People’s interaction and social intellect of the person
Basic features of social intelligence. Loss of accuracy of evaluation of the received information in the conditions of its verbalization. Actualization of personally significant experience of an individual. Social interaction, adaptation of the person.
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Rivne State University of the Humanities, 31 Ostafova Str., Rivne, Ukraine
People's interaction and social intellect of the person
Eduard Z. Ivashkevych
Candidate degree in Psychology, Professor's assistant,
social intelligence person experience
In this article the author showed basic, fundamental features of social intellect: its continual nature; the usage of nonverbal representation of context; loss of accuracy for assessment of social conditions of verbalization of information being heard; acquiring implicit ability to subject- communication; updating personally meaningful experience.
We described three basic structural components of social intellect: a cognitive component, the emotional one and a behavioral component. The cognitive component contains: social knowledge; social thinking; social anticipation; social intuition. The emotional component includes: empathy - the ability to enter the position of others, put yourself in the other conditions; recognition of emotions of others; emotional awareness - the ability to distinguish and interpret people's moods, emotions, desires, and to adequately assess the features of their impact on others; the ability to selfregulation - the ability to regulate people's emotions and mood. Behavioral component consists of the following structural elements: social interaction and social adaptation.
Key words: social intellect, cognitive component, emotional component, behavioral component, social knowledge, social thinking, social intuition, empathy, emotional awareness, social interaction, social adaptation.
ВЗАЄМОДІЯ ІНДИВІДІВ ТА СОЦІАЛЬНИЙ ІНТЕЛЕКТ ОСОБИСТОСТІ
кандидат психологічних наук, доцент,
Рівненський державний гуманітарний університет, вул. Остафова, 31, м. Рівне, 33000, Україна, Natasha1273@ukr.net
У статті автор виокремлює такі базові, фундаментальні особливості соціального інтелекту: його континуальний характер; використання невербально)' репрезентації контексту; втрата точності соціального оцінювання за умов вербалізації почутої інформації; набуття імпліцитних здатностей до суб'єкт-суб'єктного спілкування; актуалізація особистісно значущого досвіду.
Описано три базові структурні компоненти соціального інтелекту: когнітивний, емоційний та поведінковий. Когнітивний компонент вміщує: соціальні знання; соціальне мислення; соціальне прогнозування; соціальна інтуїція. Емоційний компонент включає: співпереживання - здатність входити в положення інших людей, ставити себе на місце іншого; розпізнавання емоцій інших людей; емоційна обізнаність - здатність розрізняти та інтерпретувати власні настрої, емоції, бажання, а також адекватно оцінювати особливості їхнього впливу на інших людей; здатність до саморегуляції - вміння регулювати свої емоції та настрій. Поведінковий компонент складається із таких структурних елементів: соціальної взаємодії та соціальної адаптації.
Ключові слова: соціальний інтелект, когнітивний компонент, емоційний компонент, поведінковий компонент, соціальні знання, соціальне мислення, соціальна інтуїція, емпатія, емоційна обізнаність, соціальна взаємодія, соціальна адаптація.
ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЕ ИНДИВИДОВ И СОЦИАЛЬНЫЙ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТ ЛИЧНОСТИ
кандидат психологических наук, доцент,
Ровенский государственный гуманитарный университет, ул. Остафова, 31, г. Ровно, 33000, Украина, Natasha1273@ukr.net
В статье автор выделяет такие базовые, фундаментальные особенности социального интеллекта: его континуальный характер; использование невербальной репрезентации контекста; потеря точности социального оценивания в условиях вербализации услышанной информации; приобретение имплицитных способностей к субъект-субъектному общению; актуализация личностно значимого опыта.
Описаны три базовых структурных компонента социального интеллекта: когнитивный, эмоциональный и поведенческий. Когнитивный компонент состоит из: социальных знаний; социального мышления; социального прогнозирования; социальной интуиции.
Эмоциональный компонент включает: эмпатию - способность входить в положение других людей, ставить себя на место другого; распознавание эмоций других людей; эмоциональную осведомлённость - способность различать и интерпретировать собственные настроения, эмоции, желания, а также адекватно оценивать особенности их влияния на других людей; способность к саморегуляции - умение регулировать свои эмоции и настроение.
