Peculiarities of aggression state of the junior schoolchildren with speech development disorders
Varieties of aggression of younger schoolchildren with impaired speech development. Their symptoms: controlled and competitive subspecies; hidden - protective and depressive; behavioral - demonstrative and physical. Research techniques using the figure.
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Peculiarities of aggression state of the junior schoolchildren with speech development disorders
The theoretical analysis of the problem of teaching and bringing-up children with speech development disorder (SDD) proves, that underdeveloped speech makes negative influence on the development of their cognitive processes and psycho-emotional sphere.
The aim of the research is to state theoretically and to check experimentally the state of aggression, which is experienced by the junior schoolchildren with speech development disorder. Theoretical and methodological basis of research are fundamental positions of Psychology, Pedagogies, Physiology, Speech Therapy.
Analysis of relevant research
Generalized analysis of major scientists' studies in the branch of logopedia by L. Andrusyshena, N. Havrylova, E. Daniliavichute, S. Konopliasta, R. Levina, I. Martynova, I. Marchenko, Mastukova, M. Savchenko, E. Sobotovych, V. Tarasun, V. Tyshchenko, T. Filichova, N. Cherednichenko, M. Sheremet and others, have proved that among children with speech disorders the underdevelopment of mental processes, motivation, will, emotional-personal sphere can be observed [2, 3].
The detailed analysis of the views on the problem of aggression in the psychoanalytical (O. Kernberg, Z. Freud and others), behavioral (R. Kratchfield, N. Levinson, A. Bandura and others), cognitive (J. Dollard, A. Miller, L. Berkovits and others), evolutional (K. Lorents, M. Derjahina, M. Butovska and others), humanistic (A. Maslou, R. Mej, E. Fromm and others) approaches and modern psychologists (O. Bovt, K. Butner, O. Isaienko, A. Kireichev, O. Mizerna, I. Fedukh and others) and pedagogs (O. Demko, C. Zavrazhyn, M. Quadrytsius, N. Malikova, V. Nykitenko, S. Syrotkin, N. Pavlova, N. Platonova and others) proves that aggression is an integral part of life of a person and society. The majority of scientists consider aggression as the negative action, aimed to harm another person or oneself. But a lot of scientists (N. Levitov, K. Lorents, T. Levkova, O. Zakharov, R. Mej, O. Shestokova and others) represent it as a positive one, aimed to overcome the obstructions without intention to harm another person and which is possibly to use as means towards the end. It gives us opportunity to examine not only negative manifestations of aggression among children with SDD, but to study its positive components .
The analysis of the theoretical sources on the problem of the research proves that aggression exists in conscious (A. Adler, O. Leontiev, V. Stolin,
0. Sechenov, Z. Freud and others) as well as in unconscious (R. Dekart, I. Kant, R. Leibniz, K. Jung and others) forms; represents various views on the matter of the aggressive behavior (A. Bandura, N. Levinson, E. Fromm and others), aggressiveness (T. Kyrylenko, O. Shestakova and others), the aggressive state of the personality (O. Zakharov, N. Levitov and others); determines the spheres of studies devotes to aggression from the biological (neuropsychological) position as internally-caused ("I am a Personality") (O. Luriia, E. Homska and others) and from the social point of view - externally-caused ("I am in the family", "I am in the society") (L. Bozhovych, O. Bovt, M. Bulianov, S. Zavrazhyn, O. Romanov, I. Furmanov and others).
As the base of the study of aggression of children with speech development disorders were used the studies of A. Bass, R. Berns, A. Dark, M. Druzkevych, S. Kaufman, M. Liusher, S. Rozentsveig, O. Romanov, M. Semago, I, Furmanov and others. The diagnostic algorithm consists of two blocks. The first block deals with the study devoted to the unconscious aggression. The diagnostic sense of the block was maintained by the modernized picture methodology ("The picture of a non-existing animal", "The picture of my family", "The picture of my class"), which were aimed at examining the aggression state, and also the modificated methodology ("Anecdotal-situational-illustrated"), which has found out the modeling of behavior types in the consciousness .
Based on the first-primary source (G. Aizenk, A. Assinger, V. Boiko, A. Bass, R. Mej, S. Rozenthveig, O. Romanov, L. Morris, R. Sazek, E. Fromm and others) three types and six subtypes of aggression had been determined, which further were maintained by the methodological sense and qualitative characteristics for the evaluation criterion determination of the methodologies, chosen for the research.
