Youth’s perception of public service advertising as a means of forming anti-terrorist values

Terrorism as the intimidation of the political opponents which is expressing in a physical abuse up to destruction; cruel intimidation, violence. Characteristics of the communication, information, motivational function of public service advertising.

Рубрика Психология
Вид статья
Язык английский
Дата добавления 09.02.2019
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The problem of terrorism is a state problem, a world-wide problem for a long time. Various researchers define terrorism differently; therefore there is a necessity of consideration of this phenomenon in various aspects. Terrorism is characterized by richness since it can be both a single act of terrorism, and a political and religious orientation.

Considering the term of “terrorism” in etymological sense, it is possible to note that it has no accurate contents. V.I. Dal says that terrorism is an aspiration to frighten by threats of violence and physical destruction. S.I. Ojegov defines terrorism as “the intimidation of the political opponents which is expressing in a physical abuse up to destruction; cruel intimidation, violence” [6].

U. Laker writes that the terrorism is “illegal use of force against innocent people for achievement of political goals”. Besides, he says that attempts to go beyond this simple definition are useless and senseless since the term is very inconsistent [4].

N.V. Posokhova specifies that the terrorism, first of all, assumes existence of the violent armed acts, but it would be meanwhile very wrong to explain its social influence by only physical impacts. The emotional and psychological influence, which essence intimidation and population intimidation is much more important. Emotional and psychological component is that tool of terrorists via which they try to influence consciousness of people and even the power. Therefore, the main tool of suppression of the identity of the person is a fear. Acts of terrorism, in the main weight, are directed on self-advertisement for the purpose of intimidation [9].

Terrorism - the phenomenon brutal and cruel in any forms of its manifestation. Loss of human life, the mass riots, the destroyed cultural and material values on which restoration it is required to find long time are a consequence. Between national and social groups there is a mistrust, rage, conviction in a negative orientation of views. Despite various reasons of emergence, scales and intensity, terrorism represents one of the most popular and burning issues of global scale.

Any person can appear on a place of the victim of an act of terrorism. The terrorism has negative impact not only on public life of people, but also on political and economic structure of the state, affecting by that all spheres of action of the country and underestimating prestige of the state.

Now terrorist groups are the well organized aggressive groups of people which at first arose as spontaneous, subcultural communities. The internal organization reached high level, being improved and developing the ideology, equipping technical resources and ways of introduction of promotion. The last became very available with the advent of mass media and the Internet. After all at the organization and implementation of acts of terrorism organizers seek to inform with I howl ideology in masses, the general public.

It is known that the terrorism was beyond long ago national scale and became a problem of the international character. It is a source of effective intimidation and destruction. Level of terrorist activity indicates productive or unproductive work of the state in counteraction to terrorism.

It is dangerous and frightened that for the majority of people and the organizations the terrorism acts only as a way of the solution of their problems of various scale. As the main tool it is used by people who cannot achieve success in political or other sphere, to be the heard or popular other methods which are not bearing for such serious negative consequences.

It is necessary to pay attention to that fact that our country is multinational and therefore in it various religions and cultures are combined. Therefore, formation of anti-terrorist ideology, in particular, at youth since the conflicts arising because of nationalism, religious intolerance and hostility, bear more dangerous and terrible consequences is important.

As I.V. Abakumova notes, tendency to extremism and terrorism of modern young generation of Russia is real and therefore demands close attention and studying [1]. “It is now especially important to think of that the state needs to make, to religious, public organizations to save our fellow citizens, especially youth, from this danger.

Work with youth is key in propaganda measures”, - L.V. Popova [7] notes.

Considering everything is higher stated, studying of the relation to youth terrorism - Internet users is represented to us actual.

The countries with a democratic system are optimum for terrorism development, in them terrorists use availability of the press to promotion of the views and finishing of frightening actions to the public, possibility of “political asylum”. Great Britain is an example of granting “political asylum”. So, in its territory fighters to Chechnya and Al-Qaeda are hired, the political asylum is granted to criminals who are in the international wanted list [12].

The terrorism tends to dynamic development presently. It is caused by that in development of scientific and technical progress the technogenic environment gets more and more difficult and at the same time vulnerable structure. Thus, progress of equipment gives to the person the soil for destruction of the social, natural and technological environment. Level of terrorism is higher where mass media and the Internet become more powerful and their role is considerable in creation of public moods [8]. In the last decade we can observe growth of percent of information received from information sources, but not personal contact and a first-hand experience. This fact is used actively by terrorist ideologists for information and propaganda impact on as much as possible general population. The modern person, thanking practically to all information sources, becomes the witness of death of other people from acts of terrorism. Mass media and the Internet provide the maximum approach of virtual information to directly endured. As Yu.V. Bykhovets with coauthors notes, “the more experience, the becomes easier it psychological reality» [2].

Public service advertising is a means of formation of anti-terrorist values, in our opinion.

Subject of public service advertising are social problems of society. On the one hand, it «highlights» certain public defects or shortcomings. With another - promotes social support of the population, positively influences moral values of society, places priorities. As the kind of activity public service advertising falls within the scope of public relations and relations [10].

In Russia public service advertising is yet not absolutely studied concept. Nevertheless its history rather long. After October revolution in 1917 the Soviet government created the special program for production of social advertizing. Advertizing was directed on propaganda to revolutionary ideas and focused on not the competent population [11].