Поведенческий компонент состоит из таких подструктурных элементов: социального взаимодействия и социальной адаптации.
Ключевые слова: социальный интеллект, когнитивный компонент, эмоциональный компонент, поведенческий компонент, социальные знания, социальное мышление, социальная интуиция, эмпатия, эмоциональная осведомлённость, социальное взаимодействие, социальная адаптация.
If we tell about social intellect of a person, its structure and functions we have to admit that in recent works (Aminov, 1992) social intellect is considered as a condition for the selection of profile, specialization of future professional. In such a way social intellect was studied in the connection with professional orientation of the person.
According to these authors, social intellect consists of three basic elements: a) interpersonal (communication) skills; b) the ability to design (or the power to influence other people); c) anthropometric orientation (empathy which is integral to facility, adequate perception of the process and results of psychological operations).
By no means, people's interaction is very important when we tell about the role and functions of social intellect of the person. As the example we have to distinguish the appearance people in England. Business attire rules are somewhat relaxed in England, but conservative dress is still very important for both men and women. Whether you're interviewing for a professional Tesco jobs or a restaurant position. Dark suits, usually black, blue, or gray, are quite acceptable. Men's shirts should not have pockets; if they do, the pockets should always be kept empty. Additionally, men should wear solid or patterned ties, while avoiding striped ties. Men wear laced shoes, not loafers. Businesswomen are not as limited to colors and styles as men are, though it is still important to maintain a conservative image.
Also social intellect is implicated in the behavior of people (we show the example of people's behavior in England). Always be punctual in England. Arriving a few minutes early for safety is acceptable. Decision-making is slower in England than in the United States; therefore it is unwise to rush the English into making a decision. A simple handshake is the standard greeting (for both men and women) for business occasions and for visiting a home. Privacy is very important to the English. Therefore asking personal questions or intensely staring at another person should be avoided. Eye contact is seldom kept during British conversations. To signal that something is to be kept confidential or secret, tap your nose. Personal space is important in England, and one should maintain a wide physical space when conversing. Furthermore, it is considered inappropriate to touch others in public. Gifts are generally not part of doing business in England. A business lunch will often be conducted in a pub and will consist of a light meal and perhaps a pint of ale. When socializing after work hours, do not bring up the subject of work. When dining out, it is not considered polite to toast those who are older than yourself.
The same situation is when we tell about communication. «America and Britain are two nations divided by a common language» George Bernard was once quoted as saying. In England, English is the official language, but it should be noted that Queen's English and American English are very different. Often times ordinary vocabulary can differ between the two countries. Loud talking and disruptive behavior should be avoided. One gesture to avoid is the V for Victory sign, done with the palm facing yourself. This is a very offensive gesture. If a man has been knighted, he is addressed as «Sir and his first name» example: Sir John. If writing a letter, the envelope is addressed «Sir First name and Last name», for example: Sir John Roberts.
Social intellect in a great degree influence the communicative behavior of people. We'll show this on the example in England nowadays. In England, politeness, reserve, and restraint are admired. The English are courteous, unassuming and are very proud of their long and rich history. Scots are passionate about their country, guarding its uniqueness and refusing to go along with English ideas. While cool and aloof externally, they are extremely sentimental about their family and their country. Overall Scots are free of class consciousness and social elitism, except in religion. Generally, Protestants mix only with Protestants and Catholics mix only with Catholics.
Scots have a keen, subtle sense of humor and value generosity, respectability. Wales has been part of the United Kingdom for more than 400 years, but has kept its own language, literature and traditions. Most residents of Wales are of Welsh or English heritage. Many immigrants from former British colonies and other parts of U.K. Welsh take great pride in their country and their heritage. The Welsh love to sing and talk and spend much of their free time at with their families.
Two-thirds of the Northern Irish have Scottish or English roots. The others are of Irish descent. Irish value friendliness, sincerity and nature. They dislike pretentious behavior and possess a strong work ethic. Family ties are very important in Northern Ireland.
There are some peculiarities in meeting and greeting in England. The British are reserved, which may cause them to appear cool and indifferent or overly formal. In fact, they are very friendly and helpful to foreigners. Shake hands with everyone present - men, women, and children - at business and social meetings. Shake hands again when leaving. Handshakes are light - not firm. Women should extend their hand to men first. Use last names and appropriate titles until specifically invited by your British hosts or colleagues to use their first names (http://globalizen.wordpress.com/2011/03/03/barriers- to-effective-intercultural-communication/].
