philosophical thinking appears when we begin to understand the philosophical problem as our own when we want to solve this problem for ourselves and create our own ways for its solution. It is the way of our mind"s practice. Philosophical thinking is the ability to use certain methods of information processing that allows receiving desired result. Philosophical thinking helps to give positive or negative assessment of some aspects of reality. This type of thinking includes logical thinking and based on reasoning, evidence, refutation, criticism and self-criticism. At the same time, competence is the ability to successfully meet the needs or carry out tasks successfully" [8, p. 4], that is impossible without using critical thinking.
According to the researcher of competencies in education L.M. Ovsiyenko, competence approach in higher professional education provides learning by actions, the essence of which is that the students are working on the acquisition and expansion of independent experience of solving the real problems. Students, according to this approach, learn and develop the ability to adapt to any unusual situation and find a rational solution [4, c. 47].
Only philosophy makes the students solve different problems by using their own thinking and practice of solving various theoretical problems. In addition, philosophy gives a person the desire to search for truth, self-improvement and self-education. It teaches to overcome obstacles on the thorny path of science and develop a character.
The graduates of faculty of philosophy have all key competencies that were identified by the Council of Cultural Cooperation Council of Europe (Strasbourg, France): 1. social and political competences help people to realize their life position and civil rights, to take social responsibilities and when it could be necessary, to perform the functions of leader; 2. Information competence includes the ability to acquire, select and implement the information according to existing requirements; 3. personal competence related to the ability to self-improvement, self-development, organize themselves effectively and use our own resources, to have the capacity for critical and creative thinking, understanding of the problem and ability to cope with it [2, c. 12-16]. 4. communication competence provides the ability to interact with people (effectively communicate and establish and maintain business contacts, observing the norms and rules of communication), work in teams, collaborate with different sectors of the population, present themselves by means of verbal communication, listen to the companion and very reasonably defend your own position and views, motivate interlocutor to continue dialogue, properly resolve conflicting points in the communication and evaluate the success of the situation of communication .
The graduates of the faculty of philosophy is able to reasonably expressing their thoughts (thanks to the visiting of informative lectures), successfully speak to the audience (having experience of participation in different science conferences and round tables), is able to prove his point of view clearly and logically (due to the hard work in seminars and dialogic interaction with the audience because the dialogue is the main decision-making method that required the substantiation of your view and arguments which approve or disapprove your future actions), is able to reach a consensus and agreement with the audience (using the principles of rhetoric, epistemology, hermeneutics and practical philosophy, that show the relationship between language and thinking, verbal and nonverbal strategies). These skills fully correspond to the key competence and are the basic characteristics of highly skilled professional who can successfully work not only in the national labor market. He is able to integrate into the world highly developed society where the ability to reasoned dialogue in addition to professional qualities, is a means of realization of personal goals and ambitions.
Beside, graduate of the faculty of philosophy with a degree of "bachelor" whose professional qualification is intern researcher in philosophy, is able to create databases of various levels, to apply interdisciplinary methods of establishment of key base of the identified problem and assess intellectual phenomenon or events. Also a graduate with bachelor's degree can skillfully perform initial philosophical analysis of the primary problems using different methods. This process needs such general professional competence as the possession of means and methods of logical analysis. The ability to conduct analytical research work entails mastering of such general cultural competence as the ability to abstract thinking, analysis and synthesis.
A graduate of the faculty of philosophy also can provide work of the various intellectual teams in solving urgent practical issues: round tables, conferences, discussions, panels and more. Thus, the expert of philosophy also knows how to plan, organize and manage his professional work and the work of various groups.
Graduate of the faculty of philosophy with "master" degree, who according to the diploma can work as a junior research associate and lecturer of the university, first, has the knowledge and expertise of educational programs of bachelor and can distinguish a top problem in a certain area of research a particular field of science or science together. So he can himself formulate his own specific tasks and carry out their deep development. In addition, he can apply the skills of production of scientific research in solving urgent problems of philosophy in an integrated interdisciplinary dimension that requires ownership of indepth knowledge of modern problems of philosophy, and the willingness to offer arguments to justify their solutions (in-expertise). Master's graduates can also perform methodologically completed philosophical analysis of different problems. This process requires the possession of methods of scientific research, the ability to formulate new goals and achieve new results in the relevant subject area (professional competence). Also an expert on philosophy can make educational materials to the curriculum of the institution or organization. This requirement cannot be done without such general professional competence as the ability to solve standard tasks of professional activities on the basis of bibliographic and information culture.
Another professional competence held by all graduates of the faculty of philosophy is the ability to use in practice the ability to organize research and project work and skills of preparation of official documents, that give the ability to generalize the results of scientific research in the form of a scientific report, scientific printed and electronic products. Mandatory skill of graduate with "master" degree is the ability to conduct educational activities in philosophy area within the sector and related spheres, scientific seminars that require special skills to use in-depth expertise on the philosophical disciplines.
But the main professional competence of the scientist is the ability and willingness to conduct research, observing all the principles of academic ethics and a willingness to take responsibility for the results of scientific work. These skills allow to provide scientific research in the framework of the sectorial scientific subjects, to publish scientific results in the sources, which are contained in scientometric databases.
After analyzing the ability and skills of graduates of the faculty of philosophy we can confidently say that they have such competencies that meet the needs of not only scientific challenges but also necessary for the successful daily activities in any sphere of public life.
Thus philosophy plays an important role and in the personal life and in all education system of Ukrainian society. Philosophical education helps to answer the life challenges, adopt cultural values and orientation of the modern world, helps to understand the world and to find the place in it, encourages self-education and the ability to use the acquired knowledge and skills, develop self-identity and individuality, rationality and ability to self-improvement. Moreover, the theory of philosophy focuses in research activities, teaches to create and develop our own scientific research methods and scientific approaches to reality. At the same time, philosophical education aims to create not only a professional scientist, but also a reasonable politician, a successful leader, a devoted public servant, teacher or lecturer and anyway it can form the wise intelligent citizen because this education can provide all competences for successful life.
philosophical professional competence student
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