During the first and second world wars advertizing was widely used for purchases of bonds of military loans. At the same time oral advertizing gained the steam by means of radio.

Radio was the powerful tool for impact on the population, was used about for the purposes in support of army and the state.

Further development of public service advertising in Russia is connected with activity of the state organization - the Ministries of Taxes and Tax Collection of the Russian Federation (Ministry of Taxes and Tax Collection) under the auspices of which from 1998 to 2002 it was carried out a number of social campaigns, such as «Please, pay taxes» (1998-1999), «the INN - only your number» (1999-2000), «Is time to leave a shadow» (2000-2002) [13].

All the functions of public service advertising are closely interconnected and often exist indissolubly with each other. One advertizing message can realize some functions. Of course, one of the central and paramount functions allocated along with many and E.V. Stepanov, the researcher of public service advertising - function of drawing attention of informing on problem [10].

I. Markin considers the following functions of public service advertising. It allocates such functions as communication, information, motivational and incentive function. Let's describe them in more detail.

Communication function carries out communication of the advertiser with audience for deeper understanding of the lifted problem and effective work. Public service advertising brings a big contribution to the state, by means of it communication with citizens is carried out.

Information function provides drawing attention to actual problems, offers ways of their decision and prevention. Has impact on big coverage of people of different spheres, thereby sharply increases knowledge of citizens of various things.

Motivational and incentive function is capable to induce the person to commission of these or those socially significant acts. It can be rather strong incentive stimulus [5].

Efficiency of public service advertising as communicative factor is degree of recognition society of this or that social phenomenon, problem and change of the developed position of public opinion in relation to it. Communicative (information) efficiency of public service advertising allows to establish, how effectively concrete advertizing appeal transfers to target audience necessary data.

L. Dmitriyeva names efficiency of communicative impact on target consumers «capability to advertise», including the following criteria:

1) concentration on one idea - in advertizing there have to be only one thought, t. е. one socially oriented message;

2) integrity of audience of target influence - advertizing which is capable to advertising addresses to the people united in uniform group on signs of identical lifestyle, religion etc.; terrorism motivational public advertising

3) ability to attract and keep attention to time necessary for storing, - public service advertising has to attract reflexive and hold a selective attention of a target audience;

4) target audience - public service advertising has to «tell» availability to perception the language clear to target audience, and use the images having high ability of emotional influence;

5) memorability - advertizing idea has to be remembered and retold easily thanks to interesting subject development, unusual treatment of usual things, possibility of an unexpected visual or semantic embodiment;

6) persuasiveness - the target audience has to feel trust to the project and believe the main message in communications. The viewer has to feel the participation to that occurs in communication;

7) motivating ability - advertizing which is capable to advertise changes behavior of target audience in relation to the actualized problem» [3].

Proceeding from the above stated the research purpose is studying youth's perception of public service advertising as a means of forming anti-terrorist values.

The research object is public service advertising as a means of forming anti-terrorist values.

200 students of Southern Federal University (SFedU) aged 18-20 (100 girls and 100 young men) were empirical object of the research.

It was offered to participants of the research to fill in the author's questionnaire which revealed perception of public service advertising as means of formation of antiterrorist values. After research data processing we received the following results. Let's describe the most significant of them.

Public service advertising draws attention of 78 % of respondents. 77 % consider that in modern society public service advertising is necessary to draw attention to pressing problems.

Public service advertising is of interest to 67 % of respondents according to the terrorism prevention which they remember of one week - 45 %, before the termination of a mention of this act of terrorism in products of public service advertising - 17 % of respondents. 89 % consider necessary publicizing of threat of acts of terrorism in public service advertising, 93,5 % want that there was more public service advertising devoted to anti-terrorist promotion. When viewing public service advertising about terrorism of 59 % of respondents test hatred to terrorists, 51 % - fear on the fact that they or their relatives can become terrorism victims, sympathy for victims of acts of terrorism - 26 %. According to 42 % of respondents, public service advertising affected their relation to terrorism, they started reflecting on this problem.

Thus, we can draw a conclusion that products of public service advertising are means of forming anti-terrorist values.


1. Abakumova I.V. Psychological technologies of forming anti-terrorist values in the youth environment.

2. Bykhovets Yu.V., Tarabrina N.V., Bakuseva N.N. Psychologically vulnerable targets of information influence of terrorism.

3. Dmitriyeva L.M. Public service advertising.

4. Kirichenko A.A. On the issue of the concept of terrorism.

5. Markin I. Function of public service advertising as a social institution.

6. Musayelyan M.F. The concept of “terrorism” and its correlation with the concepts of “terror” and “act of terrorism”.

7. Popova L.V. Public service advertising as a component of forming anti-terrorist and anti-extremist values in the youth environment.

8. Popova L.V., Slinko A.E. Public service advertising as a component of forming anti-terrorist and anti-extremist values in the youth environment.

9. Posokhova N.V. Social-psychological aspect of terrorism.

10. Stepanov E. Public service advertising in Russia. Genesis, genres, evolution.

11. Tungate M. A global history of advertising.

12. Shegayev I.S. Factors of an origin of modern terrorism.

13. Shershukova E.V. The specificity of public service advertising in Russia: current state.

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