The same situation is when we tell about body Language in England. The British are not back slappers or touches and generally do not display affection in public. Hugging, kissing and touching is usually reserved for family members and very close friends. The British like a certain amount of personal space. Do not stand too close to another person or put your arm around someone's shoulder. Staring is considered rude (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_ culture#Sociology_of_culture).
Social intellect also plays a great role from the side of corporate culture in England. In Great Britain, punctuality is important for business meetings. Be on time. Brits prefer a congenial business relationship, but tend to get right down to business after a few moments of polite conversation. Business is best initiated through a well-connected third party. The Board of Directors is the source of power and the principal decision making unit in a company. Formal approval of the board is required for most decisions. Decisions may be slow in the making. Expect formalities and protocol to be observed in business, especially in London. Business organization traditionally is multi-layered with a vertical chain of command. A network of committees, formal and informal, exists in larger companies. Group consensus is preferred to individual initiative. In older companies, business still centers around the «old boy network» with prep schools, universities and family ties being of great importance. Newer companies are more progressive. Meetings should be scheduled well in advance. Meetings generally have a concrete objective, such as: making a decision, developing a plan or arriving at an agreement. Presentations should be detailed and subdued. Scots are known for being skilled businesspersons, priding themselves for being internationalists. They also are suspicious of «go-getters» and respect success only when it is achieved over time (www.ukrlib.com. ua/encycl/techii/index.php).
We can see some main explications of social intellect when we describe dining and entertainment in England. So, summon a waiter by raising your hand. Don't wave or shout. Most business entertaining is done restaurants or pubs over lunch. The host, the one who extends the invitation, pays the bill. A British business associate may invite you to watch cricket or to the regatta. Both are prestigious events. Wear your tweed sport coat or blue blazer. An invitation to someone's home is more common in England than in the rest of Europe. Do not discuss business at dinner in someone's home unless the host initiates the conversation. In England, when invited to someone's home, arrive at least 10-20 minutes after the stated time. Never arrive early. In Scotland and Wales, arrive on time. A male guest of honor is seated at the head of the table or to the right of the hostess. A female guest of honor is seated to the right of the host. Wait for your host to begin eating before you eat. Host or hostess always initiates first toast, which is usually only given at a formal dinner. At a formal dinner, do not smoke until after the toast to the Queen or until otherwise indicated by the host. Keep your hands on the table at all times during the meal - not in your lap. However, take care to keep your elbows off the table. When finished eating, place knife and fork side by side on the plate at the 5:25 position. You should leave a very small amount of food on your plate when finished eating. The guest of honor should initiate leaving a party. When the host folds his napkin, this signals that the meal is over. Leave a dinner party shortly after dinner ends. Write a thank you note to the hostess. It is considered impolite to ask for a tour of your host's home. Entertain anyone who has entertained you, but don't try to impress British guests with an extravagant dinner. The Brits prefer understatement (www.ukrlib.com. ua/encycl/techii/index.php).
So, we understand social intellect as a special capacity for social learning to do effective influence on other people through communication skills. In such a way we extend the study of social intellect from the cognitive patterns of interpersonal perception and ending personal tumors, including cognitive and motivational components of identity characteristics which represent a complex structure of social intellect of the person.
According to the researchers done by N.V. Baydakova (Baydakova, 1998) social intellect is integrated intellectual ability, that determines the success of communication and social adaptation of the person. Among the processes that ensure the functioning of social intellect, there are social sensitive process, social perception, social memory and social thought. In general, social intellect is understood as the ability of the person to exercise mental operations, to provide the object with the help of which we'll have the process of interpersonal communication and interaction.
So, N.V. Baydakova (Baydakova, 1998) notes that social intellect provides insight deeds and actions of people, understanding human speech production and his/her nonverbal reactions (facial expressions, postures, gestures). Thus, social intellect provides the capacity of the person to actualize communication skills, as well as professionally important quality in professions such as «a man - a man». In such a way N.V. Baydakova (Baydakova, 1998) also stressed that the developing of social intellect was largely predetermined by the expansion of communication range of interpersonal interaction, development of sensitivity, the ability to experience other, social and perceptual skills, ability to decentration, which were the basis of social intellect.