Due to the analysis of the theoretical-methodological literature, positive aggression was represented in the self-regulated type (controlled and emulative subtypes of aggression), which were pointed out in the studies of G. Aizenk, K. Lorenz, R. Mej, E. Fromm, I. Furmanov, O. Shestokova and others. The negative aggression was analyzed in the concealed (defensive and depressive subtypes of aggression) and behavioral types (demonstrative and physical subtypes of aggression) (G. Aizenk, A. Assinger, V. Boiko, A. Bass, A. Darki, S. Rozentsveig, O. Romanov and others).
The worked out diagnostic algorithm gave the opportunity to study the peculiarities of the manifestation (by types and subtypes) of the aggression state of the junior schoolchildren within three spheres of research "I am a personality", "I am in the family", "I am in The society".
In our research the types and subtypes of aggression were examined in the progressive growth - from its smallest to the largest manifestations based on children's drawings "The picture of a non-existing animal", "I am in the family" and "I am in the society". Thus, the state of the controlled aggression subtype of the self-regulating type was experienced by children with PhUS (96,9 %), with normal development (95 %) slightly less than pupils with Ph-PhUS (91,3 %) and the least - with UGSU (87,5 %).
For example, while drawing "The picture of a non-existing animal", the children used to draw the smooth rounded lines, without sharp protrusions. They depicted one more animal alongside another one that characterized the sign of teamwork and the need to adorn themselves before others. Not always the pupils of various categories who took the majority of the points due to the subtype of the controlled aggression, managed to make a creative approach to the problem. Although the features in their drawings were positive, though most of them were on a low level, because instead of creating a new character they made a banal transferring of their favorite animals, characters from cartoons, etc. on a sheet of paper.
Representing their family, junior pupil, in the pictures of whom the subtype of the controlled aggression was predominant, were trying to show their relatives from the best side in the process of any activity. Usually, they were drawn outdoors where the sun was shining and even smiling.
The results of the analysis of family pictures have shown that children drew favorite family members firstly and from the left, favorites were higher and bigger than the other family members. The details of the picture are also shown carefully. Most children of this subtype found out that the favorite characters were mothers who were leaders in the family and, therefore, an example to follow; they thought the family was leading. The second, equally important, role in the family the children devoted to dads. They are pictured next to their mothers, but not in very bright colors and small in size. These figures show that fathers are optimistic, fun, energetic, happy to spend their free time with their children. The brothers and sisters are claiming the leadership, but it's not the leadership in the family and it is not very tangible, what is indicated by such peculiarities in the pictures as drawing them along with their favorite family members because of severe aggression in children before they were observed. Some of the pupils gave considerable importance to grandparents in their picture, who were drawn next to the child that proved the respect and trust of children to the older generations.
The children of the same class represented in their pictures those pupils, whom they were friendly with, and, of course, they drew them with flexible lines, choosing for them some pleasant colors. The drawn characters were smiling, well-dressed, with balloons or flowers in their hands, or just holding each other's hand. All this characterized the ability to value adequately in any situation and to analyze own capabilities, do not allow the emotions to conquer and settle disputes peacefully.
The condition of the competitive subtype of self-regulating type of aggression was experienced more by children with normal psychological development (95.9 %) and with phonetic underdeveloped speech a (PhUS) (90,9%), somewhat less - by pupils with unsharply manifested general speech underdevelopment (UGSU) (87,5 %) and phonetic-phonemic underdeveloped speech (Ph-PhUS) (82,6 %).
So, when creating a fantastic animal the children could give it mystical features, courage, make unusual, drawing unconventional wings, clothes, various natural phenomena. Such drawing of the additional details with non-functional content and coloring the characters in bright blue colors disclosed creative and energetic natures of these children. Typically the characters were located in the middle or at the bottom of the paper made by clear confident lines without sharp protrusions. In their creative works they often portrayed some unusual animals that characterized the desire of children to communicate with people. Brightness, the fantastic, untypical pictures testified about their activity, which could be expressed in a competition for leadership positions in their environment.
The picture of their family the majority of junior pupils with different speech development allocated all their close relatives, placing themselves near strong and respected people, which was characterized by the desire of children to take the same thing and authoritative leadership position in own family. On people's faces they painted big eyes, ears, long fingers, and clothes and decorations were painted in shades of blue colors, indicating a high level of aspiration of children, the desire to be the best, a unique and inimitable even in the family.
Working on the task "The picture of my class", the majority of children depicted only those pupils who were the leaders of the team. Junior pupils, especially girls, in the faces of their characters painted eyes, eyelashes, nose, lips, and on their heads - good haircuts. Guys depicted the stature, positive attitude, occupation. In each picture they drew themselves in the middle or near the authoritative person, that determines their high self-esteem, commitment, activity, and desire to control others. Children are extremely worried about the opinion of others about themselves, so they are always trying to be the center of events and be interested in new information.