Similar point of view O.B. Chesnokova has (Chesnokova, 1996). The scientist believes that social intellect is general cognitive ability that provides knowledge about our surrounding, knowledge which help us to organize world orientation in real life according to interrelations of social reality that are explicated in real situations of interpersonal interaction.
We have to concentrate our attention on the structural and dynamical theory of D.V. Ushakov (Ushakov, 2002). In his paradigm, social intellect is the ability of the person to know the social phenomena that are only one component of social skills, social competence, etc., but does not exhaust the total number of skills and abilities.
The author of structural dynamic theory distinguishes these basic, fundamental features of social intellect:
• its continual nature;
• the usage of nonverbal representation of context;
• loss of accuracy for assessment of social conditions of verbalization of information being heard;
• acquiring implicit ability to subject-communication;
• updating personally meaningful experience.
In such a way we can argue that all these theories and concepts can be included into three main groups which describe three basic structural components of social intellect: a cognitive component, the emotional one and a behavioral component. Content of each component can be described by the following subcomponents.
The cognitive component contains:
• social knowledge - knowledge of special rules of behavior in a society, professional knowledge;
• social thinking - the ability to understand the logic of interpersonal interaction in situations, determine the behavior of people in these situations; the ability of cognition in behavior, its elements, psychological factors and determinants of appropriate behavior, namely the ability to understand the changing values of human verbal responses depending on the context, which caused a certain situation of interpersonal interaction;
• social prediction - knowledge of the results of behavior, the ability to foresee the consequences of the behavior of individuals in certain social situations, the ability to predict what will happen in future;
• social intuition - the perception and understanding of feelings and moods of others in the context of interpersonal interaction; capacity for logic synthesis, isolating essential features of interpersonal interaction on the basis of non-verbal reactions' Rights; the ability to perceive how individual behavior is measured in the paradigm of social space.
The emotional component includes:
• empathy - the ability to enter the position of others, put yourself in the other conditions (states overcome communicative and moral egocentrism);
• recognition of emotions of others - the ability to find a common ground and maintain productive relationships with people regardless of cognitive complexity of the situation in which there is a process of subject-subject interaction;
• emotional awareness - the ability to distinguish and interpret people's moods, emotions, desires, and to adequately assess the features of their impact on others;
• the ability to self-regulation - the ability to regulate people's emotions and mood.
Behavioral component consists of the following structural elements:
• social interaction - openness to communication and interpersonal relationships with other people; the ability and willingness to work together, the capacity for collective interaction, focus on group (microgroups);
• social adaptation - adaptation to other people and the demands of the society or group (microgroups); organization, ability to subordinate himself/herself according to rules and requirements of the society, making social norms as those that are personally meaningful to the person.
Our conception of social intellect shows us that this intellect includes cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic structures.
Cognitive substructure of social intellect involves a set of fairly stable knowledge, assessment, rules of interpretation of events, human behavior, their relationships, etc. Social intellect is based on the existing system of interpretation on micro-structural and macro- structural levels. The microstructure of cognitive component of social intellect is determined by the features of the latter, namely cognitive evaluation, which determines the competent processing and evaluating the information that the subject perceives, his/her prediction, based on planning and forecasting of interpersonal interactions, communication, providing proper performance of the process of communication (this function is associated with an adequate perception and understanding of the process of communication of the partner). It is based on the mechanism of reflection which is reflected directly in self-knowledge. In turn, the macrostructure of cognitive component of social intellect manifests itself in the attitude of the person to himself / herself as a value, in the valuable semantic position in interpersonal relationships, as well as the updating of motivation and value orientation of the man with the purpose to reach axiological attitude in professional and other activities.
The source of social intellect on micro-level is the continuous updating of functions noted by us. The results of integration can be considered a set of subjective scales which enable the subject to focus on the features of interpersonal interactions, identify and adequately evaluate the behavior of other persons. One of the main results of social intellect is the presence of a high level of individual statistics with different modalities. They are some space of psycho-semantic subjective scales, symbols of nonverbal behavior, norms of language products, etc.
The task of social intellect on macro-structural level is to provide opportunities to partners of social interaction to evaluate themselves and others as individuals. In this case, the value orientation of the person does not necessarily reflect generally accepted social norms and even enter in conflict with them. But there is always a particular society and its representatives, where individual vision of the world has personal values and meanings for people.
Mnemonic component of social intellect of the person describes the presence of the ability to interpret events, life events, behavior of others and their own as the subject of these events. Mnemonic substructure is based on the personal experience of the subject, where subjective statistics constitute personal interpretive complex. Polimodality in this case means that a person has different interpretative systems according to various aspects of life of a man/ woman. So, they may conflict with each other, but psychologically they consist of internal structures, providing based unity of mnemonic component and a social intellect.
Mnemonic component has its own set of interpretations: I - other people - the world. Each of these levels of interpretation is represented at the level of mnemonic component in the form of its specific dependent substructures. The core of personal interpretations in the complex is the cumulative set of the person estimated himself / herself. This process of evaluative attitude is always subjectively unfinished, open. Analyzing the features of the interaction of the person with the society, the man can be shown as an integral characteristic of the person's experience (self-respect of the person, the concept of subjective value). Personal interpretive complex is characterized by the ability of the person to do interpretations of others, their behavior and actions. These interpretations allow their participants to expand continuously and adjust stock their interpretative personal experience, provide such kind of compatibility and similarity of different interpretational systems.
In a space of the relations of the person there is a need to evaluate constantly other people, their behavior and actions, gradually produced a different strategies estimated the criterion of compatibility of people's perception of the world and their perceptions by others. In turn, these strategies form the appropriate assessments and personal interpretive complex in the interpersonal sphere, which presents the dominant level of mnemonic component of social intellect.
Emphatic component of social intellect is largely dependent on what shape of the behavior the person chooses as a priority that he / she expects his / her business associated with the complex of interpretative value in relation to the world of the person.
Thus, we assume the main results of the integration of the functions of social intellect are the presence of individual statistics with different modalities. The first result is a space of psycho-semantic subjective scales, symbols and principles of nonverbal behavior and different norms of speech production. A list of these modalities can be complement, implying that statistics actually reflect various aspects of life because they are so different, based on depth, length, representativeness and others. At the same time statistics can be the units of social intellect, their structure, functions and genesis which are deep enough from one side, and so different from social stereotypes - from the other. If the stereotype is a stable structure, a fixed-level of mnemonic component of social intellect, is invariant in relations to various life situations, their statistics. Statistics and stereotypes can facilitate future organization of social intellect of each person. These stereotypes will be described in other our articles.
1. Aminov, N.A. (1992). O komponentax specialnyx sposobnostej budushhix shkolnyx psixologov [About the components of special abilities of future psychologists of secondary schools]. Psixologicheskij zhurnal. - Psychological journal, Vol. 5, 104-109 [in Russian].
2. Bajdakova, N.V (1998). Oblasti funkcionirovaniya intellekta [The spheres of functioning of intellect]. Prakticheskaya psixologiya. - Practical psychology, Vol. 1, 203-204 [in Russian].
3. Ushakov, D.V (2002). Socialnyj intellekt : Verbalnaya i neverbalnaya sistemy [Social intellect : Verbal and non-verbal systems]. Sovremennaya psixologiya : sostoyanie i perspektivy. - Contemporary psychology : state and perspectives, Vol. 1, 148-150 [in Russian].
4. Chudoznio-styliovi napriamy i teciji v literaturi [Art and stylistic trends and currents in literature]. Retrieved from www.ukrlib.com.ua/encycl/techii/index.php [in Ukrainian].
5. Chesnokova, O.B. (1996). Izuchenie social'nogo poznaniya v detskom vozraste [The study of social cognition in childhood]. M. : RAN Institut psixologii [in Russian].
6. Barery effektivnoj interkulturnoj kommunikacii [Barriers to effective intercultural communication]. Retrieved from http://globalizen.wordpress.com/2011/03/03/ barriers-to-effective-intercultural-communication/ [in Russian].
7. Sociologiya kultury [Sociology of culture]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Outline_of_culture#Sociology_of_culture [in Russian].
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