The state of protective subtype of hidden form of aggression was observed among the majority of children with PhUS (100 %) Ph-PhUS (100 %), somewhat less with normal mental and physical development (97,3 %) and UGSU (87,5 %).
For example, junior pupils with different speech development who painted a fantastic animal, marked it with thin, insecure lines, painted predominantly yellow. In work they used the eraser for many times, they erased some details, and then painted them again. They borrowed the creative ideas of their classmates, adding to them some functional or extra parts. This disclosed the children's uncertainty, lowered activity in their actions, inability to the creative fulfillment.
When drawing their family, junior pupils depicted themselves little, surrounded by parents. It indicated the helplessness of children and their dependence on the careful care in the family. Distance between adult and the child pointed to anxiety, low self-esteem that keeps them in constant emotional stress. Some children from this group generally did not paint their parents who disclosed the hidden form of aggression relatively to the closest people. The pictures were placed at the bottom of the sheet, indicating uncertainty, dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, indecision. Children with such features always liked to dream more than to realize their intentions, because they are still do not be ready for the activity.
The analysis of the pictures, in which their classmates are depicted, confirmed that children mainly painted those who either humiliated or did not consider them. These "authorities" were often depicted in the corner of a sheet of paper, or in space, that disclosed low self-esteem, increasing anxiety, and isolation of these children. Such state was provoked, of course, by strong leaders of the team. The children painted the body of their characters as geometric figures, what indicated the lack of creativity and characterized their isolation, closeness from the inner world and the reluctance to talk something about themselves again.
The depressive subtype of the hidden form of aggression is one of the most difficult states, that manifests itself equally in different categories of pupils. According to the results of research it was determined that the depressive feelings were experienced by more children with PhUS (96,9 %) and UGSU (93,7 %), somewhat less - by pupils with normal speech (92,6 %), and Ph- PhUS (91,3 %).
The example of fantastic animals representation, which manifested pupils' depressive aggression, were pictures that were done at a primitive level, a character was without a head, or without functional parts: ears, eyes, mouth, an animal was painted very small and disproportionate. The heroes, of course, were brown and orange and made from the usual thin lines with pencil or pen. They often erased the pictures without renewing. The animals were placed at the bottom, in the corner or at the top of the paper, indicating indecision, selfdoubt and low self-esteem.
A family in the children's works was different: some children used geometric shapes to depict their parents, didn't paint their eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and did not depict their clothes. Others painted their family only selectively. Mother or father or the child itself could be missing in the picture. Some children depicted everything they wanted, except for their own family, or generally refused to perform this task. There were pupils who painted themselves small, helpless, and aside from the whole family. Each of the presented depressive symptoms expressed depressive type aggression, which characterized the self-defense from close persons who didn't provide the child with care, love, injured the mental sphere of the children by punishment, insults, excessive criticism, causing the anxious, helpless state.
At school children with this form of aggression were kept away from the energetic leaders, classmates, and communicated only with calm and balanced, or left alone, as reflected in their drawings. They painted their classmates in thin lines; some were wiped by rubber, or even sketched. Also, there were such works, where children painted only themselves without classmates, or depicted a school, class, sometimes a teacher. Pictures with such sense indicated the rejection of the children by the team in which they were. Suffering from abuse, criticism and contempt of their classmates, these children became extremely anxious, unsure of themselves and alone, hidden, powerless and helpless.
The state of the demonstration subtype of behavioral type of aggression was found in the majority of children with PhUS (100 %), somewhat less than it was observed in pupils with normal psycho-physiological development (97,3 %) and Ph-PhUS (91,3 %), and least the less experienced in this subtype were pupils with UGSU (75,0 %).
The analysis of drawings "The picture of a non-existing animal" showed that children depicted animals in the upper or middle part of the paper. Contour lines were clear, but with a strong advantage of drawing and red shades of color. Heads were drawn in the foreground they had big eyes, mouth, canines, ears. Animals could have wings, but in some pictures there was no body because the head and front legs were connected to the legs, which were not always ready to resist. Such details in the pictures revealed pupils' desire for behaviorally demonstrative actions in society. Their behavior is entrenched and developed in conditions of chronic dissatisfaction, lack of love from the immediate environment.
Most elementary school students with different speech development, who used the demonstrative signs of aggression in the pictures of their family, primarily drew fathers, with very large and long arms, fists. Of course, they were shown in front and showed that the punishment of children in families occupied the educational position. The moms were depicted with big ears, opened mouth, protruding tongue. Children could represent themselves as big, wearing some clothing, decorated with jewelry and was distinguished by bright red color. A number of features marked the desire of pupils to leadership among brothers and sisters, so children draw relatives next to the head of the family, or even excluded them from the general space, wiping by the eraser or crossing out. These features are also indicated a high level of self-esteem, self- centeredness and unrealized inflated claims for recognition, which caused the confusion and aggressive acts in relations between the examined children and their siblings. Grandparents also had a great impact on family relationships in families and on the children themselves. This proves such images as a great grandmother ("mother-in-law"), next to the child's mother, and father is painted as a little figure and at a great distance; or great grandfather, with long arms (the child deliberately portrays his badly). All this confirms that the described characters were the source of tension in the families.
The demonstrative features of aggression in junior schoolchildren were also observed in the pictures of their class. Pupils depicted the authority figures as plump, with big eyes, opened mouth, long arms with fingers or fists, indicating their desire to control and take leadership positions in the team, in which they were. In the class, the examined pupils perceived only those children who recognized them and obeyed to their authority. Another group of children ignored their classmates in the picture; they depicted only themselves in nice bright-red things, with big hairstyles, or with hair down. Some even painted a crown on the head that disclosed their own self-centeredness, inflated self-esteem, desire to prove their uniqueness, uniqueness in the eyes of others. This position often resulted in children unperceptive, and sometimes in mockery and ridiculing them by their classmates, of course, they did not pay attention, and continued to feel the "king" of society.
The most difficult subtype of the behavioral type of aggression was the state of physical aggression. It was more fundamentally observed in children with PhUS (90,9 %) and UGSU (87,5 %), somewhat less - pupils with normal psycho-physiological development (82,5 %) and Ph-PhUS (82,6 %).
For example, depicting the fantastic animals, pupils pointed out their spikes, needles, plain coat, changed the contents of the task and designated major teeth, tongue, etc. They used primarily black and gray colors, combining them with a bright-red color, which, of course, indicates the increased level of inadequate selfesteem, self-confidence, lack of mechanisms for targeting to social norms.
In the pictures of their family, the physical signs of aggression manifested in that fact that children themselves were the aggressors in the family. They depicted themselves brighter and more detailed, than parents, who were only the background for them. In their works the features, which pointed to the selfattitude, as something unique, were dominant, and parents were in the background. Generally, these children are alone in the family or there was a great age difference between siblings. These pupils were distinguished by their activity, noise, egocentricity, talkativeness, did not want to accept information from others, wanted to be more independent.
In the pictures they emphasized the details that indicated the distance between the parents, or did not paint them at all. Other works indicated that pupils really respect their fathers, the behavior of whom is an example to follow, and it caused the strong sense of rivalry and desire to take the same authoritative position in the family. Selfishness of these pupils put mothers in the third place. Kids love them, but often do not follow their advice. Siblings were the biggest rivals for children. The aggression in this case was manifested in a constant struggle for supremacy in the family. Some junior pupils painted grandparents, but in bright colors, they weren't pointed out, however, painted the wrong faces or complete them with odd details. In the pictures of their class they depicted only those pupils with whom they are friendly and compete for leadership in the team, drawing them with long arms, fingers, fists, but sometimes without eyes, mouth or ears, and of course, black or gray. This made it possible to assume that children self-determine themselves through the aggressive actions such as: fighting, verbal insults, humiliation, gossiping, bad jokes, etc. They do not want to listen to the comments of adults. All they have - too much confidence in their own abilities and capabilities, which is a major cause of conflicts among the children of the same age. Such high self-esteem causes mistrust, negative attitude, which leads to a constant feeling of tension in children with physical aggression.
Thus, the results of picture methodology research indicate that the majority of students with normal psycho-physiological development, with PhUS and Ph-PhUS have experienced the state, which coincided with the defensive, demonstrative subtypes of aggression, less pupils preferred competitive and controlled and the least - depressive and physical. Most children with UGSU experienced the depressive aggression, less - controlled, competitive, defensive and physical and the least - demonstrative. In order to determine in what way the speech underdevelopment of the junior pupils influences their internal state, we have implemented a generalized analysis of the research materials, and it allowed us to distinguish three levels of the aggression state - low, medium and high.
aggression schoolchildren figure
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2. Гаврилова, Н.С. (2008). Особливості організації соціальної роботи з сім'ями, у яких є діти з проблемами розвитку і поведінки. Збірник наукових праць Кам'янець- Подільського державного університету. Сер. соціально-педагогічна, Вип. ІХ, 42-48 (Havrylova, N. S. (2008). Peculiarities of organization of social work with families who have children with developmental problems and behaviour. Collection of scientific works of Kamianets-Podilskyi State University. Series socio, Issue IX, 42-48.
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